Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 12 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 12 of 203)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

khuuoi.i oi Lcou (<]. v.) was divided. Area about 4,J)40 &q.ui. ; pop. '70, 280,670.

CALA^TA'TCA, a famous t. of Dpnin, capifal of t'io modern province of tlir prime name,
stands on three loeky hills OM the right bank of the Tonnes, 50 in. e.n.e. of Ciudad Rod-
rigo. Prior to its almost total destruction by the French in 1812, it, was renowned for
the number of its splendid edifices and institutions, and even yet it in n rich mine for
the architect, abounding as it docs in magnificent specimens of simple and florid Gothic,
as well as of the richest cinque-cento. It is surrounded by a wall, pierced with nintj
gates, and a part of which is very old. The narrow, crooked, dark, and steep streets,
rontaining many old and stately structures, the residences of the old nobility, give to
Ihe town an antique and venerable look. Resides the old cathedral, a simple and mas-
sive edifice, it contains rive other churches of the 12th century. The new cathedral, begun
in 1513, is a magnificent structure in florid Gothic, in the adornment of which painting,
pildinir. and sculpture have been largely and most successfully used. At the close of
the 18th c. Siilamanca contained 27 parish churches. 89 convents, and 25 colleges. Of
the colleges, 20 wen; destroyed by the French while the town was in their possession, a
well as about 20 of the convents, for the purpose of obtaining materials for the erection
of fortifications, and for fire-wood. The university of Salamanca, with which the uni-
versity of Palcncia (q v.) was incorporated in 1243. was founded in 1200. In consisted
of a number of colleges, divided into mm/ore* and menorrs, or larger and smaller col-
leges. Of the former, there were only six in Spain, and four of these were at Salamanca.:
the other colleges were 21 in number. In the 14th c. the university was attended by
17,000 students; the attendance is now only 200. The library, according to the most
recent statements, contains 30.000 volumes and 1500 MSS. The school of Salamanca
is interesting to British subjects as having, from an early period, included a college
for Irish students, which supplied many of the ecclc'siflst'cs who continued to minister
to their countrymen during tLe penal times, and which is still in existence. One of th
most highly-prized works in Roman Catholic divinity is the great collection of contro-
versial and moral theology, by the memliers of the college of Carmelite friars in Saliv-
rmnca, who are known by the name of SalmaiitJreiiKff, or the Rilamanca Hiet> J ngiaii8.
The Ptatti Mai/or is the largest square in Spain, and when fitted up as a bull arena, as it
was so recently as 1863, it accommodates from tfi.OOO to 20.000 persons. The bridge
across the Tonnes rests on 27 arches, and is of liomnn foundation. Manufactures of, leather, and earthenware are carried on. Pop. 14,000.

Salamanca, the ancient Salmantica, was a Roman mu n icipium. In the vicinity waa
won ono of the most famous victories of the peninsular war, by the British under Well-
ington against the French under Marmont, July 22, 1812.

SALAMANDER, in the superstitions of the middle ages, denoted a being possessing
the shape of a man. whose element was the fire, or who at least could live in that ele-
ment. Paracelsus placed salamanders among the elementary spirits.

Salamander. K f)

Sale. ^

SALAMANDER, salamandra, a genus of batrachians, of the family salamandricto, to
which newts (q.v.) also belong. The name is, indeed, sometimes extended to the whole
family; newts being called aquatic salamanders, and the name terrestrial xnlmnander
being given to this genus, the species of which inhabit water only in their tadpole state,
and return to it only to deposit their eggs, generaly living in moist places, as urder
stones, roots of trees, etc. The general form is very similar to that of newts, but the
tail is round, not flat as in newts. Several species are found in Europe; none of them,
however, in Britain. The SPOTTED SALAMANDER (S. maculosd). 6 or 8 in. long, black,
with bright yello\v stripes on its sides, and livid blue beneath, is widely spread through-
out Europe. The BLACK SALAMANDER (S. atrti) is much smaller, black, the body and
tail ringed, the tail almost as if formed of beads. It is abundant in the Alps and moun-
tains of southern Germany. Other species are found in Spain, Italy, etc.; Asia and
North America also produce numerous species. Salamanders feed on worms, slugs,
snails, and insects. They are inert and sluggish creatures, and timid to the utmost
extent that their stupidity permits. The brain is very small. They are perfectly harm-
less, although exuding, when alarmed, from pores on the back and sides, a milky
humor, which is injurious to very small animals. But they have long had, and still
retain, a popular reputation of extreme venomousuess. and aie there fore" objects of the
utmost dread to the vulgar in almost all countries which they inhabit. Strange fables
have been current concerning them from remote ages, particularly concerning the icy
cold which envelops their body, and enables them not only to endure fire without burn-
ing, but to extinguish fire. Pliny, indeed, recoids that he tried the experiment, and the
poor salamander was burned to powder; yet the fable continued to be credited until very
recent times.

