Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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lias not sufficient depth of water for large vessels; the foreign commerce, formerly large,
has been transferred to Boston and New York; but the coasting trade is extensive, large
quantities of coal b"ing landed here, and sent by rail to the interior. The fisheries, which
ceased when the East India trade was prosperous, have again become important. Ice
is shipped in large quantity. The city has an alms-house, a hospital, an orphan asylum,
20 churches, a high school, a state normal school for girls, a city hall, a court house, a
dispensary, a reformatory, a custom-house, 7 national banks, 2 savings banks, and 5
insurance companies. Manufacturing is a prominent interest. The streets are lighted
with gas, and the city is supplied with water by aqueduct from Wenham lake, 4 in. dis-
tant. " In the e. part of the city is a fine park of 8| acres, called Washington square. Har-
mony GIT.YC cemetery, containing 65 acres, is in the w. part. The city is connected by
the Salem and Lowell railroad with Lowell, by the Eastern railroad with Boston, and by
branch railroads with Marblehead, Lawrence, and Wakefield. Horse-cars run through
the principal streets and to the adjacent towns. In 1774, Oct. 7, in this city, the house
of representatives of the province of Massachusetts, with John Hancock in the chair,
declared itself an independent political power. At the North Bridge, Feb. 14, 1775,
col. Leslie, the British commander, was foiled in his search for cannon and compelled to
return to Boston. More than 150 privateers sailed from this port in the revolutionary
war. capturing 445 British vessels. Salem introduced and long carried on the East
India trade: its merchants were among the most thriving and enterprising of any in
America in the last century.

SALEM, a city in e. New Jersey, the co. sent of Salem co. ; on a branch of the West
Jersey railroad: pop. '80, 5,057. It is pleasantly situated on Salem creek, 14m. s.e. of
Wilmington. Del. It has many beautiful residences, a court-house, 11 churches, a col-

Salem. K (*


logiate institute, a conservatory of music, a national bank, and two newspaper?.
Canning fruit is one of its leading industries, and it is the shipping point tor the prod-
uce of a fruit and grain growing country. Among its manufactures are glassware,
iron, flour, hollow ware, aud oil-cloth, and it has fruit-canning establishments and ship-
yards. ,

SALEM, a village in n.e. Ohio, on the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago railroad;
pop. '70, 3,700. It is in Perry township, Columbiana co. , 20 m. s.w. of Youngslown ; the
renter of a fertile agricultural district. It contains 5 churches, 2 Friends' meeiing-
liouses, waterworks, gas-works, 2 national banks with an aggregate capital of $325,000,
.2 private banks, and 2 newspaper offices. Its leading industries are the manufacture of
Hour, galvanized iron-cornices, engines, furniture, stoves, etc.

, SALEM, the capital of Oregon and seat of justice of Marion co., on the e. bank of
the Willamette river and 0:1 the Oregon and California railroad, 28 in. n. of Albany
and 50 m. s. of Portland; pop. '80, 5,000. It has connections about 8 months of the
year with Portland' by steamers, which ascend the river to this point. The streets are
straight and 99 ft. wide. The city is surrounded by a fertile prairie, and is furnished
with water-power by the falls of Mill creek. It contains the state capital, a new build-
,ing 264 ft. in length,"?-") ft. wide, with wings projecting 100 ft ; a state library of 7,000
volumes, the state prison, a brick court-house finished in 1874, a deaf and dumb asy-
lum 1 founded in 1873, and an institution for the blind, the Willamette uuiversily, orgau-
,izsd in 1851, an academy, churches, banking-houses, daily and weekly newspapers. It
has manufactories of woolen good-, farming implements,, leather, lumber, oil, sash and
doors, flour mills, foundry and machine shops. It was settled in 1834. incorporated as
a ci'y in 1833, and made the capital in 1860. It is the second town in population in the

1 SALEM, a t. in s.w. Virginia, on the Roanoke river and the Atlantic. Mississippi
and Ohio railroad; 143 m. s.w. of Richmond; pop. about 2,000. It is built at the head
of the valley of Virginia, between the Blue RUge and the Alleghany mountains, and is
cdebra.ed for the salubrity of its climate and charming scenery; sulphur and chalybeate
springs are an additional attraction for summer residents, invalids, aud tourists. It
contains several hotels, a national bank, 2 public schools for vvliite an^l colored pupils,

2 newspapers, a monthly magizine. 8 chucches, and a fine town lull. It is the seat of
Roanoke college, Lutheran, founded 1833. with ai library of 16,090 vols., a valuable
cabinet, aud chemical and philosophical apparatus. It is also the seat of tlie theological
seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran church, removed fro.n Lexingt>n, S. C, 1873.
The river furnishes water-power, which is utilized by tobacco factories and manufacto-
ries of chairs, carriages, etc.

