Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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SIMFERO'POL, a t. of Russia, in the Crimea, capital of the government of Taurida,
stands on the Salghir, 45 in. u.e. of Sevastopol. The valley of the river is studded with
charming villas, and the town is surrounded by gardens, and has a picturesque appear-
ance. The older part comprises the old Tartar town of Ak-Metchet or White Mosque;
the new part, containing the government buildings, is very handsome. Fruits are largely
grown in the vicinity, and exported. Pop. (1867) 17,797.


SIMILAR FIGURES, in geometry are figures which exactly correspond in shape, but
may or may not be of the same size. If the figures be rectilineal, then the criterion of
similarity is that every pair of corresponding sides should have the same ratio to each
other, and lhat each angle of the one figure should be equal to a corresponding angle of
the other. If the figures be triangular, the proportionality of the sides carries with it
the equality of the angles, and vice vend, but only in this c;vse. Similar wr/incnts of cir-
cles are those in which, and on whose bases similar triangles can be inscribed; or as it
is otherwise expressed, those which contain equal angles a satisfactory test that they
are each the same part of their respective circles. Similar solids are those which are
bounded by similar planes similarly situated to each other. All similar plane figures
are to one another as the squares of any corresponding sides, and all similar solids are as
the cubes of their corresponding sides/ Thus, a circle which has 3 (3:1) times the diam-
eter of another has 9 (3-: I 2 ) times its area, and a globe which has 3(3:1) times the diam-
eter of another has 27 (3 3 :1 3 ) times the volume.

SIMLA, a British sanatorium in the n.w. of India, about 170 m. in direct line n. of
Delhi. It consists of a number of houses irregularly scattered over a mountain ridge,
with a noble panorama expanding on all sides of it. European fruits and vegetables are
successfully cultivated, and the climate is salubrious. The pop., which is very fluctuat-
ing, was given in 1871 at 7,037. ,

SIMMS, WILLIAM GILMORE, American author, was b. at Charleston, S. C., April
17, 1806. of Irish 'extraction. He made verses at the age of 7; and during the war of
1812, celebrated in rhyme the exploits of the American army and navy. Left in charge
of his grandmother at Charleston, he "was placed with a druggist; but at 18 began the
study of law; was admitted to the bar at 22; published Early Lays and Lyrical and
Other Poems(lte7), and became (1828) editor of The City Gazette', find published T&s Vi*ion
of Cortex, Cain and Other Poems (1829), and The Tri-Color, a poetical glorification of the
French revolution (1830). In 1832, his paper, opposing nullification, failed; and he
lost his wife, father, and grandmother, and took refuge in New England, where atHing-
ham, Mass., he wrote his best poem, Atalantix, a Story of (lie Sen. (1833): and the same
year Martin Faber, the story of a criminal. From this time he poured out rather than
wrote poems, novels, histories, and biographies in rapid succession, which may best be
classed in groups. Of poems, he published Southern Passages a nd Pictures (1839) : Dojuui
Anna (1843); Grouped Thought* and Scattered Fancies (\Q4S}\ Lays of the Palmetto bal-
lads of southern heroism in the war with Mexico (1848); Poems, Dcwiptire. Dramatic,
and Legendary (1854); Areytos, or Songs and Ballads of the South (1860). Of dramas
Norman, Maurin, or the Man of the People; Michael Bonham, or the Fall of the Alamo;
and a stage adaptation of Timnn of Athens. Of prose romances of the imagination
The Book of My Lady (1833); Carl Werner (1838); Confession, or the Blind Heart (1842);
Castle Dismal (1845); ihe Wigwam and the Cabin, two series (1845, 1846): Marie de
Berniere (1853). Of historical romances The Tcmassee (1835); Pdayo (1838); Count
J alien (1845); The Damsel of Darien (1845); The Lily and the Totem, or 'the Huguenots in,
Florida (1845); The Maroon and Other Tales (1855): Vaseoncelos(lS5l:); Cassique of Kiawah
(1860). Of revolutionary stories "The Partisan (1835); Mellicha-inp (1851); "Catherine
U. K. XIII. 33

Simoda. ~ -I A


Walton (1851); The 6W<(1841); The Kinsman, or the Black Riders of the Congarec (1841);
Woodcraft (1855); The Foragers (1850): Ent<iw (1856); these live being stories of the war
in the Caroliiias. Of local tules Guy AVr<??-.s(lb34); Richard Hurdis (1838); Harder Bca-
gles(l840); Beauchamps (1842): Helen Haixey (1845); The Golden Christmas (1852); Char-
lemont (1856). His oilier works comprise ;i Htetory of South Carolina; South Carolina in
the Revolution; Lives of General Marion, Captain John Smith, Chavalit r Bayard, General
Greene; Civil War in the South; American Loyalists of ihe Revolution; Views and
Review of American Literature; The Moral* of Slavery, etc. Residing in South.
Carolina during the war of secession, lie sustained the southern cause in a weekly news-
paper, and had his house and library wrecked by federal soldiers. Of his various and
voluminous works, some are of high excellence. He died in 1870.

