Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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ported to distant regions. The country is reported as rapidly improving under its pres-
ent administration.

SINDHTT (from the Sanskrit si/and, which in its older form probably was syandh, to
trickle or flow) is the ancient name of the river Indus and the country along the Indus
or Sindh.

SINDIA, the name of a powerful family of Mahratta chiefs and princes, which occu-
pies a conspicuous place in the history 'of India during the 18th and 19th centuries. The
founder of the family was RANOJEE SINDTA, a sudra of the Kumbi ("cultivator") tribe,
who from a menial station in the household of the peishwa, rose to a high rank in the
body-guard, and after 1743 received in hereditary fief the half of the extensive province
of Malwa. His son. MADITAJEE SiNDiA (1750-94). joined the Mahratta confederation,
and was present at the battle of Paniput (1761), where he was so desperately injured as
to be left for dead, but he speedily recovered, and, on the retirement of the Afghans and
their allies, repossessed himself of his hereditary dominions. On the death of Mulhar
Rao Holker (q.v.) he became the chief of the Mahratta princes, and had the command
of the peishwa's body-guard; and in 1770, the peishwa and 'his tw r o powerful feuda-
tories, Sindia and Holkar, aided the emperor of Delhi in expelling the Sikhs from his
territories, of which the administration was handed over to Sindia, TV ho was now by far
the most powerful of the Mahratta chiefs. The murder of the young peishwa by hia
uncle, Ilagoba, and the consequent expulsion of the murderer from the throne he" had
seized, brought Sindia for the tirst time into collision with the British, who had espoused
IJagoba's cause; but iu the war (1779-82) which followed, fortune distributed her favor*


with impartiality, and by the treaty of Salbye (1782) Sindia was recognized as a sov-
ereign prince, and confirmed in all his possessions. In 1784 he captured the stronghold
of Gwalior, and in the following inarched on Delhi, to restore his preponderance in
the councils of the puppet monarch, and subsequently seized Agra, Allj-ghur, and nearly
the whole of the Doab (q.v).. The manifold advantages of European discipline had
struck him forcibly during the war with the British, and, with the aid of an able French
officer, he introduced it into his own army. An army of 18,000 regular and 6, QUO irreg-
ular infantry. 2,000 irregular and 600 Persian horse,' with 200 cannon, was accordingly
raised, and under the leadership of De Boigne, the officer above noticed, reduced Joud-
pore, Odeyporc, and Jypore, three Rajput states, and effectually humbled the pride of
Holkar. DowLUTltAObiNDiA (1794-1827) continued his grand-uncle's policy, and during
the troubles which convulsed Holkar's dominions at the commencement of the 19th c.,
lie ravaged Indore and Poona, but was wholly routed in 1802 by Jeswunt Rao llolkar.
Having joined Bhonsla, the rajah of Berar, in a raid on the nizam (1808), he brought
down upon himself the vengeance of the East India company. The confederated Mah-
rattas were routed at Assay e and Argaum by sir Arthur Wellesley; Siudia's disciplined
troops, under the command of French officers, were scattered irretrievably at Patper-
gunge (near Delhi) and Laswari by lord Lake, and he only escaped total ruin by acceding
to a treaty by which all his possessions in the Doab and along the right bank of the
Jumna were ceded to the British. Gwalior was, however, restored in 1805, and from
this time became the capital of Siudia's dominions. Sindia had been taught by his
reverses a useful lesson, and he declined to join Holkar, the peishwa, and Bhonsla, in
their attack (1817) on the British, and thus escaped the swift destruction which was
visited upon his turbulent neighbors. During the reign of BHAGERUT RAO SINDIA, a
minor, the Gwalior dominions AY ere in a state of anarchy, that the British were
compelled to insist on certain guarantees for the preservation of tranquillity; and on
these being rejected, a war followed, and the Mahrattas were routed at Maharajpur
(Dec. 29, 1843) by lord Gough, and at Puniaur by maj.gen. Grey on the same day. Gwa-
lior fell into the hands of the British, Jan. 4, 1844, and Sindia submitted to the condi-
tions demanded of him, besides maintaining a contingent force of sepoys at Gwalior.
In 1853 he was declared of age by the East India company, and in 18~8 he took the field
at the head of his own army against the Gwalior contingent, which had joined in the
great sepoy mutiny. But the most of his troops deserted him during the battle (June 1),
and he narrowly escaped by fleeing to Agra. Sindia was subsequently reinstated by sir
Hugh Rose, nnd received from the British government numerous testimonials of its
grateful respect. He is a knight grand cress of the order of the bath.

