Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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associated on a nearer footing of equality than the other gods, Perun and Radegast if,
indeed, these three names do not merely denote different personations or manifestations
of the same power. In this trinity Swiatowit is considered as most analogous to Mars
and Zeus, Perun to Jupiter and Thor, and Radegast to Mercury and Odin. Of the
numerous gods of an inferior order we may name Prowe, god of justice; Prija (=
Freya), Venus; Bjelbog, the white god, and Cernobog, the black god; together with
multitudes of demons and spirits, good and bad. The images of the Slavic divinities (a
stone statue o"f Swiatowit was ia recent times discovered in eastern Galicia) had a strik-
ing resemblance to those of India. , Swiatowit had four heads, Rugewit (the god of war)
had seven faces, and Peruu four, and so on. The Slaves seem to have been not without
some crude notion of existence and retribution after death. Worship was performed iu
groves and temples, cattle and fruits being offered by the priests, whose office must have
been originally performed by the head of the family or chieftain, as the common name
for priest and prince (kniez) shows. The eastern Slaves received Christianity from
Byzantium in the 9th c. through the instrumentality of Cyril (q.v.) and Methodeus; the
western, from Rome and Germany. See Schafarik, Slaw. Alterthumer (Ger. translation,
Leip. 1843).

SLA'VIC LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. The term Slavic, as applied to Innguaga
or race, is a generic name (like Celtic or Teutonic) for a group of kindred languages and
peoples belonging to the great Indo-Germauic or Aryan family. In its roots ana struc-
ture the Slavic language exhibits a remarkable similarity to Sanskrit, but has become
European, so to speak, in the course of a long literary development, begun before that of
any of the other European families. Its peculiarities are quite marked. The leading
characteristics of the Slavic tongues are the completeness of their system of declensions,
the want of articles, the absence of pronouns in the conjugation of the verb, pure vowel-
endings, the fixed quantity of the syllables, the free construction of sentences, and the
richness of their vocabulary. The earliest dialect of Slavic that received a literary cul-
ture was the "old Bulgarian," better known as the "church Slavic," which, however,
failed to become the literary vehicle for all the Slavic peoples, inasmuch as the special
dialect of each gradually acquired a literature of its own. Altogether, writers reckon
ight distinct extant dialects of Slavic 1. The " new Bulgarian*;" 2. The Russian; 3.
The Servian or Illyrian; 4. The Polish; 5. The Bohemian; 6. The Slovak; 7. The
Wendic; 8. The Polabic. Such of these as merit special treatment have received it.
See BOHEMIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, POLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE,
RUSSIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, SERVIAN LANGUAGE AND "LITERATURE. In
regard to Slavic literature, considering the articles just mentioned, it is only necessary to
state that at present the Russian branch of the Slavic is the richest in the number of its
published works; but, as regards literary merit, the Polish ranks first, having cultivated
with great success almost all sorts of 'literature, and possessing in particular a very
exquisite poetry. The Bohemian and Servian literatures both contain many fine and
distinctively original productions, worthy of being more widely known than tl?y are.
See Schafarik s History of the Slavic Langiiac/e and Literature (1816); and Miclosich's
Ven-gl. Crrammatik der Slaw. Sprachen (Vienna, 1852-71).

SLAVO'NIA, a province of Austria, lying e. of Croatia (q.v.), with which it is now
politically united. It is bounded on the n. by the Drave, on the e. by the Danube, on
the s. by the long strip of marsh-land known as the Slavonian military frontier, which
atretches between it and the Save. Area of the kingdom of Croatia (q.v.) and Slavonia,
8,840 sq.m. ; pop. '69, 1.168.024. The greater part of the surface of Slavonia consists
partly of eminences clothed with vines and fruit-trees, and partly of fertile and swampy
plains. The mountains are rich in coal, marble, and mineral springs. The principal
products are all sorts of grain, particularly maize and wheat, leguminous plants, and
fruit in abundance, apples, pears, plums, walnuts, chestnuts, melons, wine, etc. There
is little manufacturing industry in Slavonia. The inhabitants of Slavonia belong



Slarle.
Sleep.

to tlie Slavic family (see SLAVES), and call their land Slavonska; themselves Slavonaz.
They speak the so-called Illyrian or Serviad tongue. See SERVIAN LANGUAGE AND
LITERATURE. The Slavonians proper are a handsome, tall, and slender race. The pre-
vailing form of religion is the Roman Catholic, but the non-united Greek church
also numbers many adherents. Education is still in a backward state. Capital of the
country, Eszek ((J.V.).