SIMODA (Lowland), a harbor of Japan, at the southern extremity of Cape Idzu, and
about 80 in. from Yedo, opeiud to foreign commerce by the Americans in 1854. In
1854 the town was nearly destroyed by an earthquake, while the harbor was so scoured
out that hardly any holding-giosiud was left for ships on the granite bottom. The
pop. was formerly estimated at 80,000, but is now reckoned at about 4,000.

SIMON, JULES ( JULES FRANCOIS SUISSE-SIMON), b. France, 1814; received his edu-
cation at the colleges of Lorientand Vauaes; and was tutor of philosophy in the lyccum
of Caen in 1836. He became a disciple of Cousin, who invited him to Paris, and "whose
place lie supplied at the Sorbonne, in the department of the history of philosophy. He
was decorated with the legion of honor in 1845, and became a member of the academy
of moral and political sciences in 1863. Simon entered into politics in 1846, and was
elected a member of the assembly two years later, as a moderate republican. In 1849
he was elected a member of the council of state, but only held the position for a few
months, when he went out of office. He refused to take the oath of allegiance to the
empire after the coup d'etat, and his lectures before the Sorbonne were accordingly sus-
pended. In 1863 he was sent to the corps legislaiif, and soon became the chief of the
republican party. In the cabinet of JVI. Thitrs he held the portfolio of public instruc-
tion. In 1875 he was elected a member of the French academy. In 1876 he was director
of the Siecle newspaper, and leader of the republican left in the national assembly; and
in that year, called to form a ministry, he became president of the council, arid minister
of the interior. M. Simon's most recent act was his determined opposition to the
rmnesty bill for the communists, in July, 1880. He is the author of many works on
govern :ncut ur.d philosophy.

ir<I3I7, H;c:i.\:iD, a distinguished orientalist and critical scholar, w r as born at Dieppe,
>Iay 13. 1638. Having completed his studies, he entered the congregation of the oratory
in 16C9. but soon afterward withdrew. He returned, however, in the latter part of 1662.
For a time he delivered lectures on philosophy in the college of Juilly; but his studies
eventually turned upon theology, oriental languages, and biblical criticism. At one
time he thought of entering the Jesuit order, but he remained in the oratory; and it was
while still a member of that congregation that he published his well-known work on the
doctrine of the oriental church regarding the eucharist, designed as a supplement to the
celebrated Defense tfthc, Perpetuity of tJte Faith in the Blessed Eucharfat, by Arnauld and
Nicole, but criticising that work very severely. This and other controversies to which
his later writings gave rise led to his again withdrawing from the oratory in 1678. In
that year he retired to Belleville, as cure; but in 1682 he resigned his parish, and lived
1 in literary retirement, first at Dieppe, and afterward in Paris. His health having given
way, he returned once again to his native place, Dieppe, where he died in April, 1712.
Few writers of his age played so prominent a part in the world of letters, and especially
in its polemics. There is hardly a critical or theological scholar among his contempora-
ries with whom life did not break a lance Span'heim, Le Clerc, Du Pin, Jurieu, and
Jurieu's great antagonist, Bossuet. The principal work of Simon is his llistoire Critique
du Vieni- Testament (Paris, 1678), in which he anticipates the most important conclusions
of all the later rationalistic scholars of Germany, and also their method of investigation.
For example, he conceives himself to have disproved the Mo'aic authorship of the Pen-
tateuch, and assigns its composition to ih: scribes of the time of Ezra. Other writings
of Simon's are: llistoire Critique dii Texte du Ronreau Testament (Rotterd. 1689); Disqui- ranis BiUif>nim Editionihnu (1684); De T Inspiration des JAvrcs Sacresf
(Rotterd. 1687); and L'Histmre Critique des Principeanx Commentateurs du Noureau Tes-
tament (Rotterd. 1692), in which he assails the theology of the fathers, and particularly
that of Augustine, as a departure from the simple and less rigid doctrines of the primi-
tive church. Among the fathers, his most esteemed authority was Chrysostom. Bos-
suet replied to this last work by his Difenxe de la Tradition et des Saints Peres. Simon
frequently published under assumed names as his Dissertation Critique on Dupin's
Library of Ecdetiattical Writers under the name of Jean Reuchlin; a work, llistoire Crit-
iquf, sur la Creance et des Coutnme.s des Nations dn Levant, under the anagram of Monis;
and a llistoire de l'0-riaine et du Prof/ris des Revenns Ecclesiastiqves under the name of
Jejrome Acosta. No collected edition of his works has ever appeared: in the natural
progress of the science of criticism, the most famous of them have lost most of their
prestige, and are displaced by recent, and often second-hand, compilations upon the sub-
jects, which, in the days of Simon, were comparatively new and unexplored; but still