SA'LEM, a t. in the s. of India, capital of the collectorate of tli3 s-rne name. The
colleetorale is the chief seat of the uteel mnnufnetun a branch of industry as
curious as it is ancient. The town stands in an elevated valley, 1070 ft above sea level,
bounded on the n. and s. with hills, 193 in. s w. of Ma Iras. It is well built, contains a
number of handsome two-storied houses, and is surrjunded by Ian 1 in a high state of
(Cultivation. Cotton is grown in the vicinity in quantity more than sufficient for the use
of the numerous cotton weavers, who, together with tlie s'd'.c weivers, form the great
mass of the non-agricultural inhabitants of the town. Pop. 50,000.

SALE MI, a t. of Sicily, in the province of Trapani, 39 m. s.w. from Palermo. Pop.
about 12.000.

SA'LEP, the tubers of many species of orchis and other orsliidcce, dried and used as an
article of food Of the two tubers usually found at the roots of these plants, only
one is gathered for salep, the younger and more solid of the two. The tubers arc
gathered when the stalk is about to fall. They vary from the size of a cherry-stone lo
that of an olive. They are cleaned, dipped for a few minutes in boiling-water, and dried
as quickly as possible, by which process they are rendered hard and horny. The greater
part of the salep of commerce is brought from the east, and much of it from Persia; it
is supposed to be obtained from species of eulophia; but most of the European species of
wchi* are used for it.

Before coffee became so common in Britain, salep was an article of considerable
importance, and large quantities were imported from Turkey, Persia, and India. In
France it is still in considerable request. For use it is ground into a tine powder, and
mixed with boiling water, sugar and milk being added according to laste. As a diet-
drink, it was considered very nutritious and wholesome, and forty years ago it was sold,
ready prepared, to the working-classes of London early in the moriiing from the mimer-
os street stalls. Its principal constituents are bassorine, starch, and phosphate of.lime.

SALERATUS (aerated salt), a name long ago applied to an imperfectly carbonated
bicarbonate of potash, made by exposing a neutral carbonate to the action of carbonic
acid g:is. The salt may be considered as a sesquicarbonate of potash. It has been dis-
placed for culinary purposes by bicarbonate of soda, a more preferable article, and more
easily assimilated by the system. See POTASSIUM and SODIUM, ante.

SALERNO (ancient frilernnm), a city of southern Italy, chief t. of the province of
Salerno, on the gulf of the same name, 32 m. e.s.e. of Naples, with a. pop., '72, of 20,010.

S7 Salem.

' Sales.

A Gothic wall, built of huge stones without mortar, encircles it; the streets are paved
with lava, and, with the exception of the two principal ones, are narrow, irregular, and
dirty. It ha.s a strong castle, and a very small harbor. The old and beautiful Gothic
cathedral was erected by the Normans, and has around it a portico of porphyry and
granite pillars brought from Psestum by Robert Guiscard. It has many famous sepul-
chers, among others, those of Robert and Guillaume Guiseard, of Margaret of Aujou,
and of Gregory VII. It was celebrated in the middle ages for its school of medicine
(the ScJwla Salernitana}, founded ly Robert Guiscard about the end of the lltli c., and
which was long the first medical school in Europe. The university lias fallen into decay.
In its neighborhood, which produces excellent wine, are the ruins of Psestum, which
was destroyed by the Saracens in the 9lh century. Of ancient Salernum, or Salurnum,
there still exist the temple of Neptune, that of Ceres, and the ruins of an amphitheater
and of a theater. Salerno was founded by the Greeks; it became important under the
Roman empire, then passed into the possession of the Goths, and of the Lombards.
Robert Guiscard made himself master of it in 1076. Charles V. united it to the kingdom
of Naples.

SALERNO, GULF OF (anc. Sinus Pastcrnns, on whose shores, in early times, the Greek
city of Pa-stum [q.v.J stood), is a nearly semicircular indentation on the western shores
of southern Italy, s.e. of the bay of Naples, from which it is separated by the promon-
tory ending in Point Campanella. The gulf is 36 m. wide at its entrance, and sweeps
inland for 24 miles. On its shores are the towns of Amalfi and Salerno.