CUnS'CTEE (Lat. sine cum, without care), in common language, an office which has
revenue without employment. In the canon law, a sinecure is an ecclesiastical benefice,
such as a chaplainry, canonry, or chantry, to which no spiritual function is attached,
except reading prayers and singing, and where residence is not required. The strictest
kind of sinecure is where the benefice is a donative, and is conferred by the patron
expressly without cure of souls, the cure either not existing, or being committed to a
vicar. Sinecure rectories were abolished by 3 and 4 Yict. c. 113. s. 48. v


SIX-GAIST-FOO, a ciiy of China, province of Shen-See, on the right bank of an afflu-
ent of the Iloang-ho. It was formerly the capital of the empire; pop. about 150.000.
It is large, inclosed by walls, and is the chief ir.iiitary depot for the northern province of
China. A Syrian inscription has been found here recording the introduction of Chris-
tianity by tho Ncstoriaus in the 4th century.

SINGAPORE', one -of the Straits settlements (q.v.), belonging to Great Britain, consists
of an ifland lying off the s. extremity of the peninsula of Malacca, in hit. about 1 17'
n., long. 103 50'- e., and having a city cf the same name on iis s. side. The island is 25
m. long, nnd from 14 to 15 broad; area, 224 sq. miles. It is separated from the main-land
by a narrow but deep strait, varying from a mile to a few furlongs in width. The surface
is generally low and undulating, the greatest elevation (Bukit Tima, or the Hill of Tin)
being only 520 feet. According to Malay accounts, a colony was planted on the site of
the present town by tribes who are inferred to have been Javanese, from the circum-
stance that the name Singapura, which they gave to Iheir settlement, is most probably
of Sanskrit origin (lion-town); the Javanese being the only people in these seas who
havf become fairly Hinduized. Be that ns it may, m 1818 it was found by sir Stamford
Raffles to be an island covered witli primeval forests, sheltering in its creeks and rivers
only a few miserable fishermen and pirates. It seems to have been unclaimed by any
power until 1811, when the sultan of Jahore formally annexed it to his territories. The
commanding position of Singapore, in the very center of the highway leading from
British India to China, led sir Stamford Raffles to mark it, out as the site of the first free
port in the Malayan seas; and in 1819 the British flag was hoisted on the new settlement;
although it was not till 1824 that Mr. Crawford concluded a satisfactory treaty with the
sultan of Jahore, whereby the island of Singapore, and all the islands within 10 m. of its
shore, were given up in full sovereignty to the East India company, on condition of a
considerable yearly payment. Since then the prosperity of Singapore has been almost
without a parallel. Its position as an entrepot for the trade of the Malayan archipelago.


the Eastern Peninsula and China, and the wise policy that placed the commerce of the new
port on an entirely unfettered tooting, rapidly established a flourishing trade. In 1823 the
imports amounted to 1.200, QUO; the exports to 920,000. In the year ending April 30,
186-1, the value of the imports was 6,610,000; the exports, 6,630,000, being fully double
the amounts in 1854-55. Notwithstanding the opening up of mor-3 direct communica-
tions \viih Europe of many of the markets in China, Cochin-China, and Siam, formerly
largely supplied by traders from Singapore, the commerce has increased, and in 1872 the
value'of imports was 8,600,000, and of exports, 7,800,000. The following table shows,
in dollars, the value of the import and export trade of Singapore in the years 1875-76:

