Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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to Edinburgh, where silently and unostentatiously he became one of the brilliant little
circle of men of letters who were then rising to importance. In 1751 he got the chair of
logic in the university of Glasgow, and this was changed a year afterward for that of
moral philosophy. In 1759 appeared his Theory of Moral Sentiments; celebrated for its
reference of the mental emotions to the one source of sympathy. The Dissertation on
the Origin of Languages was published along with the later editions of this book. Both
had a great reputation in their day, and although they are now among obscure books in
comparison with that other by which the author's name is remembered, the position they
held with respectable thinkers gave a hearing to his doctrines on political economy which
they would hardly have otherwise obtained. In 1762 the university of Glasgow gave
him the degree of doctor of laws. In the following year he undertook a task, which
might at first seem very uncongenial to a mind like his, given to retired study and iude
pendent thought and action. He became "governor" or traveling tutor to the young
duke of Buccleuch. He was then sedulously collecting materials for his great work, and
no doubt the inducement to accept of the office was the opportunity it gave him for tra-
veling and seeing for himself. He had the opportunity of being nearly a year in Paris,
and of mixing in the circle of renowned wits and philosophers of the reign of Louis XV.
In 1766 his function came to an end, and he returned to Kirkcaldy to live in the old
house with his mother. The year 1776 was an era in the history of the world as well as
that of the Kirkcaldy recluse, in the appearance of the Inquiry into the Mature and
Causes of the Wealth of Nations. If there was any living man to whose works he wag
indebted for the leading principles of this book, it was David Hume, and it was from
him, as best understanding the fullness and completeness of the exposition, that it had its
first emphatic welcome. He wrote immediately on receiving it: "EuoE BELLE. DEAR
MR. SMITH I am much pleased with your performance ; and the perusal of it has taken me
from a state of great anxiety. It was a work of so much expectation by yourself, by your
friends, and by the public, that I trembled for its appearance, but am now much relieved.
Not but that the reading of it necessarily requires so much attention, and the public is
disposed to give so little, that I shall still doubt, for some time, of its being at first
very popular. But it has depth, and solidity, and acuteness, and is so much illustrated
by curious facts, that it must at last take the public attention." This was not destined
to be exactly .the literary history of this great work. Its startling doctrines, fine clear
style, and abundant illustration from curious facts took at first ; but counteracting in-
fluences arose when people saw how far the new doctrines went in playing havoc with
old prejudices. The French revolution set the mind of this country bigoted against
everything that breathed of innovation. It was known that the younger Pitt partici-
pated at, first in Smith's free-trade notions, but he had afterward, whether from permanent
connection or temporary policy, to put himself in the foremost ranks of the enemies of
innovation. It was not until long after the terrors of that epoch and the nervous vicissi-
tudes of the war had passed over, that Smith's work had an opportunity to revolutionize
the public mind on matters of trade and finance. It came up, as it were, the leader of a
great literary host, for expounders had crowded m numbers round The Wialth of Nation*
as the text-book of sound economy. Of a book so well known and so much read it is
needless to speak. The only reproach brought against it is that it is not systematic in
its form, and that its nomenclature is not exact. But its author was not arranging th
results of established knowledge he was rather pulling down existing structures, coin-
pounded of ignorance and p/ejudice. Nor, indeed, have those who have attempted to
make an exact science put of political economy practically vindicated the reproach they
have cast on him of being unmethodical. Whatever we may yet come to, very few por-
tions indeed of political economy admit of being treated as exact science. It is too closely
connected with human passions and energies, and consequently with special results and
changes, to be so treated; and the best books on the subject are still charncteri/.ed by the
discursiveness and mixed philosophy and fact of the Wealth of Nations. In 1778, Smith
WM made a commissioner of customs. The only effect of this was to bring him to Edin-
burgh, and increase his ucaus for indulging in his favorite weakness, the collection of a



fine library; for he was, as he called himself, a "beau in his books." In 1784 he suf-
fered that affliction which was sure to come if he lived long enough for it the loss of
his worthy mother. He followed her six years afterward, dying in July, 1790.

SMITH, ALBERT, 1816-60; b. England; a surgeon, who settled in London in 1841,
and became a regular writer for the press, including Bentley's Miscellany and Punch.
He ascended Mont Blanc in 1851, and his "entertainments" on that subject were suc-
cessful for some years. He also went to China, and on his return gave a Chinese "en-
tertainment." His Story of Mont Blanc appeared in 1853; To China and Back, in 1859.