SALAMIS (modern name, Koluri), in ancient times called also Pityoussa (island of
Pines), an irregularly-shaped, mountainous island of Greece, off the coast of Attica, and
forming with it the bay of Eleusis. Its area is about 30 sq. m., and it has a modern pop-
ulation of about 4,000. the chief town being Koluri, on the w. coast. It had anciently
two principal towns, Old and New Salamis, the former on the s., and the latter on the
ji.e. coast. Salamis is remembered chiefly on account of the great naval battle between
the Greeks and Persians, which was fought (480 B.C.) a few days after the battle of
Thermopylae, in the narrow strait between the e. coast of Salamis and the w. coast of
Attica. The Grecian fleet, consisting of about 360 vessels, was drawn up at the entrance
ef the bay forming the harbor of New Salamis, Themistocles being leader of the Athe-
nian contingent, and Adimantus of the Corinthian, while the whole was under the com-
mand of the Spartan Eurybiades. Great dissensions prevailed among the Grecian leaders,
which would probably have led to a general break-up, had not Themistoclcs by a strate-

fern induced Xerxes, king of the Persians, to bring up his fleet, and give imimdiato
attle to the Greeks. Xerxes drew up his ships, numbering at least 1000, during the
Bight previous to the battle, opposite the Grecian fleet, along the coast of Attica, almost
completely blocking up both entrances to the straits; and confident of victory if he him-
self superintended operations, he took his seat on a throne erected on a lofty height on
the Attic coast, almost opposite New Salamis. Both Greeks and Persians fought with
great bravery, but the latter were entirely defeated, owing, perhaps, chiefly to their
immense, unwieldy fleet being compressed into so small a space, which rendered it
Almost unworkable, and completely at the mercy of their opponents. The only name
mentioned on the Persian side with distinction is that of Artemisia, queen of Halicar-
nassus, who is said to have fought with desperate bravery. The loss of the Greeks is
said to have been 40, and' that of the Persians 200 ships, exclusive of those which were

SAL AMMO'NIAC (known in chemistry as HYDROCHLORATE OF AMMONIA) is an
article of considerable importance in the materia medica. It is obtained on a large scale
T>y decomposing with common salt (chloride of sodium) the sulphate of ammonia, which
ts formed in the manufacture of coal gas, or the carbonate of ammonia, obtained by the
distillation of bones. It is sold in large, crystalline, grayish-white, semi-transparent
cakes, convex on one side, and concave on the other. It is inodorous, but possesses an

-. ., - - , . precipitate ._

in France and Germany in cases of pneumonia and of inflammation of the serous mem-
branes, in mucous diarrhea, in chronic rheumatism and gout, and in passive dropsies.
Nclig'in recommends it in cases of low fever, in subacute laryngitis, in chronic affections
of the liver, and in facial neuralgia. It may be given in doses varying fioin 10 to 30
grains dissolved in some aromatic water. As a local external application, it is of great
value in promoting the absorption of effused blood; and there is probably no remedy so
effectual for that common but disfiguring affection popularly known as n black eye., as a
moderately strong solution of this salt" kept constantly applied as a lotion. If it is
desired to apply cold to any part of the body, an excellent refrigerant (q.v.) may be
obtained by dissolving 5 parts of this salt and 5 parts of niter in 16 parts of water.

Sal ammoniac is employed for various purposes in the arts. It is used in soldering,

r. > Salamander.


and in the tinning of copper and iron to prevent the oxidation of the surface to be tinned.
It is exported from Britain to Russia, where it is used by dyers.

It occurs as a mineral, as an efflorescence on the surface of rocks, or as a sublimate
in fissures, crystallized in small crystals, or forming crusts, stalactites, etc. It is found
in volcanic regions, but is produced during the time of the quiescence of active volca-
noes, rather than during their eruptions. It occurs in Britain, near burning beds of
coal. It is found in Persia, Tartary, Siberia, and many other countries, where there are
no active volcanoes. Formerly all Europe was supplied with it from the neighborhood
of the temple of Jupiter Ammon in Egypt, whence its name.


