Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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Sleswick, which was declared to belong unconditionally to Denmark, and thenceforth
given as a Danish fief of the crown to the younger sons of the regal house. In 1232,
king Valdemar Seir, whose father, prince Knud Laward, had ruled ably over the duchy,

fave Sleswick which was then, and for some time later, known as South Jutland to
is younger son Abel. The exact terms of the donation became a subject of dispute,
during the successive reigns of Valdemar's sons, Eric, Abel, and Christopher, and began
the long course of civil wars and family feuds which are associated with this much-
contested territory. Abel, and his sons after him, backed by their kinsmen, the counts
of Holstein, maintained that Valdemar had given the duchy as an hereditary, inalien-
able, and indivisible fief; while, on the part of the Danish crown, it was contested that
South Jutland was merely a precarious fief, which might be recalled at the pleasure of
the sovereign. Its vicinity to Holstein tended to keep up the feuds, to which the vexed
question of its mode of tenure had given occasion, and which, in fact, only ceased when
the resources of the conflicting parties were exhausted, although the bitterness and ill-
will with which they were fed seemed to know no intermission. The following brief
summary gives the skeleton of the leading events of the history of Sleswick from the
dawn of its troubles till the final outbreak in 1848, when, by the influence of the neigh-
boring Holstein nobles, the Germanized great lauded proprietors of Sleswick entered
upon the course of armed opposition to the mother-country, which has culminated at.
the present moment in the forcible separation from the Danish crown of the duchy of
Sleswick, and its imminent incorporation in the Prussian monarchy. In 1386, queen
Margaret (q.v.) gave Sleswick in fief to Gerhard, duke of Holstein; and on the extinc-
tion of his male heirs in 1459. it virtually lapsed to the crown, with which it was united in
1460 under the rule of Christian I. (the founder of the Oldenburg line), by a mode dis-
astrous to the integrity of the Danish monarchy. See DENMARK. After frequent
division among the younger members of the royal house, which gave rise to a great num-
ber of collateral lines of the Oldenburg family (of which the Glueksburg-Sonderborg and
the Augustenburg are, with the exception of the imperial house of Russia and the ducal
house of Oldenburg, the chief representatives), the ducal portions of Sleswick wera
inalienably incorporated with the crown of Denmark under king Frederick IV. in 1721.
This act. which had the guaranty of the great powers, had resulted directly from the
treasonable attitude maintained in the previous wars with Sweden by the Holstein-Got-
torp princes of Sleswick, and was ratified by Russia and Sweden, no less than by Eng-
land and France. The different orders of the duchy took the oaths of allegiance for
themselves and their heirs, the Sleswick arms were quartered with those of Denmark
proper, and the duchy was included with the latter in one common mode of administra-
tion. InJ848. the revolutionary movement of continental Europe fanned the flame of
discontenr^n the duchies into a blaze, and the upper classes of Sleswick, who had in the
course of time become strongly imbued with the German tendencies of the Holstein
nobles, with whom they fraternized, joined the latter m open armed rebellion under the



571



Sleswick.



