Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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a member of the council to direct the affairs of the infant community in the secret list
prepared before the departure of the fleet, but during the voyage he was imprisoned on
a charge of sedition. On the arrival of the vessels, when the list was examined, he was
not allowed to take his seat ; he indignantly demanded an immediate trial, which was finally
accorded. He established his innocence, but the jealousy of his comrades still excluded
him from his seat. But his military reputation, his fiery spirit, tempered by prudence
and sagacity, soon made his influence felt, and his advice was often sought by the
authorities. With rare magnanimity, considering the injustice with which he had been
treated, he did not refuse his assistance. He was sent on several expeditions for forage
and discovery among the Indians, and distinguished himself by the ability with which
he conducted them. It was on one of these occasions, in Dec., 1607, that Smith was
captured by the Indian chief whom in his narrative he calls Powhatan. The story
which he relates of the young Indian maiden, Pocahontas, who, when he was con-
demned to death by the savage chieftan, saved his life by her interposition, has been
discredited in many of its details, though there can be no doubt that such a woman
lived and was married to an Englishman of the name of Rolfe. Her blood flows in the
veins of some distinguished Virginian families. Mr. Charles Deane, in his notes to
Wingfield's Discourse of Virginia (Boston, 1859) was the first to throw doubts on the
truth of this celebrated romance. Smith's influence became paramount in the little set-
tlement, which was called Jamestown, after the reigning monarch. He was elected
president of the council, Sept. 1608, and several times saved the colony from ruin by his
decision, sagacity, and force of character. In his dealings with the Indians he showed
himself an astute and unscrupulous politician, and a valiant soldier, who, by a species
f military intuition became at once an ad?pt in all the peculiarities of Indian warfare.
His services were not sufficiently appreciated, and he returned to England broken in
health and poor in purse. He was sent out on various voyages of discovery, and gave
to New England the name she now bears. He died in London, and was buried in the
choir of St. Sepulchre's ctmrch.

SMITH JOHN, "of Cambridge," 1618-52; graduated at Cambridge, 1640; fellow of
Queen's college, 1644, and for several years tutor and mathematical lecturer there;
became a clergyman and was accounted "a man of great abilities, vast learning, posses-
sing almost every grace and virtue which can adorn human nature." His Select Dis-
courses were often reprinted and highly esteemed. Several biographies of him hart
been written by distinguished men.



SMITH, JOHN BLAIR, D.D., 1756-99, b. Penn.; graduated at Princeton, 1773; studied
theology with his brother, and succeeded him as president of Hampden Sidney college,
1799; was an effective preacher in Virginia; pastor of the Third Presbyterian church,
Philadelphia, 1791-95; president of Union college 1795-99; returned to his pastoral
charge at Philadelphia, 1799, and died there of an epidemic disease.

SMITH, JOHN COTTON, LL.D., 1765-1845; b. Sharon, Conn., son of Cotton Mather
Smith, descended from John Cotton and Richard Mather; graduated at Yale college,
1783. He practiced law in Litchfield co., 1786; member of the lower house, 1793 and
1796-1800; clerk of the house, 1799; speaker, 1800; member of congress, 1800-6. He wsm
representative from Sharou in the state legislature, 1806-9, and member of the council.
He was appointed judge of the supreme court, 1809; lieutenant governor in the same
year, and governor, 1813-18. He was a contributor to the periodicals, and a member of
several historical and antiquarian societies, the American board for foreign missions,
and the American Bible society.

SMITH, JOHN COTTOZI, D.D., b. Mass., 1826; graduated at Bowdoin college in 1847;
studied theology at Gambier, Ohio; ordained to the Protestant Episcopal ministry in 1849;
rector of St. John's church, Bangor, Maine. ; assistant minister of Trinity church, Boston
in 1853; rector of Ascension church, New York, in 186\). He published essays, after-
ward collected in a volume entitled Miscellanies, Old and New. He has published several
sermons and lectures. His writings show breadth of Christian spirit, and such certainty
of faith as to preclude fear.of new phases of truth.

SMITH, JOHN E., b. Penn. ; aj the begiuing of the war of the rebellion, aid-de-camp
to governor Y^ates of Illinois; in active duty at fort Henry, fort Donelsou, Shiloh, and
Corinth; made brig.gen., 1862; engaged in all the important battles of the Louisiana
campaign. He was in the Mississippi and Atlanta campaigns in 1864, and marched with
Sherman to the sea; col. 14th U. 8. infantry, -1870; brevelted maj.gen. regular army.

