Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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river and its branches; 5,000 sq.m.; pop. '80, 8,6105,620 of American birth, 1561
Chinese. Before 1874 the county included part of what is now Modoc county. The
surface is mountainous, mount Shasta, the highest peak being 14,442 ft. high. There
are some fertile valleys, where wheat, oats, butter, wool, hay, and cattle, 'are staples.
Co. seat, Yreka.

SISMONDI, JEAN CHARLES LEONARD DE, a distinguished historian of Italian descent,
was born at Geneva on May 9, 1773. He received his education as a boy at the "col-
lege" or high school of his native town. At the due age he was removed to the audi-
toirc, or university. Before he had completed his education, the pecuniary reverses of
his father made it necessary for Sismondi to do something for his own maintenance, for
which purpose he entered the counting-house of the eminent firm of Eyuard & Co. of

" k(>~ Sirinagur.


Lyons. Hateful as mercantile pursuits seem to have been to him, he applied himself to
his drudgery with all diligence. He became a thoroughly good clerk, and in after life
he acknowledged that the practical training had been of incalculable benefit to him.
The French revolution scut Sismondi back to Geneva, but the storm following, he took
refuge in England, along with his family. Home-sickness soon sent them back to
Geneva, but the continuance of political trouble made it impossible to remain there
long. lu 1795 they bought a small farm near Pescia, in Tuscany, where their narrow
circumstances rendered it necessary for Sismondi almost literally to put his hand to the
plow. He had now, however, leisure for literature. In 1798 he began to collect
materials for his History of the Italian Republics. In 1803 appeared a work on political
economy, De la Richesse Commerciale, in which he writes like a decided follower of
Adam Smith, though at a later period, in his No-uveaux Prindpes d'Economie Pohtiqu
(1819), he abandoned the wiser views of his youth. In consequence, a professorship ia
this science was in the same year offered to him in the university of Wilna, which he
declined. It was in history, however, that his literary forte lay. The 16 vols. of hie
Histvire des Republiques Italiennes, published between 1807 and 1818, placed him in the
first rank among contemporary historians, and brought him praise from the most dis-
tinguished men in France and'Germany. The events of the hundred days occasioned
one of the most memorable passages in the life of Sismondi hisinterview with Nanpleon.
In 1813 appeared his Literature du Midi de C Europe (" Literature of the South of Europe, "
Eng. by Roscoe, frequently reprinted). In 1819 he began his best and greatest
work, the Uistoire dcs Fran<;ais, with which he was occupied until his death. On April
19, of the same year he married Miss Allen, an English lady, whom he had previously
met in Italy. This marriage was followed by many happy years, during which Sis-
mondi resided at Geneva, making frequent visits to Pescia and England. His latter
.days were, however, darkened by the troubles of his native city, in whose politics he
took a keen interest. He died June 25, 1842. Sismondi has contributed more to his-
torical literature than any other writer of his time, and the labor which he bestowed on
his works has never been surpassed. "Kine times," he says, " have I traversed Italy,
and I have visited every place which has been the scene of any great historical event."
For twenty years he worked habitually eight hours a day. Both as a worker and as a
thinker he was thoroughly conscientious. His mind was to the last open to truth;
neither fettered by prejudice nor blinded by self-conceit. At the same time, no one
has surpassed him in tenacity of purpose, nor in energy in following it out. His feel-
ings on religious questions were especially intense. Having on one occasion heard a
ermon in an English church on eternal punishment, he vowed never again to enter
another church holding the tame creed; and "never to contribute to spread what the
English call their reformation; for by its side Romanism is a religion of mercy and
peace." His private character was singularly amiable and benevolent. His whole
career is a noble one, fullrof interest and instruction. See Quarterly Review. Sept. 1843;
Yie et 2rarausc de Stsmondi (Paris, 1845); see also his correspondence with Mile, de St.
Aulaire (Paris, 1863); and his Lettres Inedites d Madame d' Albany (1864).

