Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 120 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 120 of 203)
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He was an intimate personal friend of president Lincoln, took a deep interest in the
national cause during the war of the rebellion, and by his zeal and eloquence contributed
much to encourage the government in that fearful crisis. He is one of the most elo-
quent preachers of the day, and has great influence in the Methodist church. He pub-
lished A Hundred } ~ai rs of Methodism.

SIMROCK. KARL, a German poet and scholar, who has done more perhaps than any
other man to make his countrymen familiar with their early literature, was b. at Bonn,
Aug. 28, 1802. He studied at the university of his native city and afterward at Berlin,
and in 1823 entered the Prussian state service. His first work was a translation into
modern German of the Nibehtnqenlied (Berl. 1827; 9th ed. Stuttg. and Tub. 1854), fol-
lowed by a translation of the songs admitted by Lachmann to be genuine, under the title
Zmtrtzif/ Luder ton den Ntbdungen (Bonn, 1840). Soon after the publication of Ins
translation of Hartmann von der Aue's Armer Heinrich (Berl. 1830), he was compelled
to leave the Prussian service on account of a revolutionary poem which he wrote.
Afterward he devoted himself exclusively to literature, and more particularly to the early
literature of his own country, which he has modernized in splendid style. In 1850
he was appointed professor of German language and literature at Bonn, a situation
which he held till his death, which occurred in July, 187(5. His principal works, besides
those already mentioned, are: Quellen des &h<tkcs]ie<t.rc in Kocellen, Marchcn, und frtrjen
("Sources of Shakespeare in Novels, Tales, and Legends," 3vols. Berl. 1831), executed
in conjunction with Echtermeyer and Henschel, but of which the most important part
was Simrock's; NooettenMihatst der liaticiicr (Berl. 1832); a translation, with commentary,
of the poems of Walther von der Vogelweide (2 vols. Berl. .1833), in conjunction with
Wackernagel; and of Widand der Schinied. Deutsche Hcldciicape (Bonn, 1835), one of the
freshest of the German mediaeval epics; Rficimtuf/tn iti/x dcm Maude des Volkes iind
Deittxclter Dich ter fur Schule, Haus, und Wanderschajt (" Legends of the Rhine from the
Mouth of the People and German poets, for School. Home, and Traveling," 4lh ed. Bonn,
1850; latest ed. 1857); a collection of German Volkxbiicfar (" People's Books"), compris-
ing national proverbs, songs, and riddles, besides a vast quantity of stories (these, carried
on for several years, include many vols.): a translation of Wolfram von Eschenbach't
Parziral und Titurel (Stuttg. and Tub. 1842); and J)ax J/<ld< 'hhueh. partly translations
and partly original poems (1843-49), illustrative of the heroic traditions of the Teutonic
race. A separate collection of his own poems (Otdichte] was published at Leipsic (1844,
new ed. 1863). Later productions are a translation of the songs of the Edda (Stultsr. and
Till). 1851, 3d ed. 1863); a Handhueh der Dcutxrhen tfythoioffie {2 vols. Bonn, 1853-55, 2d.
ed. 1864); an AlMeuteche* Lesebuch in Neudeutuchrr Sprache (Stuttg. and Tiib. 1854); Das
Deutsche Kinderbuch, Reime, Leider. etc. (1856-57); Der Warfburg-Krieg, Hf-mu*fiefieben,
Qeordnet, Ubersetet,und Erliiutert (1858); Die Aibelungenstrophe und ihrUrspruny ; Beitrag

Sims. K 1Q


wr Veuttclien Metrik (1858); Lieder vom Deutschen Vatcrlande (1863); DmtscJie MarcJien
(1661); (jcdichte Shakespeare's (Ib67).

SIMS, CHAV.LES JS T . ; b. Ind. in 1835. His early life was spent on a farm, and his
education obtained at the common schools; began teaching at the age of 17; gradu-


Brooklyn; was elected chancellor of the Syracuse university in 1880.

