Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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; ighis power. Siva immediately cut off the offending member with the nail of his
left thumb. A similar penalty he inflicted on D<.tk*lt; his father-in-law, who once per-
formed a irreat sacrifice, but neither invited his daughter Sati iui - her husband S'iva.
i? iva, nevertheless, appeared at the sacrifice: but when Sati, oilY:idcd at the reception
she met with, threw herself into the sacrificial flames. S'iva c;r. i> i' liie Lead of Daksha;
and Daksha would have remained headless had not the gods interfered in his favor with
S'iva, who, out of compassion, replaced his head by that of a ram. Besides these feats
he killed several demons Rur>.i, AMhaka, Trij>>.irn; and he also reduced to ashes
Kdnta (the god of love), who, at the instigation of the gods, undertook to excite the
desire of S'iva to procreate a son, but was indiscreet enough to choose for this purpose a
time when S'iva was engaged in fierce austerities (see KAMA). S'iva is especially wor-
shiped under the symbol of the Jinga; but there are periods at which homage is paid to
him also under other forms corresponding with the description given above. Hindu
mythology knows, properly speaking, no incarnations of S iva like those of Vishn'u; i:x
*ome writings, however, some of his forms, especially that called Bhairava, and that
called Vlrabuadra, are considered to be his sous or incarnations. S'iva, like Vishn'u
(q.v.), has 1000 names by which he is addressed; some derived from his exterior attri-
butes have been mentioned before; among the rest the principal are /<'/ or LitcKra (lord);
Mulux'd or Htiiir.*' ir.u'a (the great lord); S'anAa ra {the conf error of happiness); R -nlr< i (the
terrible), or Mnhdrndra (the very terrible); and M-uiti.<.h,-it, (the god). For his wor-
shipers, see S'AIVAS. I

SI'VAS, a city of Asiatic Turkey, capital of thepashalic of the same name, is situated *
on the Ki/.il Irmak (anc. Halys), 60 in. s.s.c. of Tokat. Sivas covers a large extent of
ground, is well built, has numerous old mosques, khans, gardens. ;uid excellent bazaars,
manufactures course woolens, and carries on a considerable transit trade. Pop. 23.000,
of whom about 5,000 are Armenians, the rest Turks. Sivas is built on the site of tlie
ancient Se'xiftciit, fro:n which it derives its name.


SIVATHE'RITJM (<i-<t, an Indian god; and Gr. therion, a wild beast), a remarkable
genus of extinct mammals, found in the miocene strata of the Sewalik hills, in northern
India. It had a large skull nearly as long as that of an elephant, supported on a neck
little short of that of a giraffe, but much stronger. The face was short, and the nasal
bones were prolonged into a pointed arch above the external nostrils, indicating the
existence of a trunk or proboscis, an organ unknown among the Ruminantia to which
it belonged. Like the existing 4-horned antelope of India it had two small diverging
horns, rising from the brow between the orbits, and two large, probably palmated horns,
further back. In general appearance it resembled a huge antelope. The remains of two
species have been described by Falconer and C'autley.

SIX ARTICLES, STATUTE OF, an enactment of the 33d year of Henry YITI., passed
June 7, Jo41. and commonly called the bloody statute. The object of this statute was
to compel, from all the subjects of the crown, the uniform profession of certain doc,
trines, six in number, which arc carefully recited in the net. These doctrines are (1),
the real presence of Christ in the eucharist. and transubstantiation : (2), the sufficiency
of communion in one kind only; (3), the unlawfulness of the marriage of priests; (4),
the obligation of vows of chastity: (.">). the propriety of retaining private masses; (6),
the expediency and necessity of auricular confession." The penalties of this act exceeded
in severity almost every precedent, at least in England, and they are special!}- severe
against impugners of the first article, all of whom, whether they dispute, write, or preach
against it, are to suffer death as heretics, with forfeiture of all their -roods to the crown,
and without being allowed to abjure the error. With regard to the remaining four
articles, the usual penalty of felony is attached to the Crime of publicly preaching against
them; private impugncrs are liable for tlie first offense to imprisonment at the kind's
pleasure, for the second, to death: and the same, or nearly the same penalties are enacted
against priests or nuns marrying or cohabiting, and against persons contemptuously
refusing to confess at the prescribed times, or to receive the sacraments. The act at

Six. K 4


first was enforced with great severity, but it was somewhat mitigated in 1544, and was
finally repealed in 1549.