SISTERHOODS, in the Roman Catholic church, began in the 4th century. Slowly at
first, but with great and rapid increase in the 17th and 18th centuries, they became the right
arms of charity, and at last organized bulwarks for the preservation and propagation of
the church faith by assuming the education of children, and girls especially, of the poor.
French authorities classify \hern into contemplative and active: the former devoted to
religious routines, partly of study, of worship of saints, and of such penances and morti-
fications of the flesh as 'the barbarous ideas of the times required; the latter, though less
beneficent than they have since become, were to some extent devoted to useful works in
narrow spheres, the organizations called active, occupied with good works rather than
devotions, served In the hospitals which were established in the middle ages by the
church. Every convent had its hospital for the poor, and the superior devotedness and
good inmiencc of women as nurses led to the establishment of orders of women who
devoted themselves to the work. Convent life during many centuries was a fashionable
refuse for maidens and matrons, especially in France, whose misfortunes had deprived
life of its common hopes, and to whom religious seclusion offered peace, quiet, the satis-
faction of doing srood. the hope of future reward, and, to a few, headship and authority.
The sisterhood devoted to outside beneficence were but a email part of these vast con
vent establishments, but have continued to multiply, while the purely devotional orders
are becoming extinct

Down to 1840 the church had conferred its sanction upon 164 distinct organizations
of sisters. Previous to A.D. 1500 there were 34 orders founded on the contemplative
system and 17 active; 1500-1600, 10 contemplative to 13 active; 1600-1700, 54 active
and 12 contemplative; and 1700-1840, 40 active and not one other. Since 1840 a con-
siderable number of the most efficient of these active orders have originated, outside of
the church or its convents, which have received sanction and ordination after their use-
fulness has been well established. The following chronological list is only of those
institutions of sisters whose mission was in part of beneficence outside of convent






Name of Order.


Name of Order.

Notre Dame de St. Paul.

Hospitalieres Hotel Dieu.
Canone-ises secu lar.
Scaurs de Saint Esprit.

St. Elizabeth of Hungary.
Merei (third order).
Elizabeth of Hungary.
Sosurs Grises.
Hospitalieres Canonesses.

FiUes de Marthe.
Consort a Milan.
Soaurs Angeliques.
Ursuliiies de Paris.

* " Parme.
St. Bridget.

Augustiiies de St. Catherine educational.

Bare footed Augustiaes. .

Ursulines of Reme.

Congregation de Notre Dame.
Ursulines of Aries.

' " Toulouse.
" Bordeaux.

" " Burgundy.
Compagnie de Notre Dame.

Ursulines de Lyons.
Soeurs de la Doctrine Cretienne.
Ursulines de Tulle.
August ines de la Recollection.
Ursulines de Dijon.
Hospitalieres of Loches.

Ursulines of Foligno. '
Presentation Ursulines.
Notre Dame de Charite.
Notre Dame de Refuge.
Congregation de la Croix.
St. Vincent de Paul Sisters.
Congregation de la Mis6ricorde de J6su.
Filles de la Providence et de 1'Union Cre-





Filles de St. Gn6vieye.

Notre Dame de Charite.

St. Joseph Sisters.

Hospitalieres de la Fleche.

Soeurs de St. Agnes.

Sceurs de St. Joseph au Puy.

St. Joseph Sistei-s.

Filles de St. Charles Borroineo.

Providence de Dieu.

Soeurs de St. Alexis de Limoges.

Villeneuve Hospitaliere.

Soeurs de St. Thomas de Villeneuve.

Union Cretienne.

Enfance de Jesus.

Dames de St. Maur.

SoBurs de la Foi.

Hospitalieres de St. Joseph.

Enfant Jesus educational.

Soeurs de Charit6 d'Evron.

Soeurs de la Providence.

Dames de St. Cyr educational.

Hospitaliere de Dijon.

Soeurs de 1'Ecole Cr6tienne.

Good Shepherd.


Filles du Bon Pasteur.

Soeurs de Charit6 de Nevers.

Sceurs de St. Paul.

Tiers Ordre du Carmel.

Fillea de la Sainte Trinite.

Filles de la Sagesse.

Filles du Uon Sauveur.

Soaurs de Charite de Jauville.

Hospitaliere d'Evremont.

Soeurs de la Providence.

Hospitaliere St. Roch Limoges.

Soeurs du Saint Sacrement de Hago*

Ursuline de Chavauges.

Soeurs de St. Andr6.

Dames de St. Sophie.

Soeurs de 1'Enfance de J6su et de Marie.

Sceurs de Sainte Cr6tienne.

Dames du Sucre Coeur.

Soeurs de St. Joseph, Lyons.

Soeurs de la Providence, Maine.