Rl jr Simoda.


theiv is much to be learned even from such of his works as have been forgotten by ordi-
nary students.

SIMO HIDES, a celebrated Greek lyric poet, was born at lulls, in the island of Ceos,
in the year 556 K.C., and educated probably with a view to making music and poetry a
profession. He left his native island on the invitation of Hipparchus, who, by means of
great rewards, induced him to reside at Athens, where also lived at that time Auacreon
and Lasus, the teacher of Pindar, although no intimacy seems to have sprung up
between Simonidus and iiis two rivals. It was probably after the expulsion of iiippias
(510 B.C.) that he took up his residence in Thessaly, under the patronage of the Aleuads
and Scopads, who appear lo have treated him in a very niggardly fashion. Shortly
before the invasion of Greece by the Persians, he returned to Athens, and employed his
poetic powers in the composition of elegies, epigrams, dirges, etc., in connection with
that momentous struggle, taking the pri/e, in regard to the battle of Marathon, out of
the hands of his rival !/schylus. In the year 477 B c., when Simonides was 80 years of
age, he came off victor for the 56th time in a poetical contest at Athens. Shortly after
this he went to reside at the court of Hiero of Syracuse, where he died in 467 B.C., at
the age of 90. Simonides appears to have scandalized his contemporaries by writing for
hire; and Pindar, his great rival, accuses him. apparently not without good reason, of
excessive avarice. His poetry is imbued with a comparatively high morality. He
brought to perfection the elegy and epigram, and excelled in the dithyramb and tri-
umphal ode; he seems also to have completed the Greek alphabet by the addition of the
double letters and long vowels, and to have invented the art of artificial memory. The
characteristics of his p;)etry are sweetness, polish combined with simplicity, genuine
pathos, and great power of expression, although in originality he is much inferior to his
contemporary Pindar. The best edition of his fragments is that of Schneidewin, entitled
Simonulis Cei Cnrminnm Rdiquur, (Brunswick, 1835).

This Simonides must be carefully, distinguished from the iambic poet SIMONIDES of
Amorgos. who flourished about 100 years previous to Simouides of Ceos.

SIMONTON, JAMKS W., b. N. Y., 1824; received a common school education in
the city of ^New York; in 1845 entered the city department of a local newspaper as law
reporter. He was nftcrward Washington correspondent of the New York Conner and
Enquirer. In 1850 he visited San Francisco; and again in 1859, when he was connected
with the Bulletin and other newspapers, as part proprietor, and also in an editorial
capacity. He was employed on the original editorial staff of th;.' New York Times; and
for a number of years acted as its Washington correspondent. During the war cf the
rebellion he was actively engaged as a war correspondent. In 1866 he was appointed
superintendent of the associated press, a position which he has continued to hold.

SIMONY, in English law, is the "corrupt presentation of any one to an ecclesiastical
benefice for gift money or reward, and is so called from its resemblance to the sin of
Simon Magus. In the canon law it was considered a heinous crime, and a kind of
heresy. As the canonical punishment, however, was not deemed sufficient, a statute
was passed in the time of Elizabeth, denning its punishment. A simoniacal presenta-
tion was declared to be utterly void, and the person giving or taking the gift or reward
forfeited double the value of one year's profit; and the person accepting the benefice
was disabled from ever holding the same benefice. Presentation bonds, however, taken
by a patron from a presentee to resign the benefice at a future period in favor of some
one to be named by the patron, are not illegal provided the nominee is either by blood
or marriage an uncle, son, grandson, brother, nephew, or grand nephew of the patron,
and provided the bond is registered for public inspection in the diocese. The result of
the statutes is that it is not simony for a layman or spiritual person, not purchasing for
himself, to purchase while the church is full, either an advowson or next presentation,
however immediate may be the prospect of a vacancy, unless that vacancy is to be occa-
sioned by some agreement or arrangement between the parties. Nor is it simony for a
spiritual person to purchase for himself an advowson. although under similar circum-
stances. It is, however, simony for any person to purchase the next presentation while
the church is vacant; and it is simony for a spiritual person to purchase for himself the
next presentation, although the church be full.