SIXTTTS, the name of five popes, of whom two call for particular notice, Sixtus IV.
and Sixtus V. The former (originally named Francesco clella Rovere), b. July 22, 1414,
was a native of a small village near Suvona, and a member of a very humble family. He
was a scholar of the celebrated cardinal Bessariou, and became a member of the Fran-
'cisean order, in which capacity he obtained the highest reputation throughout Italy as a
preacher. On the death of Paul II. in 1471, Rovere was elected to the Roman see. The
domestic government of Sixtus has been strongly condemned. His inordinate partiality
to his relatives exhausted the papal treasury, and led to many questionable exactions,
and to gross abuses in tlie dispensation of church patronage. His excessive facility, too,
in dispensing favors, led to his not unfrequently conferring the same benefice on more
than one individual. But the worst imputation upon the memory of his pontificate
arises in connection with the political affairs of Florence, and especiallj" with the con-
spiracy against the Medici family, known in history as thePazzi conspiracy. In the last
act of this nefarious plot, the murder of Giuliano in the church at Florence, Sixtus's
nephew, Riasio, was present, and when, after its failure, the leaders, including the arch-
bishop of Pisa, were executed, Sixtus excommunicated the duke Lorenzo and all the
magistrates'of the city. Although this censure was passed professedly for the violation
of the immunities of the church in putting an ecclesiastic to death, yet it has drawn upon
Sixtus the suspicion of complicity, or at least of connivance after the fact; and has led
to much controversy among historians. The necessities of defense against the Turkish
invasion embarrassed still further the finances of the pope, and even the Catholic
historians deplore the lengths to which ecclesiastical exactions and the simoniacal
distribution of benefices were carried in the latter years of Sixtus. In many respects,
nevertheless, his administration was liberal and public spirited. He did much to
foster learning and to encourage art. Under him, the Vatican library continued to in-
crease, and he contributed notably to the improvement and decoration of the city. In,
1482 he entered into an alliance with the Venetians against the duke of Ferrara, which
led to a general Italian war, and ended in a dissolution of the Venetian alliance, so
mortifying to the pope, that his death is said to have been caused by chagrin and mor-
tification, Aug. 13, 1484. SIXTUS V., in many respects, one of the most remarkable" of
modern occupants of the Roman see, originally named Felice Peretti, was born (Dec. 8,
1031) near Moutalto, of parents so poor that his boyhood was spent in the humble
occupation of a swineherd. While thus engaged, the boy attracted the notice of a con-
ventual Franciscan father, who proeurrcd his admission into the order. He was
ordained priest in 1545, and became professor of theology at Siena. His reputation as
a preacher led to his being transferred to Rome, where he rose to its first dignities,
lie accompanied cardinal Buoncompagno as theologian in his legative mission to Spain
(1565); and on the accession of Pius V. to the pontificate, was named cardinal (1570).
On the accession of his former p itron. Buoncompagno, under the name of Gregory
XIIL, cardinal Montalto might have exercised the highest influence, but he lived a re-
tired and mortified life, and was believed to have fallen almost into the decrepitude of
age and infirmity. This appearance was afterward ascribed by his enemies to the design
of concealing his ambitious views; and there is a well-known but apocryphal story of
his having, when elected pope on the death of Gregory in 15S5 (April 2~4), flung aside
his crutch, and revealed himself to the astonished cardinals in the full vigor of his
physical strength and his moral character. His pontificate, however, was a most active
and energetic one, and was marked by vigorous measures of improvement in every
department of administration, ecclesiastical as well as civil. His first care was to
repress the prevailing license and disorder of the city of Rome, and of the papal states
generally, by effectually breaking up and exterminating the lawless bands of outlaws
by which both were infested. His administration, both in this matter and in the repres-
sion of immorality, was rigorous perhaps to the extreme of cruelty; but the evil was
one which seemed to call for extreme remedies. He reformed the administration of
the law, and the disposal of public patronage; and he entered upon numeious and most
comprehensive projects for the moral and material improvement of Rome. Many of his
great works are still recognizable at Rome under his name, and are popularly remem-
bered as his; among which are the library buildings of the Vatican. A distinguishing
characteristic of his administration, too, was its disinterestedness. He steadfastly re-
fused to use his position for the purpose of advancing any of hisrelatives, or to bestow
upon them property or money derived from the public; and by judicious retrenchment
he secured within the first years of his short pontificate a surplus of above 5,000,000 of
crowns. It is of course impossible to enter into the details of his foreign policy; it will
be enough to say that its great aim was. in the strongest senec of the words, to advance
the cause of the Roman Catholic church in every portion of Christendom, against the
Huguenots in France, airainst the Lutherans in Germany, and against queen Elizabeth
in England. At the same time, he entertained a deep jealousy and apprehension of the
designs of Spain ; and he resisted persistently the excessively rigorous measures of the

Fill Six.