thief leadership of the princes of Augustenburg. The Germanized Sleswick nobles,
influenced by the principles of hatred to Denmark, which had long been gathering
strength in the university of Kiel, refused to admit the difference between their relations
to the crown and those of the Holsteiuers, with whom they demanded to be indissolubly
associated in separate legislative and executive chambers. The king refused to separate
Sleswick from the monarchy; the irritation increased on both sides; the royal troops
appeared in the duchies to restore order; the Sleswick-Holstein army, whose ranks were
principally filled by German volunteers, took the field, aided by the confederate forces
sent by the diet to co-operate with the Holsteiuers. The troubles by which the German,
etates were threatened at home led, after a few indecisive engagements had been fought,
to the withdrawal of the confederate armies, and Prussia having made a special treaty of
peace (after a preliminary truce with Denmark), the duchies were left to themselves,
and the royal authority re-established, on the understanding that the king should submit
a new form of constitution for Holstein and Sleswick to the diet, on account of the
former being a member of the confederation; Sleswick being in the meanwhile put
under a provisional government of Danish, Prussian, and English commissioners. By
the peace with Prussja, it was solemnly guaranteed that all old treaties, including that
of 1721, should be maintained in regard to Denmark; and in 1851, Austria threw an
army into the duchies to aid Denmark in supporting her authority, and in dissolving the
joint Sleswick and Holsteiu assembly. On the death of Frederick VII. in 1863, prince
Christian of Glucksburg (see DENMARK), having ascended the throne as Christian IX.,
king of Denmark, prince Frederick of Augustenburg called upon the Sleswick-Holstein
authorities to refuse the oath of allegiance to the new king, and to acknowledge himself as
the rightful duke of Sleswick-Holstein, basing his claims on his descent from the legit-
imate and elder male line of the house ol Oldenburg. This appeal was responded to bv 25
members of the Holstein diet, who, on behalf of their own duchy and of Sleswick,
petitioned the German diet to recognize the validity of the claims of the Augustenburg
line, and to prououuce the London protocol of the act of succession devoid of force.
The prince, by this step, set at nought the family compact by which his father, uncle,
and himself, for themselves and their heirs, had, at the close of the war of 1848, accepted
a sum of money as full indemnity for all claims on the Danish 'territories, and been
allowed on that condition to evade all further consequences of the open rebellion in which
they had stood against the throne. In the meanwhile, the fundamental law of Nov.,
1863, for the kingdom of Denmark and the duchy of Sleswick, which had pnssed the
rigsrad, and received the late king's signature shortly before his death, was published,
together with a manifesto of Christian IX., stating his intention in regard to Holstein
and Lauenburg. The diet, without coir.mittiug itself to uphold the Augustenburg
claims, put a confederate executiojn into Holstein; the Danish troops were withdrawn
into Sleswick; and on Jan. 6, 1864, the HoLstein towns did homage to the duke; while
a federal commission suppressed the provisional Holstein government, which had exer-
cised its powers sjnce 1862, and established a ducal government at Kiel. The Austrians
and Prussians, professing to act for the diet, summoned the Danish king to withdraw
the constitution of November within 48 hours; in reply to which the Danish government
demanded a term of six weeks to convoke the rigsrad", without whose sanction no con-
stitutional chance could be adopted. The demand was rejected, and the Austro-Prussian
army entered Holstein, and hostilities commenced. For ton weeks the Danes made
a gfdlant stand against their enemy, whose enormous superiority in strength of numbers,
end in the efficiency of their artillery and snail-arms, made their final victory the
inevitable rather than the glorious result of the campaign The Danes wire compelled
to suspend hostilities, and to submit to the terms dictated by their conquerors. A con-
ference was held at Vienna, and, after protracted negotiations, Denmark was constrained
to accept peace (Aug . 1864), on the hard terms of ceding to Austria and Prussia, Hols-
stein Sleswick, and Lauenburg, on the ground that the indivisibility of the two duchies
must be firmly established for the German fatherland by these two great powers. Fol-
lowing upon this, duke Frederick of Augustenburg was in turn 1 he favored and the
rejected candidate for the throne of the new state of Sleswirk-IIolstein. The upper
classes in small numbers in Sleswick. in Holstein almost unanimously, were in favor of
his claims, while the burgher and lower classes of Sleswick appeared equally unanimous
inregre'ting their severance from Denmark; and the decidedly expressed wishes of th
Hols'teiL party, backed by the lesser German states, to have the duke as their sovereign,
the protests and counter-protests of the diet and of foreign powers, all resulted in an
announcement by Austria and Prussia that according to the evidence of the commission!
appointed to examine the merits of the various claims of Denmark. Augustenburg, and
Oldenburg to the duchies, Christian IX. was by right of succession the undoubted pos-
sessor, and that from him the duchies had passed by right of victory to Austria and
Prussia. Prussia sought to annex these duchies to her dominions, and offered Austria
pecuninary compensation for her assistance in the war. On the other hand, Austria
advocated the independence of the duchies. Neither country would yield, and the
dispute ultimately resulted in the war of 1866. According to a treaty concluded in 1S67,
Austria abandoned her claims in favor of Prussia, but stipulated that a part of Sleswick
Bhould be restored to Denmark. Tliia stipulation, however, lias never been given effect



Slickenaldes.
Sloaue.

to. See GERMANY. The Prussian province of Sleswick-Holstein, formed out of
the duchies of Sleswick and Holstein, has an area of 7,190 sq. m. and a pop. of (1875)
1,074,812.