SI-VIS, JAMES M.uuox. b. in S. 0.', 1813; graduated at South Carolina college in 1832;
Studied medicine at Charleston and Philadelphia; commenced practice at Montgomery,
Ala., in 1836. About 1845 he established a private hospital at the latter city for the
cure of resico- vaginal fistula, in the treatment of which he used silver-win; sutures, pub-
lishing an account of the operation in the American Journal of Mediad Sciences, in 1853.
He settled in New York city in 1853, and was instrumental, with others, in establishing
the women's hospital, for the treatment of diseases peculiar to women. In 1801 Dr.
Sims went to Europe, where he performed several surgical operations by invitation,
receiving decorations from the French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Belgian gov-
ernments. Dr. Sims has written on Triamus Nasdentium : Stiver Sutures in tiurgerg;
On Intro-uterine Fibroid Tumors, Clinical Notes on Uterine Surgery, and is the author of
a standard work on female surgery. He is a member of many learned societies in
Europe and America, and was president of the American medical association in 1870.

SIMSON, ROBERT, a celebrated Scotch mathematician, was b. at Kirton Hall in Ayr-
shire, Oct., 1687. He was educated at the university of Glasgow with a view to the
clerical profession, and attained great eminence in classical and mathematical knowledge.
His taste for mathematics gradually gained the ascendency, and all other pursuits were
abandoned. After a brief residence in London, during which he made the acquaintance
of Dr. Halley, Mr. Ditton. and others, he returned to Glasgow, where in 1711 he was
appointed professor of mathematics, and for 50 years discharged his professorial duties.
Simson's reputation rests chiefly on his "restorations," or, as they might more properly
be called, "reconstructions," of the Greek geometers. Some good judges are of opinion
that he has corrected many errors in the original text, though his respect for the Greek
ina.hcnuuicians always led him to refer these to the ignorance of editors and the negli-
g "i -e of copyists. His first attempt in this direction was to discover the signification
of Euclid's porisms. the only datum being a most obscure *aud tantalizing description of
tin-in by Pappus, the indefiniteness of which hud foiled both Format and Halley. In
this difficult task Sinnon, however, succeeded; and a similar attempt, attended with
fiim.larsuccesii, on the "loci plaui"and the "scctio detenninata" of Apollonius, stamped
him as one of the most elegant geometers of modern times. AYith the thorough insight
which he had thus obtained into the nature and processes of the Greek analysis, lie set
himself to the correction of Euclid's Elements. This last work was published in 175S,
and has deservedly enjoyed a high character; it has been frequently re-edited and repub-
lished as a school-book, especially the edition by Playfair. Simson also published, along
with his edition of Euclid, a list of Euclid's "data," of which he subsequently issued
a second edition; but of his other works, some of which w r ere almost ready for publica-
tion, none were printed till after his death. He retired from his professorship in 1761,
and employed himself chiefly in the correction of his various works till his death. Oct.
1, 1768. Eight years after Simson's death, earl Stanhope caused to be published (for
private circulation) at his own expense, the work on porisms, the two restored works of
Apollonius, a posthumous tract on ratios, and another on logarithms; and an edition of
Pappus, which was discovered after Simson's death, was presented to the university of

SIN is the name given by theologians to the evil of human nature, to the moral defect
or perversion which appears an inherent quality of the human will, and in a greater or
less degree unavoidably characterizes it in this life. It is something more than evil as
affirmed of the- external world or of the lower creation. Evil, as denoting decay or
corruption in nature, is admittedly n mere relative term, for in truth decay is jus'i as
normal a process of creation as renovation, and corruption is the condition of restored
health and beauty. In a similar manner, evil, such as it exists in the lower animal crea-
tion, in the form of prey and in the forms of p-iin, of sickness, and of death whatever
be the special view taken of such phenomena is never reckoned evil in the sense of sin.
In order to constitute the special idea of sin. it is always necessary to suppose a moral
element in the evil to which it is applied. Whatever form of evil fs independent of the
human will as its source, origin, or agent is not sin. Theologians, indeed, speak of
original sin or the sin of human nature, as distinguished from actual sin, or the par-
ticular transgression of the individuals composing mankind. According to a common
theological view, men are not only sinners individually, but they are partakers of a sin-
ful nature, with which their will has had nothing do with reference to which they have
had no choice of good or evil. The evil lias come to them by natural descent from the
original parents of the race. But even the most extreme view of original sin preserves a
hypothetical relation between every individual will and the primal transgression which


it considers to be sin, not merely in those who committed it, but in those who liave
descended from them. All mankind arc supposed to have been in Adam, the first sinner,
ns their representative, so that "ihey sinned in him and fell with him in his first trans-
gression." Without such a hypothesis of unity between Adam and his race, so that his
will was in some measure the typical or representative will of the race, the notion of
original sin could not be maintained. For (lie relation between sin and will as a moral
power, having the choice of good and evil, is a cardinal relation without which it would
seem impossible to distinguish sin as a quality from other forms of evil in the world.