SIMOOM , or SIMOON (otherwise written Simoun, Semoun, Samoun, Sainun), or Sam-
buli, a nain* derived from the Arabic samm, signifying hot, poisonous, or generallrj
whatever is disagreeable or dangerous, and applied to the hot soffocating winds whiri.jT
are peculiar to the hot sandy desert? of Africa and western Asia. In Egypt it is called
khamsin, (Ar. fifty) because it generally continues to blow for 50 days, from the end of
April to the time of the inundation of the Nile.

Owing to the great power of the sun's rays, the extreme dryness of the air, and the
small conducting power of sand causing the accumulation of heat on the surface, the
superficial layers of sand in the deserts of Africa and Arabia often become heated to
200" Fahr. to a depth of several inches. The air resting on this hot sand becomes also
highly heated, thus giving rise to ascending currents; air consequently flows toward
these heated places from all sides, and these different currents meeting, cyclones or
whirling masses of air are formed, which are swept onward by the wind prevailing at the
time. Since the temperature, originally high, is still further raised by the heated grains

Simple. K-IC


of sand with which the air is loaded, it rapidly increases to a degree almost intolerable.
In the shade it was observed by Burckhardt m 1813 to have riseu 10 122' ; and by the
British embassy to Abyssinia in 1841 to 126. It is to the parching dryness of this wind,
its glowing heat (about 200), and Its choking dust, and not to any poisonous qualities it
possesses, that its destructive effects on animal life are to be ascribed.

The approach of the simoom is tirst indicated by a thin haze along the horizon, which
rapidly becomes denser and quickly overspreads the whole sky. Fierce gusts of wind
follow, accompanied with clouds of red and burning sand, which often present the
appearance of huge columns of dust whirling forward; and vast mounds of sand are
transported from place to place by the terrible energy of the tempest. By these mounds
of sand large caravans are frequently destroyed; and even great armies have been over-
whelmed by them, as in the case of Cambyses, who was overtaken by the simoom on
liis march through the desert to pillage the temple of Jupiter Ammon, and perished
with 50,000 of his troops. The destruction of Sennacherib's army is supposed to have
been caused by the simoom. The simoom generally lasts from 6 to 12 hours, but some-
times for a longer period.

The effects of this wind are felt in neighboring regions, where it is known under
different names, and it is subject to important moditica lions by the nature of the earth's
surface over which it passes. In Italy it is called the sirocco, which blows occasionally
over Sicily, s. Italy, and adjoining districts. It is a hot moist wind, receiving its
heat from* the Sahara and acquiring its moisture in its passage northward over the
Mediterranean. It is the plague of Sicily and Naples, and while it lasts a haze obscures
the atmosphere, and such is the fatigue which it occasions that the streets of Palermo
become quite deserted. The sirocco sometimes extends to the shores of the Black and
Caspian seas, and under its blighting touch sheep and cattle die in the steppes beyond
the Volga, and vegetation is withered and dried up. It is called the sainiel in Turkey
from its reputed poisonous qualities. The solano of Spain is a s e. wind, extremely hot,
and loaded with fine dust, which prevails at certain seasons in the plains of Mancha and
Andalusia, particularly at Seville and Cadiz. It produces giddiness and heats the blood
to an unusual degree, causing general uneasiness and irritation ; hence the Spanish
proverb, "Ask no favor during the soluuo." The harmattan (q.v.) of Guinea and Seue-
gambia belongs to the same class of winds.

SIMPLE CONTEACT in English law means any contract which is constituted by word
of mouth or by a writing not under seal. See CONTRACT.

SIM PLON (Ital. Sempione), a famous mountain of Switzerland, one of the Lopontine
Alps, in the e. of the canton of Valais, and near the Piedmoiitese frontier, rises to the
height of 11, 124 feet. The Simplon road, one of the greatest engineering achievements
of modern times, leads over a shoulder of the mountain from which it derives its name
(the pass of the Simplon, 6,592 ft.) from Brieg in Valais to Domo d'Ossolo in the n. of
Piedmont. The road was commenced in 1800 under the direction of Napoleon and was
completed in 1806. It is from 25 to 30 ft. broad, and has nowhere a slope greater than
1 in 13. It is carried across 611 bridges, over numerous galleries cut out of the natural
rock, or built of solid masonry, and through great tunnels. Close to the highest point
is the New Hospice, one of the 20 edifices on this route for the shelter of travelers.