SALDANHA, Jolo CARLOS, OLIVEIRA E DAUN, Duke of, 1791-1876; b. Portugal;
educated at Coimbra, In 1810 he was a prisoner in England. On his release he visited
Brazil, where he was employed in the military and diplomatic services. Returning to
Portugal, he became minister of foreign affairs in 1825, governor of Oporto in 1826, and
minister of war till 1827. In 1332, with the duke of Terceira, he overthrew the usurper
dorn Miguel. In 18:35 he was made minister of war and president of the council; in 1846
he formed a ministry, which fell in 1849. He was again at the head of affairs 1851-56,
was minister to Rome 1862-64, and 1866-69, and was again head of the cabinet May-
Aug., 1870.

SALE, GEORGE, an eminent oriental scholar, was b. toward the end of the 17th c.,
and died at London in 1736 under 40 years of age. Almost nothing is known of his
private? life. He is supposed to have been born in Kent; and he received his education
ut the King's college, Canterbury. Brought up to the law, he is believed to have prac-
ticed it almost to the end of his life. That he spent 25 years in Arabia, as Voltaire
and many after him asserted, is a complete fiction. He assisted in getting up the
Universal History together with Swinton, Shelvocke, Campbell, George Psalmanazar,
and A. Bower, each remarkable enough in his way for which he wrote the cosmogony
and several portions of oriental history. He was also one of the authors of the General
DicCio/Kiry; but he is best known by his unrivaled translation of the Koran, "with
explanatory notes taken from the most approved commentators, to which is prefixed a
preliminary discourse" (1734). This "preliminary discourse," which is of great value,'
and proves Sale to have been deeply versed in oriental literature, treats, .among other
things, " of the Arabs before Mohammed, or, as they express it, in the "time of igno-
rance" tliL-ir history, religion, learning, and customs; ofhe state of Christianity, par-
ticularly of the eastern churches, and of Judaism, at the time of Mohammed's appear-
ance; and of the methods taken by him for establishing his religion, and the circum-
stances which concurred thereto; of the doctrines, precepts, and peculiarities of the
Koran, a"nd of the principal Mohammedan sects." Sale's work was translated into
French by Duryer (Antw. 2 voK 1770). This translation formed a new epoch in the
study of Islam and its literature; and though many other translations have been
attempted since, in nearly all European and oriental languages, it still bears the palm.
See KORAN. That his contemporaries fastened the charge of heresy upon one who spoke
philosophically and humanely of other creeds, is not to be wondered at. After his death,
a catalogue of his oriental MSS. was published, and the contents are now in the Rad-
cliffe library, Oxford.

SALE, Sir ROBERT HENRY, 1782-1853, b. England. A commission in the army was
given him when a mere child, and he was engaged in the storming of Seringapatam in
1799. He was also present at the victories of Travancore, 1809; Mauritius, 1816: and
.Rangoon, 1824; in 1858 was given command of a brigade in the Afghanistan expedition,
and was wounded while leading the storming party at Ghuznee. For his gallant conduct
he was knighted and made maj.gen. (local rank). In 1841 he was driven back upon Jel-
lalahad, where he was besieged by Akhbar khan for five months. In April, 1842, he
made a sortie and routed the Afghans. He was given a vote of thanks by parliament,
and became known as the "hero of Jellalabad." Sir Robert took part in the actions of
Teezen and Cabool, was quartermaster in the Punjab campaign, and was mortally
wounded at the battle of Moodkee, Dec. 18, 1845.

SALE, or SLA. See SALLEE, ante.

SALE OF GOODS is a contract by which the seller, in consideration of a price, trans-
fers the property in the goods to the purchaser. Where the consideration is not money,
but goods, the contract is called exchange or barter. The law on the subject is not the
june in England and Scotland. In England, when the bargain is struck, and the sale
relates to specific goods that is, goods already made, and. existing, and identified the
property vests at once in the purchaser, so that in the event of any damage or destruction
happening to the goods, the loss is that of the purchaser and not of the seller, even
though the goods have not been delivered, and whether the price has been paid or not
The contract may be made either by word of mouth or by writing; but when the price
exceeds 10, the statute of frauds enacts that the contract shall not be binding unless it
is in writing. If, however, the buyer shall have accepted part of the goods sold, and
actually received the same, or if he shall have given something in earnest to bind the
bargain, or in part payment, then a verbal contract will be binding though the price