SLICKENSIDES are the smooth and polished, and generally glazed, surfaces of flaws
in rocks. They are considered to have been produced by the friction of the two surfaces
during some movement of the rock. But the two surfaces of the flaw are almost always
so uneven that it is impossible to conceive that they could have rubbed against each
other; besides, the flaws are generally very small, and the true slickenside is always
confined to a single stratum, never passing into the bed above or below. We believe
they are the castings of liquids or gases confined in the bed, and subjected to great
pressure, and are similar in origin to the glazed cavities produced by gases in slags, or,
to use a very familiar illustration, by the compressed steam in breakfast rolls.

SLIDELL' JOHN, 1793-1871; b. N. Y. ; educated at Columbia college. Settling in
New Orleans he became distinguished at the bar; was a member of Congress, 1843-4$
when he was appointed minister to Mexico; was elected to the U. S. senate for a partial
term in 1853, ami afterward re-elected. He left the senate on the passage by Louisiana
of the act of secession in 1861; the same year was appointed commissioner to France,
ran the blockade to Havana, from which, with Mason, commissioner to England, he sailed
on the British mail steamer Treat, which was boarded, Nov. 8, by capt. Wilkes, of the
U. S. steamer &in Jaciiito, who arrested both the commissioners. They were confined
in fort Warren, Boston, but released on the demand of the British government, and sailed
for England. Slidell succeeded in obtaining some help for the confederates in Paris.
He settled in London at the end of the war.

SLIDING RULE, an instrument invented by the rev. William Oughtred, an English
divine and mathematician, for the purpose of solving arithmetical problems mechani-
cally, consists of three pieces of wood, of which two are fastened together by slips of
brass at a sufficient distance from each other to permit of a third sliding between them.
The size of instrument which best combines convenience with accuracy is one about 2
ft. long, 2 in. broad, and in. thick. One side of the rule has the following scales
marked on it in order: aline of tenths of in., of equal parts divided into tenths and
hundredths of ft. ; three lines of numbers, each line consisting of the numbers from 1 to
10 twice repeated; a line of sine rhumbs (logarithmic sines of each quarter-point of the
compass); a line of meridional parts; and a lina of equal parts. Of these, two of the
Jiius of numbers are on the middle piece or slider. On the other side are two lines of
ii'it'iral scsdes, including sines, secants, tangents, equal parts, etc.; two lines of logarith-
mic sines, two lines of logarithmic tangents, a third line of logarithmic sines, and a line
of versed sines. Of these, one line of logarithmic eines and one of tangents are upon
the slider. The scale in most common use is that of numbers, and a description of the
way in which it is used will give a key to the whole working of the instrument. It is
necessary, however, to notice as a preliminary, that the scale of numbers is not evenly
divi led, as in this case only addition and subtraction could be performed, but is divided
in proportion, not to the numbers, but to their logarithms, so that 3, whose logarithm is
very nearly the half of that of 10, stands almost half-way between 1 and 10; and similarly
of the other numbers. All questions of numerical proportion can thus be easily worked by
means of the line of numbers on the slider, and the adjacent and corresponding one on
the fixed part of the rule. To find a fourth proportional to three given numbers, we
place the first term (on the slider) opposite to the second term (on the fixed scale}, and
opposite the third term (on the slider) is the fourth or number required (on the scale).
Multiplication is performed by making 1 the first term of a proportion, and division by
making it the second or third. The other scales marked on the rule are useful in the
solution of trigonometrical, geographical, and nautical problems, and the results obtained
are much more accurate than one at first sight would believe. Sliding rules of circular
form have been made by the French, but they are not in any way preferable to the
ordinary straight form.

SLIDING SCALE, a provision in some of the statutory restrictions formerly in force on
the trade in corn, by which, in order to encourage importation when prices were high, and
discourage it when low, the import duty was diminished as the price rose, and at famine-
prices grain came in duty free. By the act of 1828 wheat was allowed to be imported on
payment of a duty of 1 4s. 8d. when the average price over England was 62s. a quarter.
For every shilling less of price, a shilling was added to the duty; and fora rise of price,
the duty decreased. In 1842, while the agitation regarding the corn laws was going on
sir Robert Peel introduced and carried a modification of the sliding scale, which, how-
ever, di>l not succeed in mitigating the popular hostility to the corn-laws. By thesliding-
scale act of 1842, the duty per quarter was fixed at 1 when the price of corn was under
5K, and diminished as the price increased, till on the quarter of wheat attaining the p-"ice
of 73s. it fell to Is. See Coux LAWS.