SLEA FORD, a t. of Lincolnshire, England, on the right bank of the Slea, a branch
of the Withani, 17 m. s.s.e. from Lincoln, and 52 ft. above the level of the sea.
It is a well-built and well-paved town, and has a tine church, built iu the 13th century.
Pop. '71, 3,592.

SLEEP. This term is employed to designate that state of suspension of the sensory
and motor functions which appear to alternate in all animals with the active condition
of those functions, and which may be made to give place to it by the agency of appro-
priate impressions upon the sensory nerves. This definition, which we have borrowed
from Dr. Carpenter's article on "Sleep" inTodd's Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology,
may seem somewhat complex, but cannot be simplified without rendering it less stringent.
The necessity for sleep arises from the fact that the exercise of the animal functions is
in itself destructive of the tissues of the organs which minister to them, so that if the
waste produced by their action were not duly repaired, they would speedily become
unfit for further use; and it is on the nutritive regeneration of the tissues which takes
place during true healthy sleep that its refreshing power depends. While the sensory
and motor functions are suspended during the condition we designate as sleep, the
organic functions are uninterruptedly carried on, the respirator}-, cardiac, and peris-
taltic movements proceeding with equal uniformity during the sleeping and waking
states.

There can be no doubt that the state of sleep is one to which there is a periodical
tendency, and that this disposition is so arranged as to correspond in its recurrence with
the diurnal revolution of the earth. Although in man and most animals night is, from
its darkness and silence, the natural period for repose, yet there are numerous exceptions
to the rule. For example, amongst lepidopterous insects, butterflies are active during
the day, hawk-moths during the twilight, and moths during the night. Amongst birds,
the goat-sucker, or night-jar, and the owls, arc nocturnal, and, as a general rule, the same
is the case with carnivorous animals. The causes of sleep may be divided into the direct
nd the predisposing. The direct cause of sleep is that feeling of exhaustion or fatigue
which is usually experienced when the waking activity has continued during a consider-
able portion of the twenty-four hours a feeling that the brain requires repose; and, in
fact, unless the brain be in an abnormal condition, sleep will at last supervene, from the
absolute inability of that organ to sustain any further demands upon its energy. Among
the predisposing causes which favor the access of sleep, we must especially notice "the
absence of sensorial impressions; thus darkness and silence usually promote repose; and
the cessation of the sense of muscular effort which usually takes place when we assume
& position that is sustained without it, is no less conducive to slumber." Carpenter's
Human Physiology, 6th ed. 1864, p. 592. On the other hand, persons accustomed to live
where there is a continuous noise, as in the neighborhood of mills or forges, often can-
not sleep if the noise is suspended. These cases, however, probably fall within the next
general predisposing cause namely, the monotonous repetition of sensorial impressions.
Thus the droning voice of an unimpressive reader or preacher, the gentle ripple of the
ocean, the hum of bees, the rustling of foliage, and similar monotonous impressions on
the auditory nerves, are usually provocative of sleep. In these and similar cases the
influence of the impressions is exerted in withdrawing the mind from the consciousness
of its own operations, and in suspending the directing power of the will ; and this is the
case, sa) r s Dr. Carpenter, "even when the attention is, in the first instance, volun-
tarily directed to them, as in some of the plans which have been recommended for the
induction of sleep, when there exists no spontaneous disposition to it. In other methods
the attention is fixed upon some internal train of thought, which, when once set going,
may be carried on automatically, such as counting numbers, or repeating a Greek verb.
In either case, when the sensorial consciousness lias been once steadily fixed, the monot-
ony of the impression (whether received from the organ of sense or from the cerebrum)
tends to retain it there; so that the will abandons, as it were, all control over the opera-
tions of the mind, and allows it to yield itself up to the soporific influence. This last
method is peculiarly effectual when the restlessness is dependent upon some mental
agitation, provided that the will has power to withdraw the thoughts from the excit-
ing subject, and to reduce them to the tranquilizing state of a mere mechanical repeti-
tion fc