Imports. Exports.
In 1875

United Kingdom 8,669,518 6,658,236

British colonies and coasting 15,373,924 9,71)1,975

Foreign countries T .__19,722,759 25,169,308

"43,766,201 41,619^519
In 1876

United Kingdom 10,252,334 6,719,787

British colonies and coasting 17,055,094 8,991,175

Foreign countries .JUU6M48 _24,90:5. *21

"T574667070 "40,614.783

The chief articles of export to Europe and North America are gambir, tin, sago,
tapioca, black and white pepper, tortoise-shell, nutmegs, gutta percha, camphor, coffee,
sapan-wood, and ratans. Of these, only gambir, sago, and nutmegs are produced on the
island to any important extent; all the other articles being imported, chiefly by natives,
from other quarters. From Europe large imports are received of cotton manufactures,
woolens and linen, metals, hardware, earthenware, arms and ammunition, and treasure
in the form of dollars. Large fleets of prahus are wafted by the southerly monsoon
toward this great center of trade, laden with the numerous products of the Indian archi-
pelago, to return again laden with the manufactures of Europe. In 1875, 2,261 vessel,
of 1. 283. 786 tons, entered at Singapore, while 2,348, of 1,003,601 tons, cleared besides
3,171 coasting craft entered and 3,462 cleared. In 1876, 2,149 vessels, of 1,454,689 tonsy
entered the port; and 2,182, of 1.428,992 tons, cleared; the coasting trade being 3, 716
entered and 3,718 cleared. In 1875 the local revenue of Singapore was $136,686, the
expenditure being $136,256, In 1876 the figures were revenue, $170,178; expenditure,
$174,361. Education is being steadily advanced in Singapore, and a zealous desire on
the part of the Eurasians to learn English is now observable. One school in Singapore
had. in 1876, an attendance of 476. It is intended to establish at Singapore a training
school for vernacular teachers. There is already a Malay college.

The currency of commerce is the Spanish dollar; but the official currency of govern-
ment is the rupee. The Chinese pecul, of 133^ Ibs. avoirdupois, which is divided into
100 catties, is the standard of weight. The population of Singapore is perhaps the most
heterogeneous in the world, comprising at least 16 nationalities, speaking different
tongues. The Malay, however, soft and easily acquired, is the recognized medium of
communication between all classes. Tne population, which is increasing, amounted in
1871 to 97,111, of whom 61,752 were in the town of Singapore and its environs, 31,235
in the country, and 4,124 on board of vessels According to the census report for that
year, the various races stand to each other in the following proportion: Europeans ana
Americans, 1946; Chinese, upward of 54,000; Eurasians. Armenians, and Jews, 2,285;
Malays, and Klings or immigrants from southern India, 37,000. Of the aboriginal
inhabitants of the island, not a trace remains: but similar tribes are still to be found in
small numbers in several parts of the peninsula. Of the native population, the Chinese
are the most useful part; they form almost the only body of trustworthy native mer-
chants, in the proper sense of the word, and are freely trusted to large amounts by Euro-
pean importers; and it may be doubted whether, as a commercial body, they are, on
the whole, more deficient in morality than many European communities. The laws are
those of Great Britain, with some modifications; the court is that of a recorder. Singapore
being a free port, the revenue is raised by inland excises on opium and spirits. Singa-
pore is the seat of government for the Straits settlements (q.v.), which, on April 1, 1867,
were transferred from the control of the Indian government to that of the secretary of
state for the colonies.

The town of Singapore, which, as we have seen, contains two-thirds of the whole
population of the settlement, is situated at the mouth of a small river, on the Singapore
side of the island. It is the seat of government for the whole of the Straits settlements.
Its appearance is of a mixed oriental and European character; the streets are generally
wide, and kept in good order, and in 1864 the town was lighted with gas. There is an
efficient police, and the sanitary arrangements of the town are good. The municipal
council consists of public officers and ratepayers.

Singapore possesses two fine harbors; one opposite the" town, which, although littl*
more than an open roadstead, is a safe and convenient anchorage, where ships load and
discharge by means of lighters; the other is about 3 m. w. of the town, and ia land-


locked, and capable of admitting the largest vessels. Along its shores, extensive wharves
have been erected by steam companies aud individual merchants; and it is probable that
when communication by railway with the town is established, tlie old harbor will be
little used. There are several fortifications commanding the harbor and roads, but the
increasing commercial and political importance of the place calls for a still stronger
naval and military station. Singapore being within 80 m. of the equator, has little or
no variety of seasons; the climate, although hot, is healthy; the temperature ranges
from 71 to 92; rain falls more or less on 'MO days of the year, and the extent of the
fall is about 87 inches. The soil of Singapore is not fertile, although the climate is such
as to cover it with a rich and beautiful vegetation. The nutmeg was at one lime suc-
cessfully cultivated, but most of the trees having unaccountably died, this has been,
abandoned, aud husbandry is now confined to the cultivation of the cocoa-nut, the pep-
per-vine, and ganibir plant, and to the raising of sugar-cane and vegetables for local con-
sumption. The curse of Singapore is the tiger. It is estimated that 300 Chinamen and
other natives are carried off yearly. Turtle are abundant on the tshores, and form the
cheapest animal food in the bazaars. See Thomson's Journal of the Indian Archipelago;
J. Crawford's Dictionary of flie Indian, Islands and Adjacent Countries; J. Cameron's
Our Tropical Possessions in Malayan India.