SMITH, ALEXANDER, poet, was b. at Kilmarnock, in Ayrshire, Dec. 31, 1830; received,
as a boy, a fair English education, and passed from school into a Glasgow warehouse as
a pattern designer. While following this occupation, he began to write poetry. His
first volume entitled the Life Drama, was published in 1853, and created something like
a furore jn literary circles. A reaction, however, followed, and the author had scarcely
found himself famous when he began to be abused. The faults of his book were obvious
enough; every page contained evidence of immaturity, and its natural result, extrava-
gance; while a rather narrow reading having made him passionately attached to a few
modern poets, as Keats and Tennyson, their peculiar turns of expression reappeared in
his verse, and gave color to the charge of plagiarism, which was pushed to an absurd
length. But impartial critics were not slow to perceive a richness and originality of
imagery that more than atoned for all defects of taste and knowledge. In 1854, Smith
was appointed secretary to the university of Edinburgh; and in the following year, along
with Sydney Dobell (q.v.), produced a volume of Sonnets on theWar. He afterward
wrote City Poems (1857), Edwin of Deira (1861), and several prose works, as DreamtJwrp
(1863), A Summer in Skye (1865), and Alfred Hagart's Household (1865). Smith was per-
haps not less distinguished as a writer in prose than in verse, his prose style being
marked by picturesqueness, polish, and originality. He died in 1867.

SMITH, ANDREW JACKSON, b Penn., 1814; graduated at West Point. Before the
war of the rebellion he served on the frontier against hostile Indians; col. 3d California
cavalry, 1861 ; brig.gen. vols. , 1862. He was chief of cavalry in Missouri and Mississippi,
in the army of the Tennessee, and in the Yazoo expedition ; and was at Chickasaw Bluffs,
the capture of Jackson, and the capture of Mobile. He was mustered out of the vol.
service in 1866, and retired from the regular army, 1869. For gallantry in Mississippi
and Tennessee, bre vetted col., brig.gen., and rnaj.gen.

SMITH, ASA DODGE, D.D., LL.D., 1804-77; b. Mass. ; graduated at Dartmouth college
in 1830, andat Andovertheol. seminary in 1834; pastor of Fourteenth street Pres. church,
New York, 1834-63; became president of Dartmouth college in 1863; resigned in 1877,
and died in Hanover the same year. He published Letter* to a Young Student; Impor-
tance of a Christian Ministry; The Puritan Church's Stewardship, and other sermons.
During his pastorate in New York he was one of the most prominent and successful
ministers of his denomination in that city; and his presidency of Dartmouth was notable
for the good work done in the college and its associated schools, and for the large amounts
of money secured for it through pres. Smith's influence.

SMITH, AZARIAH, 1817-51; b. N. Y. ; graduated at Yale college in 1837; studied
medicine; studied theology at, New Haven in 1839, and took medical degree; sailed 1842
as a missionary of the American board for the Levant; traveled extensively in Asia
Minor; settled in Aintab in 1848. He contributed papers on meteorology and Syrian
antiquities for Silliman's Journal of Science. .

SMITH, BENJAMIN BOSWORTH, b. R I., 1794; studied at Brown university; ordained,
1818; consecrated bishop of the Protestant Episcopal diocese of Kentucky, 1832. He was
the editor of the Episcopal Register, of Vermont, 1827, of the Episcop.d Recorder, Phila-
delphia, 1829. He is now residing in New York, and is the senior bishop of his

SMITH, BUCKINGHAM, 1810-71; b. Ga.; graduated at Harvard law school 1836;
practiced for a time in Maine, but in 1850 was made charge d'affaires in Mexico. From
1853 to 1859 he was secretary of the Madrid legation. He published several books and
papers on the conquest of Florida, De koto's discoveries, and kindred topics.

SMITH, CHARLES FERGUSON, 1805-62; b. Penn. ; graduated at West Point and served
with distinction through the Mexican war. During the war of the rebellion he was in
the federal army, in which he rose to be maj.gen. He was for some time commander of
the federal forces in Kentucky, and led the decisive charge at fort Donelson.

SMITH, CHARLES HENRY, b. Maine, 1827; served in the federal army through the
war of the rebellion and was brevetted maj.gen. He distinguished himself in Sheri-
dan's cavalry campaign of 1864, and in the operations which resulted in the surrender of

. SMITH. DANIEL, about 1755-1818; b, Va.; one of the first settlers of Tennessee, and
a revolutionary patriot. After the war he held several local offices, was member of the
Tennessee constitutional convention, and U. S. senator, 1793-99 and 1806-09. In 1799
lie published the first map of the state.