The access of sleep is sometimes quite sudden, the individual passing at once from
a state of complete mental activity to one of entire torpor. More generally, however,
it is gradual, the mind while remaining poised, as it were, between sleep and the oppo-
site condition being "pervaded by a strange confusion which almost amounts to wild
delirium; the ideas dissolve their connection with it one by one; and its own essence
becomes so vague and diluted that it melts away in the nothingness of slumber." Mac-
nigh Philosophy of Sleep, p. 21. The amount of sleep required by man is affected by so



Sllswick.

many conditions (among which, must be especially mentioned aye, temperament, habits,
and previous exhaustion), that no general rule can be laid down on the subject. The
condition of ike fetus may be regarded as one of continuous slumber: on its first entrance
into the world, the infant passes most of its time in sleep, and this is particularly the
case in children prematurely born, such children seeming only to awake for the purpose
of receiving food. During the whole period of growth, in which it is necessary that the
constructive operations of the body should preponderate over the dcstructice processes, an
excess of sleep is required; and by the time that adult age has been attained, and tho
obstructive and destructive processes balance eath other, the necessary amount of sleep
h::s gradually fallen to about one-third or less of the diurnal cycle. In very old age,
again, in consequence of the deficient energy of the nutritive process, a larger amount
of sleep is required. With regard to the influence of temperature, it is observed that a
plethoric habit of body usually predisposes to sleep, while thin wiry people of a nervous
temperament require comparatively little sleep. Persons of lymphatic temperament are
usually great sleepers, but this is probably due, as Dr. Carpenter suggests, to the fact,
that " through the dullness of their perceptions they are less easily kept awake by sen-
sorial or mental excitement" than persons of a happier temperament. The influence of
habit is by no means inconsiderable on the amount of sleep required by individuals, aud
this influence may be brought to act on the protraction as well as the abbreviation of the
usual period: as extreme examples, we may mention that gen. Elliott, celebrated for
his defense of Gibraltar, did not sleep more than four hours out of the twenty-four
(which is probably the smallest allowance for rest compatible with a life of vigorous
exertion); while Dr. Reid the metaphysician, could take as much food, and afterward
as much sleep, as were sufficient for two days. Moreover, the influence of habit in
producing an aptitude for repose, or a readiness to wake at particular periods, is
well known. The sleep of soldiers during a siege, of sailors or others who must take
their rest as they best can, will often come on at command; nothing more being nec-
essary to induce it than to assume a recumbent, or, at all events, an easy position.,
and to close the eyes. Thus, capt. Barclay, in his celebrated match, in which he
walked 1000 m. in "lOOO successive hours, very soon got into the habit of falling asleep
the moment he lay down.

The condition of the great nervous centers during sleep is a subject of much interest,
on which considerable light has recently been thrown by the observations of Mr. Durham.*
These observations were made on a dog from which a portion of bone about as large as
a shilling was removed from the parietal region of the skull, and the subjacent dura
mater cut away so as to expose the brain; and Mr. Durham draws the following conclu-
sions from them: 1. Pressure of distended veins upon the brain is not, as is generally
believed, the cause of sleep, for during sleep the veins are not distended. 2. During
eleep, the brain is in a comparatively bloodless condition; and the blood in the encephalic
vessels is not only diminished in quantity, but moves with diminished rapidity; and this
is corroborated by the observations of Dr. J. Hughlings Jackson on the ophthalmoscopic
condition of the retina during sleep, the optic disk being then whiter, the arteries smaller,
and the retina generally more anemic than in the waking state. 3. The condition of the
cerebral circulation during sleep is, from physical causes, that which is most favorable
to the nutrition of the brain-tissue.

This article would be imperfect -without a brief reference to the conditions in which
there is either an excess or a deficiency of sleep. There are numerous instances on
record in which sleep has been continuously prolonged for weeks, or even months. Dr.
Carpenter refers to two such cases, namely, those of Samuel Chilton (Phil. Trans. 1694)
and Mary Lyall (Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin. 1818). Blanche!, a French physician, hag
recently recorded three erases of what he terms "constitutional lethargic slumber" in the
Comptes Rendus, 1864. In one of these cases, the patient, a lady aged 24 years, who had
slept for 40 days when she was 18 years of age, and 50 days when she was 20, at length
had a sleep of nearly a year, viz. , from Easter Sunday, 1862, to March, 1863. During this
period, a false front tooth was removed in order to feed her with milk and soup, her
only focd. She was motionless and insensible. The pulse \vas low, the breathing
scarcely perceptible, there were no evacuations, and she showed no signs of leanness,
her complexion remaining florid and healthy. In such cases as these, it is not a pro-
longation of healthy natural sleep that is present, but a condition of hysteric coma.