SINAI, the mount on which, according to the Pentateuch, God announced to Moses
the ten commandments and the other laws by which the Israelites were to be bound.
Its exact position is matter of dispute among travelers, but it is to be sought for in the
mass of n'ranite and porphyry mountains occupying the greater part of the Arabian
peninsula, lying between the gulf of Suez and Akabah. and rising to u height of 8, 000 or
9,000 ft. above the sea. Thi.s mountain-mass is divisible into three groups: a north-
western, reaching, in mount Serbal, an elevation of 6,840 feet : an eastern and central,
attaining, in Jcbel Katheriu, a height of 8,160 feet; and a south-eastern, whose highest
peak. I In Shaumer, is the culminating point of the whole Sinaitic range. Serbal, with
its five peaks, looks the most magnificent mountain in the peninsula, and is identified
with Sinai by the earlier church fathers, Eusebius, Jerome, Cosmas, etc. ; but it doen
not meet the requirements of the Hebrew narrative, and even as earl}' as the time of
Justinian, the opinion that Serbal was the Sinai of iMoses had been abandoned, and to a
ridge of the second or eastern range that honor had been transferred, the northern sum-
mit of which is termed Horeb; and the southern, Jebel Miisa, or mount of Moses, con-
tinues to be regarded by the great majority of scholars as the true Sinai. Its height is
variously estimated at from 6,800 to 7,100 ft. above the sea.

At the eastern base of Jebel-Musa, in the ravine of Shouaib, stands in solitary peace
the famous monastery of mount Sinai; but in earlier times the mountain had numerous
other convents, chapels, and hermitages.

SINAITIC CODEX, a very valuable biblical manuscript, discovered in 1859 by
Tischendori' in the convent on mount Sinai, and presented by the monks to the Russian
emperor Alexander II. A part of it had been consumed in lighting fires, but there still
remained 380 leaves, containing a large part of the Septv.aghit version of the Old Testa-
ment with the Apocrypha. an:( the whole of ihe Greek New Testament, with the epistle
of Barnabas and a part of the Shepherd of Hernias. The leaves are vellum of exquisite
fineness and largest size; the writing i-; in beautiful and simply formed uncial letters,
arranged in 4 columns on each page. There are several decisive marks of great antiq-
uity: 1. The little punctuation which it contains is in the oldest manner. 2. Its
peculiarities of spelling and etymology belong tothe 4th century. 3. It closelv resembles
the papyrus manuscripts. 4. The order in which it arranges the books of Scripture is
known to have been used at the end of the 3rd century. 5. The division of "larger chap-
ters." universal in manuscripts from the Tithe downward, is wanting in thejVatican and
Sinaitic only. The presence of the " Ammouian sections" and "Eusebian canons" is
against an earlier dale than the first half of the 4th c. ; but as these are written on the
margin, and in red ink, they may have been added by :> later hand. 6. Its readings
correspond with those defended by Origen and with some approved* by E.isebias. These
criteria and the beauty of the manuscript suggest the possibility that it is one of the 50
copies of the Scriptures which Eusebius, by Constantine's command, had prepared on
the choicest skins by skillful writers for churches built to commemorate the emperor's
conversion. "Whether this be true or not, the manuscript certainly belongs to the 4th c.,
and probably to the first half of it. Tischendorf pronounces it to b"o; the same age with
the Yatican manu-cript. Notwithstanding the beautiful writing of the copyist, he did
not always copy correctly. His work also has. been subjected to many alterations by
various revisers, some contemporaneous with himself, some belonging to the 6th or 7th
c., and a few to the 13th. In main- places even Tischendorf's skill could scarcely trace
the original writing under the alteration. As to disputed readings, it, omits the last 13
verses of Mark's gospel ; John vii, 53-viii. 11; t 1-^iftt. -<<*. in Eph. i. 1; and the doxology
in Matthew's record of the Lord's prayer: has the reading "cbmchaf.Qod," Actsxx. 28;
" irlio was manifest." not " G'><? was manifest." 1 Tim. Hi. 16: and ^W instead of ,wn,
John i. 18. The emperor of Russia celebrated the 1000th anniversary of his* empire by
publishing a splendid edition of this manuscript, of which only 300 copies were- printed,
200 beinu' given away, and the others sold by Tischendorf. Several colleges and public
libraries in the United States have obtained copies.