SMITH, EDMUND KIRBT, b. Fla,, 1825; graduated at "West Point, 1845; served with
distinction in the Mexican war and afterward taught at the academy. He resigned in
1861 with rank of major, and entered the confederate army, serving as brig.gen. under
Johnston, and heading the fresh troops which decided the battle of Bull Run. In 1862
he was made lieut.gen. and commanded at Murfreesborough. In 1863 lie was with the
Mississippi army, and surrendered to gen. Canby in 1865.

SMITH, EDWAHD P., 1827-76; b. Conn.; educated at Dartmouth and Yale colleges,
and the theological seminary of New Haven; pastor for several years of the Congrega-
tional church at Pepperell, Mass. ; was field-secretary of the U. S*. Christian commission
during the rebellion ; after the war general agent for the American missionary association
in the southern states; appointed U. S. commissioner of Indian affairs, 1873; went to
Africa 1875, to visit the missions of the American missionary association; reached the
river Gambia, where he died. He published Incidents of tfie L/nited States Christian Com-
mission. He had excellent administrative ability, and earnest Christian philanthropy.

SMITH, ELI, D.D., 1801-57; b. Conn.; graduated Yale college 1821; left Andover
theol. seminary 1826, and went as a missionary of the American board to Turkey; made
a missionary tour, 1829, through Greece; again through Armenia and Georgia to Persia,
which opened the way for a mission to the Nestorians; made with Dr. Robinson, 1837,
a tour in Egypt and Palestine, ably aiding his researches in Biblical geography. A good
classical and Hebrew scholar, he acquired also French, Italian, German, and Turkish; and
Arabic was to him a second vernacular. He prosecuted with zeal every collateral study
in order to qualify himself for what he considered his great work, a faithful translation
into Arabic of the word of God. He drew for himself after careful study of the art,
with utmost accuracy, models of type, and superintended the cutting, casting, and per-
fecting of the fonts. An account of his tours was published in two vols.

SMITH, ELIZABETH OAKES (PRINCE), b. Cumberland. Me. ; descendant of gov.
Prince of the Plymouth colony and pres. Urian Cakes of Harvard university; removed
in infancy to Portland, Me. ; married Seba Smith, an editor, while quite young, and
wrote prose and verse and assisted her husband in his profession. In 1839, meeting
with financial reverses, she adopted literature as a means of subsistence, and settled in
New York in 1842, contributing to the magazines and reviews, corresponding for
papers, writing stories, plays, and lectures. She removed to North Carolina, 1876. She
published Woman and her Needs, 1851.

SMITH, GEORGE, 1825-76; b. England; in 1866, while examining the Assyrian paper
casts in the British museum, discovered an inscription of Shalmaneser II. concerning the '
war against Hazael ; in 1867 aided in preparing a volume of cuneiform inscriptions, and
from that time devoted himself to the study of them. Among his earlier Discoveries
are: a notice of an eclipse, 763 B.C. ; of several kings of Israel : of conquest of Babylonia,
2280 B.C.; of Chaldean account of the deluge; in 1871 published a work giving the
texts, transcriptions, and translations of documents pertaining to Asshur-bani-pal (Sar-
danapalus). In 1873-74 he went twice to Nineveh, obtaining 3,000 inscriptions and
many other important acquisitions; in 1876 went again to the east and died while explor-
ing the Euphrates valley.

SMITH, GERRIT, 1797-1874; b. N. Y. ; graduated at Hamilton college in 1818.
Being heir to one of the largest properties in the country, his time was occupied chiefly
in its care; but he was admitted to the bar in 1853, and practiced to some extent. He
was prominent in benevolent undertakings, and associated himself with organizations
such as the American colonization society and the American anti-slavery society from
an early period. His personal liberality was great, and he divided more than 200,000
acres of land in free gifts, partly among public institutions, but also largely in small
parcels of about 50 acres among poor persons, black and white. He also gave large
sums in aid of emancipation. He was a member of congress in 1852, and there and
everywhere gave the freest vent to his pronounced opinions in favor of liberty of speech,
conscience, and the person.