SALES, FHAXCIS DE, a most distinguished saint of the Roman Catholic church, was
b. Aug. 21, 1567, at the family castle of Cales, near Annecy in Savoy. He was the heir
of the family honors, and his education was designed by his father to fit him for the
career of distinction to which his position seemed to entitle him. From the provincial
colleges of La Roche and Annecy, he was sent to Paris in 1578, where he entered the
then brilliant school of the Jesuits, and completed under their care the course of
rhetoric and philosophy. In 1584 he went to Padua, for the course of civil law, and
pursued his studies there with great distinction till 1591. At this time his .father, who
had obtained for him a place in the senate, proposed to him a very brilliant and advan-
tageous marriage, but he had already resolved to devote himself to the ministry, and
with much difficulty obtained his father's consent to enter into orders in the diocese of
Geneva. He soon became distinguished as a preachei, and the zeal with which he dis-
charged the ordinary duties of his ministry was no less remarkable. Very soon after his
ordination he was employed by his bishop in a mission for the conversion of the Calvin-
istic population of Chablais, which had been recently annexed to the duchy of Savoy,
and in which the duke was desirous of having the Catholic religion re-established. The
success of this mission was almost unprecedented. With a companion equally devoted,
he traveled on foot from town to town, and in a short time he succeeded in reclaiming
many to the church. One of the most remarkable incidents of his mission was a confer-
ence with the celebrated Calvinist leader, Theodore de Beza. Of this interview very
different accounts are given by the rival partisans; but all agreo in admiration of the
gentleness and enlightened liberality of Francis de Sales. At the termination of this
mission. Francis was, in 1596, appointed coadjutor to the bishop of Geneva, Mgr. Granier,
with the title of bishop of Nicopolis. It was with much difficulty that the pope, Inno-
cent IX., induced him to accept this dignity. Some time afterward, having occasion to
go to Paris, lie was invited to preach the lent in the chapel of the Louvre; and his lec-
tures, which were partly controversial, were reputed to have, had so much influence in
bringing about the conversion of several of the Huguenot nobles, that the king tried to
induce him to accept a French bishopric; but in vain. He returned to his diocese; and
soon afterward, on the death of Mgr. Granier, he succeeded to the bishopric of Geneva.
His administration of this charge, upon which he entered in Dec., 1602, was beyond all
praise. Being again invited to preach the lent at Dijon, in furtherance of the plans of
Louis XIV. for the conversion of the Huguenots, he was again pressed by that monarch
to accept a French bishopric. But he again declined this honor, as he also declined in
1607 the offer of the cardinalate from the p< pe Leo XI. It was about this time that he
published his well-known Introduction to a Decout Life, which has continued to the pres-
ent day one of the most popular manuals of piety and the ascetic life. Among his
measures for the renovation of the monastic spirit, a very important one was the estab-
lishment of a congregation of nuns of the order of the \ isitation, under the direction of
the now celebrated Mme. de Chantal, with whom he long maintained a correspond-
ence on every subject connected with the spiritual and religious life, which was pub-
lished in 1660, and which still remains a subject of almost undiminished interest for the
spiritualist. In 1608 his infirmities compelled him to solicit the assistance of a coadjutor
in the charge of his diocese. He continued, however, to labor to the last. His last ser-
mon was delivered at Lyons, on Christmas eve in 1622; on Christmas-day he was seized
with paralysis, and on the 28th of the same month he expired. He was buried in the
church of the Visitation in that city, but his remains were afterward translated to
Anneey. More than 40 years after his death, in 1665, he was solemnly canonized as a
saint by Alexander VII. His festival is held on Jan. 29, the day of the translation of
his relics to Aunecy. His works were published in a collected form in 2 vols. folio at

Saleyer. c Q


Paris in 1641; but the separate works (especially the Derout Life, which has bern trans-
lated into almost every European language), have passed through innurherable editions,
and still retain their popularity.

SALEYER ISLANDS, THE, lie in the Indian ocean, to the s. of Celebes. Upward of
thirty ot the group are small, hillv, dense! v wooded, and, with few exceptions, unin-
habited. Great Saleyer, in 5 3 446 26 s". lat., and 120 23' 120" 3?' e. long., is up-
ward of 40 rn. in length, and 7 in breadth, the area being 386 s-q. miles. The moun-
tains on the e. toast rise abruptly out of the sea, and along the w. is a slip of level land
planted with cocoa-nut trees. Pop. 60.000. Great Saleyer and the smaller islands pro-
duce fine timber, including ebony ai.d teak. Indigo, coffee, and mustard are grown;
but millet, maize, earth-fruits, and cotton are the staple cultures, the grounds bung
carefully fenced. Agriculture is the chief employment, and fishing, making salt, etc.,
are alsocarried on. The exports arc cocoa-nuts, cocoa-nut oil, cotton, and co'ton fabrics.
Imports rice, gambir, tobacco, yarns, iron and copper wares. Since the Netherlands'
government made Macassar a free port, sea-going ships are not permitted to anchor at
Saleyer; and the trade is carried on by small vessels, which sail between that island, the
bight of Boni, Sumbawa, Bali, Borneo, Java, Macassar, and Singapore. The sea is
rich in various kinds of fish a long and thin species, the Saleyer, giving a name to the
it-land. Value of oil exported in 1874, 8,174.