exceeds 10. Many nice questions have occurred and constantly recur as to what
amounts to an acceptance and delivery of the goods, so much so, that Hie general policy
of restricting the proof of the contract to writing in auy case has been much complained
of in- late years; and efforts have been made, but as yet in vain, to repeal the staiute of
frauds, wliich, it is said, encourages rather than discourages fraud. \Vlien a contract of
ale is made, the duty of the seller is to deliver the goods as soon as the buyer has per-
formed all the conditions agreed upon. If no time was specified for delivery, then he
must deliver the goods in a reasonable time. In general, if nothing is agreed to the con
trary, the seller need not deliver till the price is paid; but he must do s~o if the bargain
was, that delivery was to take place before payment; in other word*, if the Side was on
credit. On the other hand, it is the duty of the buyer to accept the goods and pay for
them. If either party tail at any stage in. his performance of the duties arising out of
the contract, the other may bring an action which varies according to the nature of the
breach of contract. One valuable right of the seller, when he has sent his goods to the
buyer, and they are not delivered, is to stop them in tramntu. Stoppage in tmnxitn (q.v.)
is chiefly resorted to when the seller hears of the bankruptcy of the buyer after he lias
sent him goods. The law regulating the sale of goods by agents (q.v.) or documentary
titles is contained in the factory acts. 1823-25-42-77. See FACTOH. The chief differ-
ence between the laws of England and Scotland is that in Scotland no writing is neces-
sary to make the contract binding, whatever the price; and that property in the goods
does not pass until they are actually or constructively delivered. See Paterson's C'oittr-
pendium, 2d ed. ss. 520-544.

SALE OF LAND differs from sale of goods in several respects. An agreement for the sale
of land must be in writing, otherwise it cannot be enforced. When once a contract for the
Bale of land has been entered into, a courtof equity will, contrary fo the general rule which
prevails when a contract is broken, en force specific performance of the contract; that is, will
compel the seller or buyer to carry out his contract, and transferor accept conveyance of the
land. Whenasaleof land is agreedupon. and nothing is said as to the matter, it is under-
stood as part of the contract, that the vendor shall be able to make a good title; and a doubt-
ful title cannot be forced on the vendee even though it is accompanied with an indem-
nity. The rule is, that the absiract of title i.e., a short account of the series of former
transactions relating to the possession and property must go back for sixty years. The
expense of making searches into registers during that period falls on the purchaser. It
is the duty of the purchaser's solicitor to prepare the draft of the conveyance, and tender
it for approval to the vendor's solicitor; and unless there is an agreement to the contrary,
the purchaser pays the expense of the conveyance. When the vendor has delivered
possession of the estate to die purchaser without receiving the purchase money, he still
retains a lien on the estate for the unpaid price. In England there is no general register
which contains copies of all the deeds relating to land, so that everything depends on
the preliminary inquiries between the two parties, and the certainty that the purchaser
has obtained all the material information that exists. The consequence is, that the sixty
years' title or previous history of the estate involves the parties in great expense. This
expense requires to be renewed on every fresh sale, for a solicitor who neglects to go
through the same train of inquiries as his predecessor at the time of the last preceding
sale would he personally liable for any loss that occurred thereby. The great expense
attending the conveyance of land has of late years been loudly complained of. and the
manufacturing interest, familiar with the rapidity of similar transactions relating to
goods, have demanded a simplification of the process. In order to mert this demand,
which has been largely shared .by the public in general, two acts of parliament were
passed in 1862. for the purpose of founding a hind registry, and enabli.ig an owner of
land to have his title examined and registered once for all. so that in the event of future
transactions he may be saved the expense and delay required under the old system.
These acts of parliament were not compulsory, and' little progress was made, hut the
legislature has been maturing a scheme for making them compulsory in all but trifling
sales of land. In Scotland, the law relating to the sale of land has always been' on a
more satisfactory footing, for there are registers in which an intending purchaser can
will) certainty find all the deeds and nearly every burden thnt can attach to the land ho
wishes to buy; so that he can almost at a glance ascertain what are the dangers and
drawbacks attending the transaction. See REGISTRATION OF DEEDS AND WRITS. In
Scotland the expense of the conveyance of land falls on the vendor, if there is no agree-
ment to the contrary, and the vendor's solicitor prepares and tenders the draft convey-
ance, while the purchaser pays his own solicitor for perusing and approving the draft
conveyance; but in practice the expenses of conveyance are usually equally divided
between vendor and purchaser.