SLI'GO, a maritime co. of the province of Connaught, Ireland, bounded on the n. by
the Atlantic and the bay of Donegal, s. by Roscominon and Mayo, e. by Roscommon
and Ldtrim, and w. by Mayo. It is 41 m. from e. to w., and 38 from n. to s. ; the
total area is 461,796 acres, of which about 320,000 are under tillage or in pasture, and



Slickensldes.
Slouue.

140,000 uncultivated. The pop. in 1861 was 124,845; in 1871, 115,493, of whom 104,429
were Romuii Catholics, 9,185 Protest-int Episcopalians, and the rest of other denomina-
tions. The coast-line is indented with numerous buys, and except in the hay of Sligo,
dangerous for navigation. The surface rises gradually from the coast eastward as far as
an elevated range called Slieve Gamph aud the Ox mountains, the highest point of which
rises to 1800 feet. Sligo contains comparatively few and unimportant lakes, but some of
these, however, are extremely picturesque, especially lough Arrow and lough Gill.
Only three of its streams are navigable the Moy, the Owenrnore, and the Garrogue, and
they are all inconsiderable. The county is traversed by a railway, which is a branch (,{
the Midland Great Western, and, connects the county town of Sligo (q.v.) with Dublin.
The mineral products of the county, although not very rich, are various, and consist of
copper, lead, iron, and manganese. The climate is variable, and although rain is fre-
quent, it is, on the whole, mild and healthy. The soil in the n. is mossy and sandy, both
being occasionally intermixed, and at times alternating with a gravelly loam. The plain
of Sligo is a deep rich loam; and in the southern portion of th3 county are found large
tracts of corn-land and pasturage. The occupations of the people are mainly agricultural,
and until some years back, they were chiefly engaged in tillage; but the land is now
chiefly used for pasturage. The number of acres under crops of all kinds in the year
1877 was 89,231. The cattle in that year numbered 93,295; sheep, 59,404; and pigs,
25,932. The number of holdings tea years before 1052 had been 13,992, which is now
somewhat reduced. The extent of coast-line has led a considerable number of the popu-
lation to engage, at least partially and occasionally, in fishing. The Sligo fishery district
comprises 113 in. of coast, and kept engaged in 1876, 159 registered vessels, employing
650 men and 38 boys. The principal towns are Sligo (q.v.), Arduaree, and Tobercurry.
The number of primary schools in the county in 1871 was 206; superior schools, 12. In
1875 there was, at the national schools, an attendance of 22,345 pupils, of whom 20,978
were Catholics.

Sligo was anciently the seat of the O'Connors, and was the scene of many conflicts
between the several branches of that family. The domestic feuds of the O'Connors
were among the causes which facilitated the first inroads of the Anglo-Normans. The
district contains many remains both of the Celtic and of the Anglo-Norman period. Of the
former, there is one very interesting called the Giant's Cairn, near Sligo; and there are
many raths, cromlechs, and ancient caverns. The county of Sligo sends two members
to the imperial parliament.

SLI30, chief t. of the co. of the same name, situated on the river Garrogue; distant
from Dublin, with which it is connected by a branch from the Midland Great Western
railway, 131 m. n.w. Pop. '61, 13.361; '71, 10,670, being a decrease in ten years of
2,691. There were 8,220 Roman Catholics. Sligo had its origin in the erection of a
Dominican abbey in the 13th c. by Maurice Fitzgerald, earl of Kildare, around which
and a castle also built by him a town was gradually formed. In the reign jof James I.
it received a charter. The modern town stands within a bend of the river, chiefly on the
left bank. It is for the most part well built, and contains several handsome public edi-
fices. It possesses few important manufactures, but is a place of considerable com-
merce, which is directed with judgment and energy by a body of town and harbor com-
missioners. In 1877 923 vessels, of 145,638 tons, entered and cleared the port. The
exports are chiefly of corn, flour, meal, butter, provisions, and yarn. Steamers ply
regularly between Sligo and Glasgow, Liverpool, and Londonderry. Sligo formerly
returned a member to parliament, but was disfranchised in 1870.

SLING, a weapon much in use before the introduction of firearms, consisted of a piece
of leather, with a round hole in the middle, and two cords of about a yard in length. A
round pebble being hung in the leather bv the cords, the latter were "held firmly in the
right hand, and swung rapidly round. When the stone had attained great speed, one
string was disengaged, on which the stone flew off at a tangent, its initial velocity being
the same as it had at the last moment of revolution. This velocity gives far greater range
and force than could be imparted in mere throwing.