^IXALO'A, or CINALO'A, a state in n.w. Mexico, bounded on the n. by Sonora. on
the e. by Chihuahua, on the s. by Jalisco, and on the w. by the gulf of Mexico and the
Pacific ocean; drained by the Culiacan. ('anas. Euerte. and Sinaloa rivers, intersected by
a branch of the Sierra Madre mountains; about 26.000 sn.m. : pop. '60. 1i"V()!>Ti. The
urface is mountainous in the e.. with gradually sloping plains in the west. Gold and sil-
ver mines are worked, and iron, lead, copper, and other minerals are found. The cli-
mate is hot and nnherdthful. The soil is fertile. The principal productions are rice,
sugarcane, coffee, and fruits. Mazatlan is the most important sea-port. Capital, Culia



SINCERE BRETHREN, OR TRUE FRIENDS, is the name of a semi-religious, sen*
scientific Mohammedan order, the beginnings of which are shrouded in obscurity, bu'
which, about 970 A.D. , manifested its existence by one of the boldest and most compre
hensive literary undertakings viz., an encyclopaedic treatment of philosophy, theology,
science, ethics, and metaphysics, in a series of 110 less than fifty-one treatises. Under
the head of MOHAMMEDAN SECTS, and more especially under MOTAZILITES. mention has
been made of that immense religious struggle that arose but a few generations after
Mohammed, in the bosom of Islam, bringing forth sect after sect; and which, under
whatever name and war-cry, simply denoted the reaction of the thinking minds against
the dead-weight of dogmas and formulas, such as the successors of the prophet tried in
his name, and often enough in direct contradiction to his explicit dicta, to impose upon
the faithful. What the Motazilites had attempted was the reconciliation of scientific
speculation, as it had irresistibly grown up at the first contact of the Arabs with Greek
literature', with the religious dogma of Islam. This new period of development of Arabic
culture, which chiefly characterizes the epoch of the first Abbaside rulers, however, was
of no long duration. The representatives of the "orthodox" schools, who would not
hear of reconciliation, but insisted all the more uncompromisingly upon the most literal
interpretation, dexterously used against them those same weapons of dialectics which
their adversaries themselves had first taught them how to wield. Setting to work with
proper systems and methods, they soon built up a scholastic edifice of theology, not
easy to be attacked without the most direct outspokenness; and from this the new
schools, the terror of the caliphate strong upon them, shrank. It was thus that the Motaz-
ilites soon disappeared from the arena. But their labors had not been in vain.
Silently and by small degrees this new r and mysterious union of the Sincere Brethren
arose. Though widely spread, their schools, their houses of assembly, their rules, tfieir
doctrines everything remained, for we do not know how long, a profound mystery;
and apart from that which the}' themselves have thought fit to reveal of it, neither
ancient nor modern investigation has been able to discover many traces of their inner
organization and activity. Not even many of their names have come down to us, though
the "treatises" they have left point to a multitude of authors, and to many stages of
development. The tone of these treatises is much more free, and their entire tendency
more radical than that of any of the books of their predecessors. Yet, the desire not to
offend the less advanced in religious matters, and above all to reunite rather than to
.Tnake the breach wider, is perceptible in their endeavor to use what Koranic quotations
and traditions can be pressed into the service of free thought, by often very unnatural
processes of allegory and mysticism.

Before speaking of the treatises themselves, we shall briefly summarize what can be
gathered as to the mutual relations of the brethren of this secrect lodge, and the aims
of their association. There is special mention made of the "secret doctrine" which
the Brethngi should communicate to each other in their houses of assembly at those
"stated periods." at which r.o stranger was to be admitted on any condition. The prin-
cipal subjects toward which their conservation was to be directed were to be the knowl-
edge of the soul or psychology, the knowledge of the action of the senses and the things
perceptible through them, the contemplation and investigation of the mysteries of the
sacred books, of tlie prophetical revelations, and the ideas contained in the divine laws.
Their attention was further to be directed toward the four " mathematical" sciences
arithmeti", geometry, astronomy, and (musical) composition. But the chief subject of
their investigations should be the knowledge of divine things, which are the end and aim
of all study. The most catholic spirit was to prevail among them with regard to the
various sciences, systems, or books; since "our own system comprises all. without
exception, and includes all science." "The speculations of our school extend simply
to all things the sensual and the intellectual from the moment of their beginning to
their end, according to their outer and inner life that which is palpable and clear about
them, and that which is hidden and secret the truth, in fact. For the true essence in
everything is derived from one primeval origin and general cause, since there is but one
world and one supreme mind, to which all the most manifold phenomena, species and
kinds, and divisions, are to be traced back." With these words, the encyclopaedic ten-
dency of tlie lodge and their essays is best characterized.