Again, there are certain states of the nervous system in which there is either an entire
absence of sleep (and this may continue for mnny days, or even weeks) or incomplete
sk-cplessness. Complete sleeplessness is often a most important symptom of disease. It
frequently accompanies certain forms of continued fever, inflammatory affections of the
brain, the eruptive fevers, etc., and when it continues for mnny days and niuh:*,
delirium, followed by stupor, is very apt to supervene. When the wakcfnlr.ess is
unattended by anv disorder sufficient to account for it, some serious disease of the brain
is most probably impending, such as palsy, apoplexy, or insanity. Incomplete or partial
sleeplessness is a svmptom of far less grave import. It is of frequent occurrence in
persons whose minds are much engaged, or whose occupations subject them to great
mental exertion or to the vicissitudes of fortune. It is, moreover, a symptom of many

* The Physiology of Sleep, in Guy's Hosp. Reports, Third Series, vol. vi. pp. 149-171.



t/>Q Sleep.

Sleswick.

chronic diseases, ns gout, chronic rheumatism, skin-diseases, disorders of the urinary
organs, dyspepsia, hyst erica, etc. It may also be excited by certain beverages and
articles of diet; thus green tea and strong ciffee often occasion wakel'ulness, and a full
meal of animal food late in the day often disturbs the sleep of persons accustomed to
dine at an earlier hour.

In the trear.nent of sleeplessness, or inxomnin, as it is usually termed by medical
writers, the iirst indication is to remove the cause, which occasions it, and "more par-
ticularly to correct a close or contaminated air; to reduce the temperature of the apart-
ment when it is high, and the quantity and warmth of the bedclothes: to remove all the*
excitants to t be senses; to abstract the mind from all exciting, harassing, or engaging
thoughts; and to remove or counteract the morbid conditions or which this is a symptom
or prominent consequence." Copland's Dictionary of Mi-dieine, art. "Sleep and Sleep-
lessness." A careful regulation of the secretions, by the due use of purgatives and
alteratives, will often remove this symptom; and rec turse should not be had to anodynes
and narcotics until morbid secretions and fecal accumulations have been completely got
rid of. But these medicines are of great service when the system is thus prepared for
their reception. The choice of the individual drug or combination of drugs must be
dependent upon the peculiarities of the case, but, s a general rule, there is no more
serviceable narcotic mixture for an adult than 25 or 30 minims of the solution of hydro-
chlorate of morphia (of the British Pharmacopoeia), and 10 minima of chloric ether,
taken in half a wine-glassful of water: medicines of this class should, however, never be
resorted to without the advice of a physician.

SLEEP OF PLANTS, one of the phenomena of irritability (q.v.) in plants. Light acts on
plants as a powerful stimulus, essential to their active and healthful vegetation. When,
it is withdrawn the flowers of many plants close, and the greater number show a ten-
dency to it, while leaves more or less decidedly incline to fold themselves up. The
leaf-stalk also generally hangs down more or less, although iu sonu plants it is more
erect during sleep. The sleep of plants, however, is not always nocturnal. The
flowers of some open and close at particular hours of the day. Thus the crocus is a
morning flower, and closes soon after midday; while some flowers expand only in the
evening or during the night, Their hours of vegetative rest are probably as essential to the
health of plants as those of sleep are to animals. It was Linnams who first observed the
Bleep of plants, in watching the progress of some plants of iotas, the seeds of which he
had sown. '

SLEEPEKS, timbers laid ashep or resting along their whole length. They are chieJlv,
used along the top of dwarf-walls for the support of the timbers of the ground floor of
douses. The timbers supporting railway rails, and laid at right angles to them acrosa
the railway, are also called sleepers.

SLEIDAX, or SLEIDANUS, JOIIANX. original name Philipsohn, 1506-56; b. Sleida.
near Cologne; studied law at Liege, Paris, and Orleans, but gave himself to classical
literature. He became a Lutheran, resided in Strasburj;, was made by the council of
the town professor of law, and by the Protestant princes of the Smialkaldic league their
historian, and sent in 1545 on au embassy to France and England. Ills chief work is
Dti Stdtu Rdigwnis et Reipubliccs Carolo Qainto C&zare, Commentarii.