SMITH, GOLDWIN, LL.D., son of a Berkshire physician, was b. at Reading in 1823.
He received his education at Eton, from whence he proceeded to Oxford, and matricu-
lated at Christ's church, but was soon afterward elected to a Demyship at Magdalen.
His undergraduate career was one of unusual brilliancy, only equaled, indeed, by sir
Rouudell Palmer and prof. Conington. lie gained both university scholarships, the
Latin verse, and the two prize essays, and was placed in the first class in 1845. In 1847
he was elected fellow of University college, where he officiated for a time as tutor. In
the same year he was called to the bar at Lincoln's inn. The ministry of the day availed
themselves of Mr. Smith's services in carrying out their plans of university reform. He
was nominated assistant -secretary to the first, and secretary to the second Oxford com-
mission, by which the somewhat antiquated statutes of the university were recon-
structed, and the rich endowments of the colleges opened to public competition. Mr.
Smith was also a member of the popular education commission appointed in June,
1858. The chair of modern history having been vacated about this time by the resigna-
tion of prof. Vaughan, was offered by lord Derby to Mr. Smith. He accepted the offer,
and discharged his professional duties with zeal and efficiency until his resignation in



1866. In 1868 he was elected to the chair of English and constitutional history In the
university at Ithaca, N. Y. He has lately resided in Canada. Goldwin Smith has long
been known as a publicist of the highest class, and has completely identified himself
"With the more advanced school of reformers. During the American war he was an
earnest defender of federal interests, and combated with success in the Daily News and
elsewhere, the singular theories of the rights of slavery and the duties of neutrals, which
were then somewhat fashionable. He was also active in denouncing the Jamaica mas-
eacres, and in advocating an extended measure of reform. His lectures on " Three
English Statesmen," delivered at some of the chief towns in the north, called forth the
remark from Mr. Disraeli, that he was a "wild man of the cloister, going about the
country maligning men and things." Mr. Smith's writings a-re characterized by great
extent and accuracy of information, by a style singularly vigorous and condensed, and
by great powers of sarcasm. Among his principal publications may be enumerated:
Irish History and Character; Two Lectures on the Study of History, with a Supplementary
Lecture on the Doctrine of Historical Progress; The Empire, a reprint from the Daily
News of 1862-63; England and America, a lecture delivered before the Boston fraternity,
and reprinted from the Atlantic Monthly; A Plea for the Abolition of Tests at Oxford;
Hational Religion and the Objections of the Bampton Lecture in 1858; several pamphlets
on the American question; contributions to Oxford essays; A Short History of England;
etc. He is also the author of some of the most admired compositions in the Anthologia

SMITH, GREEN CLAY, b. Ky., 4 1830; educated at Transylvania university. He was
a volunteer in the Mexican war, practiced law in Kentucky, of whose legislature he was
a member, served in the federal army, 1861-63, and rose to be brig.gen. He was after-
ward member of congress and governor of Montana.

SMITH, HENRY BOYNTON, D.D., LL.D., 1815-77; b. Me.; graduated at Bowdoin col-
lege in 1834; was tutor in Gre'ek and librarian, 1836-37 and 1840-41; studied theology at
Bangor and Andover, Halle, and Berlin. In Germany he was honored by theologians
for his learning. In 1843 he became pastor of the Congregational church, West Ames-
bury, Mass., filling also for two years in connection with his pastoral duties the chair of
Hebrew in Andover seminary; was professor of mental and moral philosophy at
Amherst college, 1847-50 ; of church history in Union seminary, 1850-55; and of system-
atic theology, 1855-73, when enfeebled by unremitting toil he retired from the chair
though retained as emeritus professor of apologetics until his death. His publications
are: The Relation* of Faith and Philosophy; Nature and Worth of the Science of Church
History; Problem of the Philosophy of History; The Refoi-med Churches of Europe and
America in Relation to General Church History; The Idea of Christian Theology as a Sys-
tem; Histm-y of the Church of Christ; Chronological Tables. He edited for many years
The American theological Review, and contributed largely to the Bibliotlieca Sacra and
other reviews. He had brilliant scholarship, a fervid and deeply spiritual nature, a
gentle and winning disposition; and especially in church history his work has enduring

SMITH ISAAC 1736-1807; b. N. J.; graduated at Princeton, 1755; was tutor there ;
studied medicine; col. of a regiment, 1776, in the patriot army, and was distinguished
for his patriotism throughout the war. At its close he was appointed judge of the
supreme court of New Jersey, holding the office 18 years. He was a member of con-
gress, 1795-97; treated with the Seneca Indians as U.S. commissioner under pres. Wash-
ington, 1797; president of the bank of Trenton, 1807.