SIMPSON", a co. in s. Kentucky, bordering on Tennessee; drained by Red river and
branches of the Big Barren; traversed bv the Louisville, Nashville and "Great Southern
railroad; 375 sq.m ; pop. '80, 10,64110.574 of American birth; 2.795 colored. The
surface is level and the soil rich; over 1,000,000 Ibs. of tobacco are raised yearly; corn,
wheat, wool, butter, and sorghum molasses are the other staples. Co. seat, Franklin.

SIMPSON, a co. in s.c. Miss., bordered by Pearl river on the w., and drained by
Strong river; 625 sq.m.; pop. '80, 8.005. The surface is level and partly covered with
forests of pine ; the soil is sandy. The principal productions are cotton, Indian corn,
sweet potatoes, and wool. Cattle, sheep, and swine are raised in large numbers. Co.
seat, Westville.

SIMPSON, Sir JAMES YOUNG, was b. at Bathgate, Ljnlithgowshire, in 1811. lie early
showed a peculiar talent for medical observation and research: and in the prosecution
of his professional studies at the university of Edinburgh, so attracted the notice of his
teachers as to inspire all of them with an active interest in his future career, lie gradu-
ated as doctor in medicine in 1832, on which occasion his inaugural thesis won the
highest admiration. Prof. Thomson chose him as his professional assistant, and em-
ployed him in the preparation of his course of lectures on general pathology. During
the illness of the professor, Mr. Simpson supplied his place in the lecture-room with
unusual skill and address. He now began professional practice on his own account;
and in 1840 succeeded prof. Hamilton a professor of midwifery in the universitv of
Edinburgh. This position he has held with yearly enhanced distinction, and by "the
rigidly scientific while popularly attractive character of his prelections, has contributed
greatly to the renown of the Edinburgh school, both at home and abroad. He was
indefatigable, amid the distracting cares of an extensive practice, in promoting the sci-
entific perfection of his art; and his two volumes of Obstetric Memoirs, edited by Drs.
Priestly and Storrer, contain the fruits of much patient and ingenious research. The


discovery by which he will be more particularly remembered, however, is that of the
anaesthetic virtues of chloroform. The so-called sulphuric ether had been employed in
America by MJrTon to produce anaesthesia during labor; but to Simpson belongs the
credit of having, in 1847, first introduced to the scientific world the far safer, more cer-
tain, and now universally adopted agent of chloroform. Another innovation which
surgical practice owes to prof. Simpson is the stoppage of hemorrhage by acupressure.
In his own peculiar field of obstetrics, his improvements on the old methods of practice
are numerous and valuable; while his contributions to antiquarian research would of
themselves create an independent reputation in that field. Besides the Obstetric
Memoir* already mentioned he published a volume on acupressure; and many papers
and notices read before the royal and antiquarian societies of Edinburgh. Among these
may be enumerated : Antiquarian Notices of Leprosj r ; On the Contagiousness of Cholera;
Ancient Roman Medicine Stamps; Was the Roman Army provided with Medical
Officers? On Syphilis in Scotland, etc. His scientific services were recognized by
innumerable medical associations; while his professional distinction secured for him a
baronetcy in 1866. He died May 6, 1870. A statue of Simpson was erected in Edin-
burgh in 1877. See the Memoir by Duns (1873).

SIMPSON, JOSIAH, 1815-74; b. New Brunswick, N. J. ; graduate of the college of
New Jersey, 1833, university of Pennsylvania school of medicine, 1836; assistant-sur-
geon U. S. army, 1837, surgeon, 1855, brevet col., 1865. He served in the Indian war in
Florida as surgeon of the 6th infantry, and through the Mexican war, participating in
the triumphant entrance into the city of Mexico. He was post-surgeon at Bedloe's island,
1848-55, was assigned to duty on the Pacific coast, and during the war of the rebellion
in the department of the Tennessee. He was attending surgeon in Baltimore from 1887
until his death.

SIMPSON, MATIIEW, D.D., L.L.D., b. Ohio, 1811; began the study of German at
the age of 8, and the following year read through the German Bible; graduated at Alle-
ghany college, Meadville, Penn., in 1832; took medical degree in 1833; entered the
ministry in the Methodist Episcopal church the same year; professor of the natural
sciences at Alleirhany college in 1837; president of Indiana Asbury university at Green-
castle, Ind., 1839-41 : appointed editor of the Western. Christian Advocate in 1848; elected
bishop in 1852; visited the Methodist missions in Syria and the east in 1863; the Mexican
missions in 1874, and was a delegate to the European missionary conferences in 1875.

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 119 of 203)