8LEMMER, ADAM J., 1828-68; b. Perm.; graduated at West Point in 1850; in the
army was promoted for gallantry in the Seminole war; assistant professor of ethics and
mathematics at West Point, 1855-59. At the outbreak of the rebellion he was in com-
mand of a small garrison at Fort McRea; took possession of fort Pic-kens. Jan. 10, 1861,
which he held until relieved by col. Brown; brig.gen. of volunteers, l^ii-3; fought at the
siege of Corinth: severely wounded at the battle of Stone river, 1862, and disabled
from further service; brevetted brig.geu. for gallantry, 1865.

SLES'WICK, a duchy known till the 14th c as South Jutland, formed part of the
Danish dominions till 1864, when it fell into the hands of the Austrian and Prussian
sovereigns. Iu terms of the treaty of 1867 it was incorporated vith Prussia. The pop.
in 1864 was 403,486. "Within its old recognized limits it was bounded on the n. by
Jutland, on the e. by the Little Belt and the Baltic, on the w. by the German ocean, and
on the s. by Holbein, from which it was divided by the Eyder and the Kiel canal. The
area was 3,493 sq. miles. The country consists in its eastern and central parts of a gently
undulating plain, deeply indented with fiords and streams; and on its western boundary
f flat marshy tracts of ground, which require to be protected from the encroachments
of the sea by numerous dams.

The numerous islands which skirt the w. coast of Sleswick have probably, at some
not very remote period, formed part of the mainland, for navigation is so seriously
impeded bv th<! sand-b -inks- that this coast is now accessible for ships by only three pas-
sag s. The clus, r >:\ small islands known us the Halligers, which lie, unprotected by
dams, in the midst of those submerged sand tracts, are so constantly "xp'tsod to the
action of waves and storms, that the inhabitants are compelled to rai>e their houses on
piles. On the eastern coast of Sleswick lie the islands of Alsen, Aroe. and Femora,
where the principal bays and inlets are the Haderslev and Aabenrade fiords, opening
into the Little Belt; the Flensborg fiord, the Slie, the Eckerufordo fiord, and tig



Bleawicfc.



570



Kieler fiord, which formed the ancient boundary between Sleswick and Holstein on
the s.e., while the Eyder completed it on the s.w. The principal brandies of industry
are agriculture, the rearing of cattle, tishing, and ship-building. The Slie is the chief
seat of tlie herring and salmon fisheries, which, although still of some importance, are
very inferior to those of the middle ages, when, according to the Danish historian, Saxo
Grammaticus, herrings were so plentiful iu the Belts and Cattegat, that they could be
caught with the bare hands. The chief towns of Sleswick are Flensborg (q. v.), Sleswick,
now capital of a Prussian province, a very ancient city, and formerly the key of Den-
i lark (pop. in '75, 14,571); Haderslev, Husum, and Tender. In the s., and partly ia
Holstein, Rendsborg (pop. 11,406). Sleswick has 800 Schools. With regard to the
language spoken by the mixed population of the duchy, it may be asserted that rather
more than the half speak Danish; and of the remainder, about 30,000 persons who
belong to the islands on the western coast, which once formed part of the old province
of North Friesland, still use the Frisic language, the rest of the inhabitants using either
low or high German. The original Danish element of Sleswick has remained purest in
the northern half of the duchy; while in the southern parts, where the inhabitants are
naturally brought much in contact with Holstein, they have of late years adopted the
views, tastes, and language of their German neighbors. The Lutheran is the established
religion of Sleswick.

In accordance with the conditions stipulated in the treaty of Vienna, Aug., 1864, by
which the duchies of Holstein and Sleswick were ceded to Austria and Prussia, the
island of Aroe and other districts of Sleswick, measuring about 115 sq.m., were to be
reunited to Denmark; while the latter power was to give in exchange a territory of
about 130 sq.m., which, although situated within the boundary of Sleswick, had hitherto
been under the jurisdiction of Jutland.

Sleswick, which forms part of the ancient Cimbrian peninsula, has from the earliest
period been a debatable land between Danes and Germans; and according to the authori-
ties of the latter, it was anciently included in the marches of the empire, having been
incorporated by Henry the fowler in 930, and reorganized by Otho I., when in 948 the
latter erected bishops' sees in Aarhuus, Ribe, and Sleswick. In 1027 the Danish king
Knud (our Canute) obtained from Conrad II. the recognition of the independence of



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 131 of 203)