The Saleyer islands are governed by fourteen rajahs, superintended by a Netherlands
agent. The natives are Mohammedans, each large village having a mosque and priest.
The high priest resides, near the political agent, has a sea f , MI the council, and is con-
sulted on religious questions. Some of the rajahs and notables have tables and chairs,
tea and dinner services, silver spoons and forks, matti esses, cushions, and even sutin

SALFOBD, a municipal and parliamentary borough, Lancashire, is considered as vir-
tually a portion of the city of Manchester (q.v.).

SALIANS or SALIC FRANKS, n tribe of Germans who originally inhabited the
country between the Meuse and the Rhine, but in the 5th c. invading and conquering
Gaul under Clovis, they founded the French monarchy. They are called Salians, per-
haps from the river Saale in Saxony, on the banks of which they lived before they (.mi-
grated to Gaul. Their code of laws was called Salic law (q.v.). *

SAL ICINE (C 26 ITi 8 Oi4), is a member of the group of organic compounds to which the
term ylyroxules lias been recently applied by chemists a group which is specially char-
acterized by the fact, that each of its members, \\hen exposed to certain chemical
agencies, breaks up (usually after the absorption of water) into glycose (or grape-sugar)
aiid other compounds. It occurs in the bark of the various species of willow and
poplar, in the blossoms of several species of apircca, and probably in the animal secretion
known as wniorevm. It ma} 7 be obtained in small, colorless, glistening prisms of an
intensely bitter taste, which are readily soluble in hot water and in alcohol, and mod-
erately soluble in cold water, and are insoluble in ether and oil of turpentine; and its
solutions exert a left-handed rotatory action upon a ray of polarized light. When heated,
to 248, salicine fuses; and at a higher ten peiature, it is entirely deccmposed. It dis-
solves in stronir sulphuric acid, the solution being of a purple or blood c.lor. Salicine
is manufactured to a considerable extent as a cheap substitute for quinia. There are
various modes of extracting it from the macerated bark; and 1 pound of the bark of
salix pentandra yields, acccording to Erdmann, 5 drams of salicine. If it is not so cer-
tain in its action as a febrifuge as quinia, there can be no doubt that it \s an excellent
tonic; and it possesses this advantage over the latter substance, that it is less liable to
irritate the stomach. Dr. Neligan, in his excellent work on Medicine?, states that he has
used it very extensively as ;v tonic in the debility following acute diseases, particularly
in cases accompanied by irritability of the digestive organs, and considers i;s powers to
be fully equal to those of sulphate of quinia. As a tonic, two grains may be given
three or four times a day; as a febrifuge, from one to two scruples in divided doses,
durinsr the intermission. It may be prescribed as a powder mixed with sugar, or dis-
solved in water, with the addition of some agreeable syrup.

SAL 1C LA'V. The code known as the alic law is a collection of the popular laws
,of the Salic or Salian Franks (see FRANKS) committed to writing in barbarous Latin in
the 5th e. , while the people were yet heathens. There exist several texts of this code,
r.nd considerable obscurity rests over its history. It relates principally to the compen-
sation and punishment of crimes, and there is a chapter containing provisions regarding
the succession tow-hat are called nlic lands, which seems to have been inserted at a
later d-ite. It is difficult to determine precisely what these lands were. The terra silica
was probably so called from its being more especially attached to the sal or hall of the
lord or proprietor (s^me derive nalic as applied ;o the people from the same word); it
thus came to dei;rnate inherited land as opposed to property acquired otherwise. Al-
though the Prankish law did not in general exclude! females, the succession to these
Salic lands;, whatever they were, was confined to males, probably from the importance
of securinc the military service of the chief pioprietors. It was but a doubtful analogy
that led the rule of succession to Salic lands to be extended to the succession to the French
crown, and it seems to have been only in the 14th c. that the exclusion of females from

K Q Saleyer. "

vO Salicylic.

the throne became an established principle. The accession of Philip the Long was
probably the first occasion on which it received public sanction, and the fact that
Edward III. rested his claim on female succession, doubtless led to that instance being
regarded as an unquestionable precedent for all future time. See Ilallam's Europe in
the Middle Agea (ch. ii. pt. 1, and notes); Guizot Emsaiti sur I'lliyluire de France, p 94.