All their knowledge they traced back to four sources as indeed this number seems
to have played a very considerable part in all their divisions as follows: 1. "The books
that are known by the names of the sages and philosophers, in as far as they belong to
mathematics and natural history." They do not indicate them further; but. it is easy to
see from the treatises themselves that they allude to the translations of Greek works
bearing the names of Pythagoras, Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Porphyry, etc. 2. "The
revealed writings derived from the prophets," such as the five Books of Moses, the Gos-
pel, the Psalms, the Koran, and other writings of prophets who had received their con-
tents through inspiration by the angels and the "deep mysteries hidden in these books."
3. "Books treating of nature" i.e., th}.i describe and represent the things now in exist-
ence the celestial circles, the motions of the stars, the transformation of matter, the
individual species and kinds of animals, plants, etc. All these things point to abstract



ideas and subtile mysteries of which men in general saw but the outside, ignoring the
mysterious art and meaning of the Creator hidden within. But if in this third division
of the sources, the power of the mysterious and of spiritualism must needs have
become very strong, it seems to have ruled absolute in that most mysterious and obscure
of all sources, the fourth viz., " the divine books, or the books on the divine things,
written by the angels from the tablet of fate, upon which all the divine decrees regard-
ing the world and man are inscribed. These contain all that refers to substances, spe-
cies, kinds, and orders of the different souls; their actions, destinies, metamorphoses,
phase after phase, the heavenly conjunctures and periods, etc. For this the Koran wa
quoted : " And upon the Arap" [the division between heaven and hell] ' there will stand
men, who will recognize every one by their distinguishing mark." These men, how-
ever, are souls who take a higher degree than other men, like the prophets and martyrs,
or the elect among the believers and learned, or the angels who appear in human shape."
And that there might be no mistake as to the members of the secret -brotherhood being
alluded to in this passage, another passage from the same sacred volume is adduced,
which reads: These are the men who live in houses which God has permitted to be
erected, that His name might be praised therein, in which men proclaim his praise both
morning and evening, whom even neither commerce nor trade intercourse keeps from
the remembrance of^God and the solemn fulfillment of the duty of prayer. "This is
the state of our brothers, the highly meritorious, the highly honored.''

The supreme (outward) duty of the brethren was to support one another in case of
need. Men are divided into four classes those who have wealth without knowledge;
those who have knowledge without wealth; those who have both; and those who have
neither. And this at once points to the necessity of mutual support. Envy and ill-will
are seriously reprobated, and here the ethical portions of the Koran and the Sunnah are
appealed to. But these fundamental principles are further explained and detailed in
the rules almost step by step; and it is shown how each of the four classes named is to
make its support of the Brethren more effective. Everything should be directed for the
benefit of the soul, not of the body; everything for the future, nothing for this world.
Moral qualities are the highest gift of heaven, and the characteristic sign of the angels
and the blessed in paradise a wise and happ3 r way of comforting the poor of the com-
munity, who, by moral purity, may lift themselves to the same purity as the best and
richest among the Brethren. In order further to prove how the soul is capable of the highest
perfection by degrees, the various ages and stages of man are enumerated, and the
gradual progression of all faculties is dwelt upon according to the " strength of the soul."
The fourth degree is characterized as the angelic quality of the soul, which is obtained
at fifty, and which prepares the way to everlasting life, and to the full separation from
matter. To this succeeds the "power of ascension," whereby the member mounts up
into the world of the spiritual heavenly beings, so that he foresees clearly the " things
of the end," such as the resurrection, the last judgment, the dispersion, the meting
out of rewards and punishments; how. further, "the path is to be crossed, how he
escapes the fire, enters Paradise, and becomes a denizen of the highest realms with the
Father of all mercies." And for this consummation, many passages in the Koran and

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 120 of 203)