SINGING, the art of producing music from the human voice, generall} 1 ", though not
necessarily, combined with speech. The mechanism of the vocal organs, as applicable
to singing, has by some physiologists been likened to a reed, by others to a stringed
instrument , in point of fact, the human voice is produced by an apparatus far beyor.d
either in complexity of structure.

The extreme limits of the voice in respect of pitch may be considered to be from

' - to Jm ; but the compass of any individual voice is limited to a portion

of that range, and voices are classified according to their pitch. Generally speaking,
male -voices lie an octave below female. The former are divided into bans and tenor ;


the compass of ordinary bass voices being considered to be from ^' to

and of tenor from 2lnffizz: to ER &HL. For tenor music, the tenor or C clef is

__ ^_ __
generally used, 5^-^;;, which has the advantage of having the principal tones within

the staff. When the treble clef is used, the music is written an octave above its true
pitch. Female voices are either contralto (otherwise called alto) or soprano, the former

extending from *~L- to fa~ <5> . the later from

or some

times higher. Contralto music may be noted either on the treble clef, or on the alto
clef, which latter is but the tenor clef placed on the third instead of the fourth line of

the staff ;J5|^<?^;. These are the principal divisions of voices; bnt there are also

further subdivisions. Intermediate between bass and tenor is another male voice,
called baryton; and intermediate between contralto and soprano, another female voice,
called mezzo soprano. The ordinary compass of a voice is about twelve notes, but two
octaves are not uncommon, and some voices have reached three. Madame Catalan! is
fcaid to have possessed a voice of three and a half octaves compass.

The notes produced in singing are of two kinds, according as they proceed from the
chest voice (wtce di petto), or head voice (roce di testa) The chest mites, or lower regis-
ter, proceed naturally and readily from the ordinary mechanism of the voice; the upper
register, head voice, or falsetto, is produced by a more or less forced contraction of the
cavity from which the voice proceeds, imparting to the notes a fife-like character, gen-
tle and weak in the male voice, but often clear find sonorous in the female. It is only
in the higher notes of the voice that the falsetto is used, and some notes on the borders
of the two registers may be given in either. Where the two registers meet, the tones are
apt to be hard and uncertain, or weak; but a cultivated singer will blend the head and
chest voice at the point of junction, so as to make the break imperceptible. The notes



of the bass voice arc given entirely from the chest. In the tenor, the three or four
upper notes belong mostly to head voice. The contralto tones are mostly chest voice,
and the upper tones of the soprano are head voice. The alto, when sung, as it often is
in England, by male voices, is principally falsetto.

In .siijo-i ni\ the head should be held erect, and the chest well expanded, to allow free
play to the lungs and free emission of the voice from the throat. The tongue should be
kept still, slightly pressing on the lower teeth. Proper regulation of the breath, and
proper articulation of the words, are also matters of essential moment.

One particular requires to be mentioned, in which the notation of songs differs from
that of instrumental music. In the latter, two or more quavers or semiquavers may be
grouped together by a common line; in singing, this can only be done when the whole
group are to be sung to one syllable, and notes belonging to different syllables are
always written separately. When notes without hooks, or notes that are not grouped,
belong to one syllable, they are bound together by a slur placed over them, e.gT:

He shall speak peace tin - to the hea


Among the principal objects to be studied in cultivating the voice for singing are the
improvement of its quality in respect of clearness and resources; the rendering every
note in its compass equally pure; the extension of its compass, not by injudicious forc-
ing, but by gradual practice; and the acquirement of the power to prolong any note
with perfect ease. See Music, VOICE, SOLFEGGIO.

SING SING, a village in West Chester co., N. Y., in Ossining township, on the e. bank
of the Hudson river, 32m. n. of New York, on the Hudson River railroad; pop. 6,500.
It has 7 churches, a national bank, 4 military boarding schools, the Mt. Pleasant,
academy, a seminary for young ladies, and 3 weekly newspapers. The village cor. tin us
a large stove-foundry, a water-pipe foundry, manufactures of hats, cotton-gins, tiles,
lime, and shoes, and a book-bindery. The Croton aqueduct passes through Sing Sing,
and is carried over a ravine by a stone arch of 88 ft. span and nearly 70 ft. above the
stream. Many private residences me beautifully placed on a long upward slope, and
the streets rising above each other from 200 to 300ft. afford a splendid view of the Hud-
son river, whose expansion at this point is called Tappan Zee or bay, 8 m. wide. The
Sing Sing state prison (one of the three in N. Y.) was founded about 1826. The build-
ings were erected by felons from the Auburn prison, and cover 130 acres of ground,
three-quarters of a mile s. of the village.* The main prison is 484 ft. long, and has 1.200
cells, with an iron-foundry, and manufactories of saddles, shoes, furniture, etc. The
prison for women has 108 cells, and the prisoners are employed in making clothing.