SALICYL'IC ACID AND SALICYLATES. Salicylic, or ortho-oxybcnzoic acid,
occur-; in a free state in the flowers of meadow-sweet (xpirea vlmnria) and as a metliylic
ether in oil of wintergreen ((/au'theria procumbent), from which it may be obtained by
distillation \viih potash. See GAULTHEKIA and WINTERGKEEN, Oil of. The resulting
salicvlate of potassium is then decomposed by hydrochloric acid. It may also be
obtained from salicine. indigo, and some other organic matters by adding to them hydrate
of potassium heated to fusion. It is, however, more commonly prepared by heating
carbolate of sodium in a stream of carbonic acid gas. Carbolate of sodium in sdution
is introduced in to a retort and the carboni : acid passed through it by means of a glass tube
Avhili' heat is app'ied to the retort, gradually heating from 212" Fahr. to 428 Fahr. and
not higher than 464\ Carbonic acid enters into the molecule of carbolic acid (phenol),
producing salieylate of sodium and carbonate of sodium, while one-half of the carbolic
acid distils over. The following equation represents the reaction: 2 (NaCellsO) -)- CO
= Na-jCSHjOs -f- CelleO. The residue in the retort is then dissolve I in bailing water,
filtered, and decomposed by muriatic acid. On cooling, impure salicylic acid, having a
red. li-ih -brown color, is precipitated in the form of a crystalline powder. In the last
operation the reaction is as follows: NasCrHjOa -+- 2IIC1 = 2 NaCI -f- CMIeOa, which
latter body is salicylic acid. Chloride of sodium (common salt) remains in solution.
The impure acid is purified by dissolving it in boiling water or weak alcohol, treating
the solution with animal charcoal, adding a little hydrochloric acid, and crystallizing
the filtrate. Sq libb purifies by subliming with tiie aid of steam heat. By the above
process the acid is obtained in smill articular crystals; white, inodorous, and of an acrid,
acid-S'.vei'tish taste. It may bo obtained from the alcoholic solution by spontaneous
evaporation, in large, manoclinic p-i>m:, and if the aq leous boiling solution is slowly
and carefully cooled it may be crystallized hi long, slender needles of the same crystal-
line formation. It requires about 1800 parts of cold water to dissolve it, and the aque-
ous solution imparts a deep, beautiful violet color to ferric salts. It melts a : 311 to 813"
Fahr.. and if carefully heated sublimes unaltered. By increasing the heat carbolic
aci.l is given off. an 1 when still in >iv highly heated with powdered glass and quick-
lime it is decomposed into both carbolic an 1 carbonic acids (CO 2 and C 8 H O). It
decomposes carbon ites with effervescence, forming sdicylates with the bases. Sal icy-
late of .sodium is prepared in two ways: by neutralizing the acid with caustic soda
or by neutrali/hig with carbonate an 1 bicarbonate of sola, evaporating to dryuess
in eil'.ier case. By the first mothod the composition of the salt is JfujCiHiOt, but
by the second method. N.ilItMIiOa; a molecule of hydroge:i replacing one of the
sodium molecules. Sxiicylate of ammonium is prepiredin a similar manner by neu-
tralizing the acrid with ammonia or carbonate of ammonia and evaporating, the acid
salt crystallizing in needles. If the liquid is rendered alkaline by excess of ammo-
nia, the neutral salt, will be formed. These salts are readily soluble in water. Salicylic
acid and the salicylat.cs, particularly the two just described, have been recently used to
ft considerable extent in medicine. Piauts watered with salicylic acid die soon because
the acid prevents those organic changes necessary to assimilation. It will prevent the
germination of seeds, acting in this respect like carbolic acid, bv arresting the action of
diastase on the germ. This is the peculiar action of most organic antiseptics, raid is the
cause of its beneficial action as a medicine in I'ftxex where it in applicable. Physiological
action on animals: If a grain of salicvlate of sodium is introduced under Hie skin of a
frog the animal soon becomes languid and the heart paralyzed. When administered to
animals in sufficient doses it produces paralysis of the spinal nerves. Roehefontaine
concluded that the acid, 1, impairs the general reflex sensibility by its action on the brain
and spinal cord; 2. muscular contractility is suspended; 3, respiratory movements are
suspended: 4, the heart's action is arrested More recent observers say that the primary
action cf salicylate of sodium increases the cardiac force and that paralysis is a secondary

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 13 of 203)