SALE OF GOODS AND OF LAND (ante). The term sale, though applied in ordinary
language to the transfer of real property, properly applies only to the transfer of personal
property. As to tiie transfer of real estate, see CONVEYANCE and the titles there cited.
To make a valid sale requires three things: 1. A thing to be sold. Tlnuigh if one sell a
tiling which was destroyed at the time of the sale, there is no sale; so if a mistake were
made as to the thing sold. 2. A price agreed upon; and this price must be certsiin,
though it may be left to a third person to fix it; it must be fixed in money, or the trans-

KK Sale.


action is a barter. 3. The consent of the parties to the contract, i.e., an agreement on
the part of tlie seller to sell a certain thing to the buyer for a certain price, and of the
buyer to buy the same thing for the same price. In the absence of evidence of a sale
on credit, an agreement for instant payment is presumed; in default of which the ven-
dor may recover the goods. If the goods have been actually delivered, and part pay-
ment or ean.est made by the 'seller, the presumption of payment is rebutted; but though
earnest !>< accepted, the vendee cannot take the goods, unless that be a condition of sale,
and if he 1'si.l 10 appear within a reasonable time, on request, the vendor may rescind
the coir.ract. If, however, the terms of sale expressly agree upon a future payment or
delivery, the properly vests at once in the vendee. The vendor cannot Inking suit, for
the price ti.l lie has made tender, or delivery of the goods. If the price be unpaid,
whe.iier the sale be for cash or not, the vendor has a lieu upon the goods for the price
while he keeps possession of them; but he loses his lien by delivering the goods A sale
unaccompanied by a delivery is not good against an innocent third purchaser without
notice. Delivery is not necessary for the validity of the agreement as between vendor
anil vendee; but as between the vendor and his creditors, want of delivery is a strong,
though not conclusive, evidence of fraud. If the goods be of such kind that delivery
is impossible, a personal possession by the vendee is not necessary. Whenever, in a
contract of s..le, the parties agree upon the performance of a particular act by either of
them, in regard to the object sold, there is a conditional sale. A common instance of it
occurs in the case of the so-called "contracts of sale or return" where the vendee
receives possession of the chattels, and may either retain them or return them within a
time specified; and if he do not return them the sale is complete. As to the sale of
goods in ti-itiixitii, in case of bankruptcy or insolvency of the vendee, while the price is

SALEM, a co. in s.w. New Jersey bounded by the Delaware river on the w., end.
drained by several creeks; traversed by the West Jersey railroad and its branches; 54$
sfl-iii.: pop. 'bO. 24.5fcO 8, 6U8 of American Lirth. The surface is in general level and
fertile; wheat, corn, oats,' sweet-potatoes, and dairy products are the staples. There are
many factories of carriages, harness, paper, machinery, and other articles. Co. seat,
Salem. ,

SALEM, a city and port of entry of Massachusetts, 14 m. n.e. of Boston, on a
peninsula 2 m. long by f of a mile broad, with irregular but well-built streets, and a fine
harbor, from which was formerly carried on a large trade with China, the East Indies;
and eastern Africa. The principal institutions of Salem are: the East India marine
society, whose extensive and unique museum of oriental curiosities is now united with
that of the Peabody academy of science; the Essex institute, with a library of 18,000
vols.. and a picture gallery ; and the Salem atheneum, with a library of 13.0CO vols.
There is a normal and high school, 5 news-pa pcis, 7 banks. 20 churches, a cotton-mill
with Co.OflO spindle^, and manufactures of chemicals, varnishes, leather, shoes, machinery,
clc. Salem was s< tiled in 1626, ami is the oldest town, except Plymouth, in Mew Eng-
land. The first church was organized in 1629. In 1692 a great witch mania broke out.
and 19 persons w< re hanged for " witchcraft." In the war of the revolution, Salem
sent out 153 privateers, which took 455 prizes. Pop. '60, 22,252; 'TO, 24,117; '75.

SALEM (finte), capital of Essex co., Mass., on the Eastern railrond. and for a long
time was the most populous city in the county. The harbor, though safe and spacious,

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 12 of 203)