SINGULAR SUCCESSOR' in the law of Scotland, means one who succeeds in the
ownership of property by purchase or any other mode than by descent.

SINIGAG'LIA, or SINIOAI.T.IA (anc. Fena-Gallta), a city and sea-port on the e. coast of
Italy, in thr province of Aucona, and 17m. w.n.w. of the city of that name, at the mouth
of the Misa, with 10,500 inhabitants. It is a bright, cheerful city, built after the mod-
ern style, walled round, and it has bastions and handsome gates. Sinigalia is celebrated
for its' nnnnal fair, which lasts from July 20 to Aug. 10. and which sometimes puts in
circulation about 60 million francs in '20 days. English, French. Swiss, Americans.
Germans, etc., attend it. Siuigalia was founded by the Senonian Gauls, and colonized
by the Romans 289 P,.C.

SINISTER, in heraldry, the left-hand side of a shield. As shields are supposed to
be carried in front of the person, the sinister side is that which covers the bearer's left
side, and therefore lies to the spectator's right. See POINTS OF ESCUTCHEON.


SINO PE (Turk. Sinub), a t. of Asiatic Turkey, province of Anatolia, on the southern
side of a little promontory running eastward into the Black sea, 80 m. n.w. of Samsun.
Sinope, which is defended by some half-ruined fortifications, possesses a dock-yard and
naval arsenal; exports timber, dried fruits, tobacco, bay leaves, and oil, and has a popu-
lation of from 8,000 to 10,000 souls. The bay of Sinope, which affords the finest anchor-
age for ships along the whole northern coast of Asiatic Turkey, was the scene of a
bloody naval engagement, or rather massacre, Nov. 30, 1853, when a Turkisli squadron
of 13 ships was suddenly attacked and destroyed by the Russian fleet. Of the ancient
city of Sinope, which was founded by a colony of "Milesian Greeks, and, for 200 years
U. K. XIII. 34

after the Peloponnesian war, was almost the mistress of the Euxine, numerous ruins
still exist, "friezes, hundreds of Corinthian columns, capitals, sculptures, inscriptions,
and even statues, built up into the walls of its picturesque Byzantine fortifications."
Sinope was the birthplace of Diogenes the cynic.

SIN OPLE, in heraldry (q.v.), the same as vert.

SINTEK, the name given by German mineralogists to those rocks which are precipi-
tated in a crystalline form from mineral waters. They are of recent date, belonging in
fact to the strata at present in course of formation. Sinter is of various forms, kidiiey-
shaped, knotted, tuberous, botryoidal, tubular, stalactitic, shrub-like, or pronged, and
is occasionally distinguished by its chief component, as calcareous sinter, flint or quartz
sinter, iron sinter, etc. Calcareous sinter, which is a variety of carbonate of lime, com-
posed of concentric plane parallel layers, appears under various forms; it is deposited
withOextraordinary rapidity by many springs, a peculiarity frequently made use of to
obtain the incrustation of "objects with a coating of this substance. Quart/, sinter is
mostly found in intermittent hot springs, as in the Geysers (q.v.) of Iceland. Iron sinter
occurs in old mines, and in coal-beds, where it is formed from iron pyrites through the
agency of the atmosphere. The tubular conglomeration of grains of sand half-melted
by lightning (blitz) is also known as blitz-sinter, or fulgurite (q.v.).

SI'NUS (Lat. a bend or hollow) has two significations in anatomy, and one in surgery.
The cells or cavities contained in certain bones as the frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and
superior maxillary receive this designation. The frontal sinuses are two irregular
cavities extending upward and onward, from their openings on each side of the nasal
spine, between the inner and outer layers of the skull, and separated from, one another
by a tmn bony septum. They give rise to the prominences above the root of the nose
called the nas'al eminences. They are not developed till after puberty, and vary con-
sideraMy in size, being usually larger in men than in women and young persons, in con-
sequence of the greater prominence of the superciliary ridges in the former. When very
much developed they give a receding appearance to the forehead. They are larger in
Europeans than in negroes, and are very imperfectly developed in the Australians, whose

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 122 of 203)