Spanish inquisition as organized under Philip II. His church administration was
equally vigorous and energetic. He fixed the number of the sacred college of cardi-
nals at 70; and it was under him that the present organization of separate congrega-
tions of cardinals for the several departments received some of its most import aut
developments. He published a new edition of the Septuagiut, and an edition of the
Vulgate, which has become famous from the multiplicity of its errors, subsequently
corrected in the edition of Clement VIII. Many of the popular stories regarding him
are derived from Gregorio Lete's Vita di Sisto V. (2 vols., Lausanne, 1669), a" work of i >
authority. See also Tempesti, Storia della Vita e Gesti de Sisto V. (2 vols., liome, 1754;.
Loreutz, Stilus V. undseineZeit (Mainz, 1852); Ranke, Fursteund Yolkerixm, 8ud-Eurou;
and Von Hiibner, Su-tus V. (1874).

SIZAB (from size, in university slang, an allowance of victuals from the buttery
or the smallest quantity of anything which can be bought, a word derived from assize,
formerly the same as assess, to apportion), a name given to an order of students at Cam-
bridge and Dublin universities, who are admitted on easier terms than others. Duties
of a somewhat menial kind were originally required to be performed by the sizars, but
these have long since gone into disuse. Sizars are not on the foundation, and therefore
so long as they remain such, are not eligible for fellowships; but they may at any time
become pensioners, and generally sit for scholarships immediately before taking their
first degree. If successful, they are on the foundation, and may become candidates for
fellowships when they have taken their degree. At Oxford, there is a similar order of
students, denominated servitors.


SKA GEN, CAPE, or THE SKAW, the most northerly point of Jutland, Denmark. On
it is built a light-house of stone, 67 ft. high, the lat. of which is 57 43' 8" n., long. 10
36' 5" e., and near it is a small town of 1400 inhabitants.

SKAGER-RACK ("Crooked Strait of Skagen;" rack is probably from the same root as
A.-S. raca. Ger. raclien, thus being equivalent to the Celtic kyle [in kyJes of Bute], Lat.
gula, English gully is the race of Alderney allied to rack?), an arm of the North sea
(q.v.), lying between Denmark and Norway, and communicating vith the Kattegat, is
about 150 in. long from w.s.w. to e.n.e., and 80 m. broad. The depth is much greater
on the Norwegian than on the Danish coast, being on the former about 200 fathoms, while
on the latter it varies from 30 to 40 fathoms, increasing toward the center to about <>0.
When free from violent storms to which, however, it is very subject the current runs
e. on the side next Denmark, and w. on that next Norway, the harbors being all on the
latter coast.

SKALD (allied to sJcill; the radical sense is to separate, and hence to discern) signifies,
in old Norse, a poet. The name was given specially to that class of poets who exercised
their art (ssMRdskapr) as a vocation requiring a learned education; that is, a knowledge
of the construction of verse, and of the enigmatical imagery, roughly shaped out of
obscure tradition, to which Scandanavian poets were prone. The great, if not the only
aim of the Skaldic poetry was to celebrate the deeds of living warriors or of their ancestors.
For this reason princes attached skalds to their courts, and competed with each other,
by magnificent presents, for the possession of the most skillful minstrels. Very few-
complete Skaldic poems are extant; but, on the other hand, the multitude of fragments
preserved, partly in the younger Edda (q.v.), partly in the Sagas (q.v.), and the Ileiia-
skringla (q.v.), is very great. A manuscript of the younger Edda, belonging to the
universitv of Upsala' (which has been printed in the Historia Literaria manflica of
Einarsen), contains a list of the most celebrated Icelandic and Norwegian skalds of the
18th c., under the name of Skdlldatal. The songs relating to the religious and heroic
traditions of the north, which are found in the Edda, go back to an earlier time in which
the class or school of "skalds," properly so called, did not yet exist. The authorship
of these primitive'Eddaic songs is unknown; but they are the sources from which the
"skalds " of later times drew much of their inspiration.