Soeurs de la Providence de St. Andr6.

Dames de Lorette.

Notre Dame de Bon Secours.

Petites Soeurs des Pauvre.

Persons who have not been through the great hospitals of Europe are unaware of the
extent of the work of the sisterhoods. When these hospitals were under the government
of the church instead of the state, the mothers-superior of the sisters of one order or
another were supreme managers of the work and attendance on the patients. The Ursu-
lines have been longest and most widely known in this labor ; established in 1537 by Angela
de Brescia, both in Milan and in Paris, with the intention that the sisters should not be
recluses, but live in their own homes and go out to do the work which the superior of
the order should point out. But it was found that greater efficiency could be attained
by associating in a community, and the order merged into the convent systc'in. The
founder inserted in the rules of the order that its membe/s should be free to act accord-
ing to the need of the age, and that the sisters should be free to so far live among others
ns to enable them openly to seek out the afflicted and to perform any act of charity which
they could find to do. They now labor in nearly every civilized country in the world,
but are subject to the government of the Roman Catholic church. The Sisters of St
Vincent de Paul, less ancient, equally renowned for their devotion and self-abnegation,
were organized by a priest of that name and formed their first community in Paris in 1633,
and systematized the education of their number to specific labors according to individual
fitness. No external signs of devotees were required, and no vows for more than a year.
Though organized by a priest, he seemed to guard it against absorption into church con-
trol, and abolished the system of requiring applicants to hospitals to confess before being
admitted. Throughout Europe, but far more in France than elsewhere, the ladies per-
fected the means of utilizing the latent benevolence around them, and educated to the
work poor girls desirous of devoting themselves to it. Christ's hospital, in London, was
committed to their charge in 1643, and in 1652 they went in numbers from Paris to War-
saw during a plague in that city. All the operations of housekeeping, as well as nurs-

07 Sisters.


ing and light surgical work, were practiced, in order to perfect their members for every
service that could be rendered. In 1789 the order had 426 houses in France. They were
seriously crippled and interfered with by the turbulent reforms of the French revolu-
tion, which, in suppressing all monastic and conventual establishments and confiscating
their property, deprived the- sisters of their communal homes, notwithstanding their
communities were excepted in the decrees of suppression. In 1801 Napoleon gave a new
civil legal character to the order by a decree of the minister of the interior; since which
time there has been no check to their extension. Like members of similar orders they are
now known simply as Sisters of Charity. The order was introduced into the United,
States in 180S at Emmittsburg. Md.. by Mrs. Seton, of New York, but seems to haver-
been moiv devotional than active in its work there. In 1814 a branch opened in Phila-
delphia to conduct an orphan asylum for children orphaned by the yellow-fever pesti-
lence. They may be found in nearly all our cities. North France seems a perennial
spring of similar organizations, nearly always originating with poor girls or women
whose zeal and will to do good attract a cluster of similar spirits to form new organi-
zations with some feature peculiar to the needs around them. The Sisters of the Good
Saviour, founded by two poor girls at Caen, Normandy, in 1720, while similar in their
first work to the preceding, took alsoaspecial interest in the insane, and in 1817-18 were
charged by the French government with the care of insane women and afterward of
men. They have become specialists in that chanty, and in the care and education of
the deaf and dumb in France. In 1874 the Caen house of 300 sisters had charge of 1000
insane persons. In Montreal and Quebec a similar work has been committed to the Sis-
ters of Providence. The most remarkable recent organization of Sisters of Charity is
the one called "The Little Sisters of the Poor," originated at St. Servan, a village oa
the n. coast of Brittany, under the guidance of a village priest, Le Pailleur, Marie Augus-
tine, and a few pooivst-of-the poor sewing-girls and old women. They formed prac-
tically a band of beggars, but so thorough in their self-abnegation to help others, so quiet
and unobtrusively bent on doing good, that by 1842 they had attracted to their work the
full sympathy of the community around them, and a wide fame. They were then organ-
i/.eil into an order under the church, with the above name, and their organization in many
cities has become the almoner of the people always willing to give of their abundance
rather than of their time when sure that the gift will reach the needy. Their specialty
is rather among the aged and suffering poor than in hospital service, and they make their
homes in the midst of the want and squalor which they alleviate. They now have branch
houses in the United Slates, but it is an alien soil to the women who have been so useful
in France, and a field less needing them.