SLIP, in a dockyard, is a smooth, inclined plane, sloping down to the water, on which
a ship is built. It 'requires to have a very solid foundation. Among modern inventions
is a slip on which a sort of truck runs on numerous rails. This truck is run under a
ship as she floats; the water is diminished till she rests on it, and it is then hauled up (he
lip by steam power until she is high and dry. Such a slip takes the place of a dry dock.
Bee also LAUNCH and SHIP-BUILDING.

SLIPPED, in heraldry, a term of blazon applied to a leaf, branch, or flower, which ia
represented with a stalk, and torn from the parent stem.

SLOAN, SAMUEL, b. Ireland, 1817; brought to New York, 1819; received a common
school education; after holding office in King's co., N. Y., was elected president of
Hudson River railroad company, 1855; and president of the Delaware. Lackawanna, and
Western railroad company, 1863; which last office he still holds. He is also president
of railroads in Michigan and Texas.

SLOANE, Sir HANS, an eminent physician and naturalist, of Scotch parentage, his
father having been the chief of the Scottish colony which was settled in Ulster by



gloat.
Slotting.

James I. of Great Britain, was born at Killyleagh, in county Down, Ireland, April 16,
1660. He devoted himself during his boyhood to natural history and medicine, and in
spite of an attack of haemoptysis, which lasted from his 16th till his 19th year, he arrived
in London in 1679, with an excellent kn9wledge of the first of these sciences, and a fair
acquaintance with the second. His apprenticeship to Statt'orth, a pupil of Stahl (q.v.),
and the acquaintance, subsequently ripened into close friendship, which he formed with
Boyle and Kay, two of the most celebrated naturalists of their time, did much to encour-
age and advance him in his favorite studies. During a brief sojourn in France he
attended the lectures of Tournefort and Du Verney, obtained on his return, by the activ*
support of Sydeuham (q.v.), a footing in London as a physician, and was elected a mem-
ber of the royal society in 1685, and of the royal college of physicians in 1687; but in
September of the latter year, he accompanied Monk, duke of Albemarle, to Jamaica, and
investigated the botany of that and the adjoining islands with such zeal and diligence
during the 15 months of his stay, that his herbarium numbered 800 species. Resuming
his professional practice on his return, he became physician to Christ's hospital (1694 -
1724), president of the college of physicians (1719-1735), secretary to the royal society
(1693), foreign associate of the French academy of sciences (1708), and succeeded sir
Isaac Newton as president of the royal society in 1727. He had been created a baronet
and physician-general to the army in 1716; and in 1727 received the further honor of
being appointed royal physician. Though of remarkably delicate constitution he lived
to the great age of 92, dying at Chelsea, Jan. 11, 1753. The chief point to be remarked
in Sloane's moral character was his benevolence, as shown in the charitable uses to which
he applied the whole of his salary as physician of Christ s hospital, in his zealous promo-
tion of the various schemes for affording medicine arid attendance gratuitously to the
poor, and his support of the foundling hospital, of which he was one of the founders.
By long-continued perseverance he succeeded in forming a most extensive museum of
natural history, a library of 50,000 volumes, and 3,560 MSS., which he directed to be
offered at his death to the nation for 20.000 (about one-fourth of its real value), and
which formed the commencement of the British Museum (q.v.). He also contributed
numerous memoirs to the Philosophical Transactions, whose publication he superintended
for a number of years. But his great work was the Natural History of Jamaica (fol.
1707-1725), containing also an excellent account of the topography, meteorology, and
population of the island, which book was the means of introducing into the pharma-
copeia a number of excellent drugs, hitherto unknown.

SLOAT, JOHN DRAKE, 1780-1 867 ;b. New York city; entered the navy as sailing-master,
1800; was in the engagement between the United State* and the Macedonian, 1812. He
participated in the expedition against the West Indian pirates, 1824-25; commanded the
Pacific squadron, 1846-52; was commandant at the Norfolk navy yard, and superin-
tended the building of Stevcns's battery at Hoboken; retired with the rank of commo-
dore, 1862: rear-admiral, 1866.

SLOCUM, HENRY WARNER, b. N. Y., 1827; graduated at West Point, 1852; was
lieut. in various military services, 1852-56: became a lawyer at Syracuse, and was in the



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 132 of 203)