SKA'LITZ, or SZAKOLCZA, a t. in the n.w. of Hungary, near the borders of Moravia,
47 m. n. of Presburg, on the left bank of the March, with a pop. (1869) of 5,278. It
is nearly in the form of a square, is surrounded by -frails, has several Protestant and
Roman Catholic churches, a Franciscan monastery, town-hall, etc., besides large manu-
factures of cloth. Good wine is produced in the vicinity, and hemp is largely grown.

SKAMA'NIA. a co. in s.w. Washington territory, having the Columbia river for its s.
boundary separating it from Oregon; 2.650 sq.m.; pop. '807809 597 of^Amenean birth,
96 colored. It is drained by the Cathlapootle, Klikitat. and White Salmon rivers. The
surface is mountainous, The hills are densely covered with forest?, and the valleys fur-
nish good pasturage, having a fertile soil. It contains mount St. Helens in the n.w. por-
tion; height 9,750 ft.; ami the Cascade range crosses it from n. to south. Co. seat,

Skate. 540


SKATE, the popular name of several species of ray (q.v.) THE COMMON SKATE (rma
batix), known in Scotland as the blue skate or gray skate, and in the south of England as
the tinker, is plentiful on most parts of the British coasts; the breadth of the body is to its
length iu the proportion of about four to three; the snout sharp; a slight concavity in the
outline between the snout and the extreme lateral angle of the pectoral tin; a short hard
tubercle in front of each ej'e, and another on the inner side of each; a single row of
spines commencing on the dorsal ridge near the origin of the ventral tins, and reaching

been kn_ ..___.._

remarkable for the elongation and sharpness of the snout. The upper surface is of a
liirht lead color, the lower grayish white. The tail has a row of crooked spines. This
species is not uncommon on "the British coastn, and attains a large size. The SHAKP-
NOSED SKATE (R. oxyrhynchm) has also a very sharp snout, but less elongated. It is
thicker in proportion to its other dimensions than any of the other British species, and
attains a very great weight. The line of the body from the snout to the extreme
lateral expansion is waved The tail is armed with three rows of spines. The upper
surface is of a brown color; the color being lighter than in the other species, this is
generally known in Scotland as the white skate. The FLAPPER SKATE (ti. inter medi<i)
is very thin and broad; it has only a line of pointed tubercles on the tail; the upper sur-
face is dark olive green, with numerous white spots. Skates are very voracious. They
are often caught by lines, but the greater number of those brought to market are
caught by trawl-nets. They are much esteemed for food in most countries, yet on
some parts of the British coast they were until recently rejected as worthless.

SKATES SKATING. Skates are small keels or blades of iron or steel which are
placed under the soles of the feet for the purpose of enabling the wearer to glide
along the surface of ice. They are usually fitted to pieces of wood carved into somewhat
of a boat-like form, to which straps of leather are adjusted, to enable the skater to attach
them firmly to his feet. Of late, in some improved skates, the wood has giren way to
metallic fittings, which are neater, and perhaps preferable; they are, however, liable to
rust, and consequently to get out of order. In Britain skating is a favorite pastime in
winter; and in England, and Scotland especially, is carried to a degree of excellence
not known in other countries; the skaters study the most graceful curves, and the nicest
possible balancing of the body, when going at great speed. In such countries as Hol-
land and the more northern parts of Europe skating is used merely as a necessary means
of locomotion among the laboring classes. The name of roller-skate has been adopted
for a frame for the foot, fitted on small wheels or rollers. On a specially prepared sur-
face, such as an asphalted floor, these roller-skates permit a smooth, gliding motion,
somewhat analogous to that of skating. Places for this amusement (called r inking) have-
of late years sprung up all over the country, and are known as skating-rinks.