A Protestant order of the Sisters of Mercy was founded at Davenport, England. 1845,
by Miss Lyuia Sellcn, who adopted a garb for the vocation; but the sisters were bound
by no vows except of obedience to the superior while connected with the organization.
It was composed of three classes of workers: those living in community and devoted
singly to its active and laborious work; those residing with the community to give minor
assistance while living a calm religious life: and married or single women in society
who can be relied on to give time to the work. It has a number of branches in Eng-
land. The sisterhood of St. John the Baptist is another association under the English
church, modeled upon the conventual system rather than upon the more practical
working models of the modern French Sisters of Charity. There are quite a number
of similar societies in England, all established within the past 30 years, of which the
Sisters of the Poor, established in 1851, is one of the most active. In the United States
the voluntary associations of benevolent ladies, acting by committees, in single church con-
gregations, or by non-sectarian associations, have an expansion and olliciency that enable
them to do the same kind of work as the Sisters of Charity, except in hospitals and
asylums, where the thorough organization, the devotional zeal, and the trained experi-
ence of the professional sisters, is pre-eminently valuable. Dr. Muhlenberir established
the Sisters of the Holy Communion in New York in 1845. who have DO established garb,
are required to be between 25 and 40 years old. to enter with the consent of parents or
guardians, to labor on probation one year, and who may leave at their own pleasure.
This organization has done a quiet but very efficient work in the charge of St. Luke's
hospital, New York. In recent years numerous sisterhoods have been oriranixed in the
Protestant Episcopal church in this country, whose work thus far promises well, though
the system is not yet so fully developed as to decide its ultimate results.


SIS TOVA, an important commercial t. of the principality of Bulgaria, on the s. bank
of the Danube, about, H5 m up the river from Kustchuk." It has several ntoMjues. an
ancient and stromr castle, where the "peace of Sistova" between Austria and Turkey
was concluded in 1791 : manufactures cottons and leather, and carries on an active river-
trade. Pop. about 20,000.

SISUPALA is iu Hindu legend the sovereign of Cheti, a country situated in central
India, who wa* the enemy of Krishn'a (q.v.1, and ultimately was slain by him. The
history of this enmity, and the death of S isupala, arc the Subject of the ffts'vpdtdbadfid of

SN yph ui.

SIS YPSTTS, a personage of Greek mythology, whom later accounts make to be 1he
father of Octysseus. He is said to have Been founder and king of Ephyra afterward
Corinth and both he and his whole house were notorious for their wickedness. He is,
however, host known for the punishment which he suffered in the lower world, either for
treachery toward the gods, or for his wholesale robbery of travelers, whom, at the same
time, he murdered with a huge block of stone. He was condemned to roll an immense
Iwwlder from the bottom to the summit of a hill, which, whenever it reached the top,
rolled down again, and the task of Sisyphus had to be begun, anew.

is, in Hindu mythology, the daughter of Janaka, a king of MUliM, and the
of Kama. See VISHN'U. The word means literally " furrow, as she was not born
in the usual sense of this word, but arose from a furrow when her father was plowing
the ground, whence she is also called Pdrthim (from pr'thim, the earth). Her history is
related in the RAM AY AX' A (q.v.).

SIT KA, or NEW ARCHANGEL, the principal settlement in the territory of Alaska, is a
small place of about 2,000 inhabitants, on the w. coast of the island of Sitka or Baranov,
the largest island in the group known as George's III.'s archipelago. Lat. 5? : 3' n., long.
1S5 3 18 west. Sitka was the residence of the governor of Russian America, and has a
magnetic observatory. Here the chief establishments of the Russian-American corn-
pan}-, incorporated 1799, for fishing and hunting fur-bearing animals, were situated.
The company employed 50 ships, and about 850 men, but their privileges expired in