SMITH ISRAEL, 1759-1810; b. Conn.; educated at Yale college, and settled in Ver-
mont, where he was elected to the legislature. He was a member of congress, 1791-97
and 1801-3; chief-justice of the state supreme court in 1797, and U. S. senator, 1803-7.
He was a member of the convention that adopted the federal constitution, and was
active in securing the admission of Vermont as a state.

SMITH, JAMES, 1720-1806; b. Ireland; was brought to America when a child;
engaged in surveying and legal study, and began practice in York, Penn. He was a
member of the provincial meeting in Philadelphia, 1774, and was elected a member of
the continental congress in 1776.

SMITH, JAMES, 1737-1812; b. Penn.; captured and adopted by the Indians in 1759,
but afterward escaped. He was a lieut. in Bouquet's expedition in 1764; a col. in th
revolutionary war, and afterward a member of the Kentucky legislature. He \vrot
Btmarkftble Occurrences in the Life and Travels of Col. James Smith (1799).

SMITH JAMES and HORACE, authors of The Rejected Addresses, were sons of an
eminent London solicitor. James was b. Feb. 10, 1775, d. Dec. 24, 1839; Horace was
b. Dec. 31, 1779, d. July 12, 1849. James followed his father's profession, and suc-
ceeded him as solicitor to the board of ordnance; Horace adopted the profession of a
stock-broker, and realized a handsome fortune, on which he retired witli his family to
Brighton. Both were popular and accomplished men James remarkable for his con-
versational powers and gayety, and Horace (the wealthier of the two) distinguished for
true liberality and benevolence. The work by which they are best known is a small
Tolume of poetical parodies or imitations, perhaps the best in the language. On the



opening of the new Drury Lane theater in Oct. 1812, the committee of management
advertised for an address to be spoken on the occasion, and the brothers Smith adopted
a suggestion made to .them, that they should write a series of supposed " Rejected
Addresses." They accomplished their task in the course of a few weeks James fur-
nishing imitations of Wordsworth, Southey, Coleridge, Crabbe, Cobbett, etc. ; while
Horace contributed imitations of Scott, Byron (all but the first stanza), Monk, Lewis,
Moore, and others. In point of talent, the authors were about equally matched ; for
though James had the greater number of successful imitations, the one by Horace of Scott, is
the most felicitous of the whole. It is a curious fact in literary history that a work so
xceedingly popular should have had great difficulty in finding a publisher; and that
the copyright, which had been originally offered to Murray for 20, and refused, was
purchased by him in 1819, after the book had run through 16 editions, for 131. The
authors received above 1000 from the sale of the work. James was afterward an
occasional contributor to the periodical literature of the day, and author of the humor-
ous theatrical entertainments of Charles Mathews (for which he received 1000). Horaca
Smith wrote several novels Brambletye House, Tor Hill, etc.

SMITH, JEREMIAH, LL.D.^ 1759-1 842; b. Peterborough, N. H. ; graduate of Rut-
gers college, 1780; distinguished as a lawyer and a scholar; member of congress, 1791-97.
He was governor of New Hampshire, 1809-10, chief-justice of the superior court for sev-
eral years, and intimate friend of Daniel Webster. He published Sketch of t/ie c/iaracter
of Judge Caleb Ellis.

SMITH, JOHN, 1579-1631, b. at Willoughby, Lincolnshire, England. He was left
an orphan at an early age, and his guardians permitted him to indulge the roving spirit
which distinguished him. At the age of fifteen he accompanied the sons 'of an English
nobleman on a tour of the continent as a page. But he soon left them and enlisted
under the Protestant banner in France. He served as a soldier of fortune in different
lands, and, according to the memoirs which he published of his life, met with a series
of wonderful and romantic adventures. The coloring of romance, however, with
which the narrative is imbued is too vivid to appear entirely trustworthy, and contra-
dictions have been discovered in some of his statements. The most remarkable of these
records is the account of his victory over three Turks, whom he asserts he slew in single
combat under the walls of Regall, in Transylvania. For this achievement he claims to
have been ennobled by the ruler of that realm, receiving a patent of nobility (which ho
publishes in the original Latin) empowering him to emblazon upon his shield the bleed-
ing heads of three Turks a privilege of which he does not appear to have availed him-
self. Having returned to England he was induced to take part in the colonization of
Virginia, and sailed with the vessels fitted out for this purpose in 1607. He was named

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 135 of 203)