SKEA.T, WALTER WILLIAM, b. London, 1835; educated at King's college and Cam-
bridge, graduating in 1858 with high honors; took orders but became lecturer in Christ's
college, where he is now professor of Anglo-Saxon. He has devoted much study to
Saxon and early English literature, and has edited many texts for the early English text
society, for the Oxford press, and completed Kemble's Anglo-Saxon Gospels for the
Cambridge syndics. He was one of the founders and a director of the English dialect

SKELETON (Gr. skeletos, dry) is the term applied in anatomy to designate the hard parts
or frame-work of animals. In the invertebrate animals the skeleton, except in the case
of certain corals, is tegumentary or dermal, forming the outer hard and protective cov-
ering, as in the echinodermnta, mol'.iisca, and cntstacen; and like the epidermis and its
appendages, is non-vascular, and can only be increased by additions to its edges. This
hard insensible covering serves to protect the animal from hurtful external influences,
and to afford fixed points of attachment to the muscles which move the body and limbs;
the muscles, however, always lying interior to the skeleton, and not clothing it as we
see in the vertebrata. We scarcely ever observe amongst the invertebrata that the
skeleton bears any definite relation to the nervous system, which is merely protected by
it to the same extent as the other soft tissues. Moreover, in none of these animals are
the hard parts composed of true bone.

In the vertebrate animals, although we find occasional cases of bone being deposited
in various parts of the body, its most constant position is around the central masses of
the nervous and vascular systems, with rays extending thence into the middle of the
chief muscular masses, forming the bases of the limbs. "Portions of bone are also
developed, to protect and otherwise subserve the organs of the senses, and in some
species are found incasing mucus-ducts, and buried in the substance of certain viscera
as, e.g , the heart in ttie bullock and some other large quadrupeds. Strong mem-
branes, called 'aponeurotic,' and certain leaders or tendons, become bony in some
animals as, e.g., the 'tentorium' in the cat, the temporal fascia in the turtle, the
kaders in the leg-muscles iu the turkey, the nuchal ligament in the mole, and certain

KAO Shato.


tendons in the abdominal mupclos of the kangaroo, which, so ossified, are called the mar-
supial bones." Owen' e ^truci'ire of the Skdetvn, p. 163. In some animals (e.g., th
sturgeon, the crocodile, 'he armadillo), bony matter accumulates upon or near to the sur-
face of the body, rendering the -skin in sumo ea.-es absolutely ball-proof.

In order to give a clear conception of the osseous system, prof. Owen classifies its
various parts according to their prevalent position. The superficial or skin bones con-
stitute the " denno-skeleton '' (Gr. derma skin); the deep-seated bones, in relation to the
nervous axis and locomotion, form the. " neuro-skcleton" (Gr. neuron, nerve): the bones
connected with the sense-organs and viscera form the " splanchno skeleton" (Gr. fj/iit/ti:'i-
iion, a viscus or inward part); while those developed in tendons, ligaments, and aponeu-
roses arc termed the " selero-skeleton" (Gr. sklero*. hard). In the arrangement of the
various parts of the di-rmo, splanclmo, and sclero skeletons no definite plan or law can
be detected. The definite end or purpose gained by the position of the bony plates,
cases, or rods, belonging to these skeletons is usually easily seen to be connected with
the habits and well-being of the animals in which they occur, but the parts cannot be
referred to one general type, as in the ease of the neuro-skeleton. We will follow prof.
Owen in taking the sturgeon and armadillo as examples of a dermo-skeleton. and shall
condense the remarks which he makes on their outer covering. The head of the sturgeon
is defended by a case of superficial bony plates, and the body by five longitudinal rows of
similar plates, one extending along the mid-line of the back, one along each side of tiie
body, and two along the belly, between the ventral and pectoral firis. These fishes
habitually swim low and grovel along the bottom, turning up the mud and sand with
their pig-like snout, and feeding on the decomposing organic substances carried down
by strong and rapid currents. The heavy dermal osseous plates, regularly arranged iu
orderly rows along the middle and sides of the body, act as well-arranged ballast. The
protection which their plate-armor affords them against the logs and .stones hurried along
their feeding-grounds, renders needless the ossification of the immediate case of the
brain and spinal marrow, and consequently all the parts of the neuro-skeleton remain in
the flexible, elastic, gristly state common to all the so-called cartilaginous fishes; the
weight of the dermo-skeleton requiring that the neuro-skeleton shall be as light as pos-
sible, consistently with the defensive and sustaining functions which it is called to per-
form. The coat of mail in which the ganoid fishes of an early period were clothed wa3
probably subservient to the Fame ends as the dermal plates of the sturgeon ; and in most
of these fishes, as in the sturgeon, the dermal bones are coated externally with a very
hard material resembling enamel. In these extinct fishes, the plates are more close-set

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 125 of 203)