SITOPEO EIA, or SITOMA'NIA. The repugnance to or refusal of food may range from
mere impairment or loss of appeiite, or hysterical antipathy to particular viands, to
total and prolonged abstinence, as a symptom of delusion or delirium. In the Insane,
foo<| has been consistently refused for years. During this time the system was, of
course (see FASTING), sustained by compulsory alimentation. The causes of such a
course are generally local disease in the organs of digestion, creating disgust and loathing
toward food, and associating suffering with the process of nourishment; the fear of
death, or {he desire for death. The motives assigned for such feelings or resolution
vary, of course, as the morbid condition maj r affect the stomach or the brain; and,
according to the mental stale predominating, suicide may be courted, or poisoning, drug-
ging, or pollution of aliment may be dreaded. The throat or bowels may be imagined
to be hermetically sealed; God or Satan may have imposed abstinence; the body is dead,
inanimate, or belongs to another. Absurd as such principles of action may be, they
prove inexpugnable to persuasion, or to the pangs of hunger and exhaustion, and require
a special course of treatment. The determination may be exorcised by medicine; it may
be overcome by commands, threats, bribes; it may be evaded by giving eggs, cocoa-nuts,
milk from the cow, and other substances, into which mercury, arsenic, etc., cannot well
be introduced; or it may be defeated by placing food in the stomach through the instru-
mentality of the stomach-pump. There have been epidemics of maniacal abstinence.
Chiplcy, American Journal of Insanity, July, 1859; Browne, Report Crichton Institution,


SIVA (a Sanskrit word, literally meaning happy, auspicious) is the name of the third
god of the Hindu TrimCirti (q.v.) or triad, in which he represents the principle of destruc-
tion. The name S'iva, as that of a deity, is unknown in the Vedic hymns, but estab-
lished as such in the epic poems, Purdn'as and Tantras. The worshipers of S'iva (see
S'AFVAS) assign to him the first place in the Trimurti, and to them he is not only the
chief deity, but the deity which comprises in itself all other deities. Thus, in the otto*
Purana (see PURAN'A), lie is addressed as Brahma, Vislm'u, Indra, Varun'a, as the sun
and the moon, as earth, fire, water, wind, etc.; but even in the Puran'as relating to
Vislm'u, his power is exalted in praise, and he is addressed with the utmost awe. The
symbol of S'iva is the Linga (q.v.), emblematic of creation, which follows destruction.
From each of his numerous attributes or characteristics he derives a name or epithet. He
has five heads (hence his name PancJulnana, etc., the five-faced); three eyes (hence his
name Tnnetra, etc., the three-eyed), one of which is on his forehead, and indicates his
power of contemplation; and in the middle of his forehead he wears a crescent. His
hair is clotted together, and brought over the head so as to project like a horn from the
forehead. On his head he carries the Ganges, whose course he intercepted by his hair,
when this river descended from heaven, so as to enable the earth to bear its rail (hence
his name Gangddham, etc.. the Ganges-bearer). Round his neck he carries a garland
of human skulls; and his throat is dark blue, from the poison which he swallowed when
it emerged from the ocean, churned by the gods for tlie attainment of the beverage of
immortality,' and threatened to destroy the world. In his hands he holds the trident, a
club or pole, armed at the upper end with transverse pieces, representing the breastbone
and ribs adjoining, and surmounted by a skull and one or two human heads. His
weapons are the KhinkJn'ra, which is not described, a bow called Ajnkara, or Ajnga/ttl,
a thunderbolt, and an axe. As the destroyer of the world he is also called Kd'a (time or
death), and represented as f black color. Oue of his representations is also half-male


and haif-femalc, emblematic of tlie indissoluble unity of the creative principle (hencfc
his name ArdluunirL-i'.i. the half-female-lord). He is clothed in a deer-skin; or he also
holds a deer in one of his hands; or he sits on a tiger-skin, or is clolhed in it. "When
i '. ilie bull Xar.di, whom lie also carries as an emblem in his banner.
..derful mount KaiL">a, the norther. i peak of the Himalaya, where he
ver t!:c uorth-cast quarter. His principal wife i^Dui-yd or Umd (q.v.); his sons
\XESA and KAIITTIKIOYA (q.v.). One of his principal sUiendauis is lan'du, who is
':i;d teachers of I ko arts of dancing and mimicry, whence S iva is iho
patron of tlie dancers, and is called JWc.v <r <m<- (lord of the dancers). Besides Tan'du, a '
f otht r attendants and companions, together with demons and other beings sur-
rounding him. are named by the Puran'as. *

Amongst the principal achievements of this god is his conflict with the god Brahma,
who was originally possessed of live heads, but lost one through exciting the anger of
S iva; fur the fifth head of Brahma, once disrespectfully addressing 8 iva, and even chal-

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 124 of 203)