SMITH, JOHN HYATT. D.D., b. K Y., 1823; licensed as a Baptist preacher in 1848;
pastor of the Eleventh Baptist church, Philadelphia, and of the Lee avenue church,
Brooklyn, N. Y. He is a popular preacher, a favorite with the working classes, and a
zealous advocate of open communion. He is now a member of congress, but retains
his pastorate.

SMITH, JOHN LAWRENCE, b. S. C., 1818; graduated at the university of Virginia, and
*he medical school of the university of South Carolina; civil engineer on the Charleston
aud Cincinnati railroad. He studied 3 years in France and Germany, practiced medicine
in Charleston, S. C., 1844, and gave lectures on toxicology and agricultural chemistry.
In 1846-51 he was mining engineer to the Turkish government, explored Asia Minor,
discovered deposits of emery and corundum in the United States; invented the inverted
microscope, 1851. He was prof essor of chemistry in the university of Virginia, and in.
the university at Louisville, Ky. ; U. S. commissioner to the Paris exposition. 1867, and
Vienna, 1872. He received the cross of the legion of honor from Napoleon III. He is a
member of many scientific societies, president of the American association for the
advancement of science, 7872; author of The Progress and Condition of Several Depart-
ments of Industrial Chemistry, 1867.

SMITH, JOHN PYE, D.D., LL.D., 1774-1851, b. England; entered an Independent
academy at Rotherham, in his 22d year; became classical tutor in the Homerton theo-
logical school (Congregational) 1800, divinity tutor 1813-43; and again classical tutor,
1843-50. He was a fellow of the Royal and geological societies. His principal works are:
Scripture Testimony to the Messiah; The Sacrifice and Priesthood of Christ; The Person-
ality and Divinity of the Holy Spirit; Mosaic Account of the Creation and Deluge Illustrated
by the Discoveries of Modern Science, and Scripture and Geology.

SMITH, JONATHAN BAYARD, 1741-1812, b. Philadelphia; graduated at the college of
New Jersey. He was a me/chant in Philadelphia, a member of the continental con-
gress, 1777-'78, and for many years a judge of the court of common pleas.


SMITH, JUNIUS, LL.D., 1780-1853, b. Conn.; graduated at Yale, and at the Litch-
field law school. In 1832 he began to urge a scheme for the navigation of the Atlantic
with steamships. He organized the British and American steam navigation company
in 1836, under whose direction, two years latter the little steamer Sinus crossed tha

SMITH, MATTHEW HALE, 1810-79, b. Conn. ; was a TJniversalist preacher and
afterward joined successively the Presbyterians, Episcopalians, and Baptists; published
reasons for some of these changes; became a lawyer, editor, politician, and business man;
returned to theology; also was New York correspondent (Burleigh) of the Boston
Journal. The latter part of his life was spent in New York and Brooklyn.

SMITH, MELANCHTHON, b. N. Y., 1809; entered the navy in 1826, and through
successive grades became rear-admiral (retired) in 1870. He served through the Semi-
nole war, fought the confederate steamer Florida in 1861, ran the confederate ram
Manassas ashore at the capture of New Orleans, took part in the attacks on port Hudson,



fought the ram Albemark in 1864, and commanded the frigate Wabasli in the attacks on
fort Fisher.

SMITH, MILES, D.D., 1550-1624, b. England; graduated at Oxford; studied deeply
patristic literature and the oriental languages; became bishop of Gloucester, 1612; was
a principal translator of king James's version of the Bible, for which he wrote the pre-
face. A volume of his sermons was printed after his death.

SMITH, MORGAN L., 1818-74, b. N. Y. ; enlisted in the regular U. S. army when
young, and for gallantry in the Mexican war was made sergeant. He then engaged in
business and in 1861 raised and commanded a regiment from Illinois and Missouri. He
was at fort Donelson and in the Shiloh, Vicksburg, and Chattanooga campaigns. H
was promoted to the rank of maj.geu. and commanded a division in Sherman's march
to the sea. After the war he was consul at Honolulu.

SMITH, NATHAN, 1762-1829, b. Mass. ; studied medicine, and in 1798 became pro-
fessor in the medical school just established at Dartmouth college. He also delivered
lectures at Bowdoin college, and at the university of Vermont. He wrote Essay on
Typhus Fever (1824); and Mmlicul and Surgical Memoirs (1831).

SMITH, PEHSIFER FRAZER, 1798-1858 ; b. Philadelphia ; graduated at Princeton college
1815; studied law and practiced at New Orleans. He served in the Florida war, com-
manded the Louisiana brigade in the Mexican war under Taylor, and was lire vetted
brig.gen. and maj.geii. for gallantry at Monterey, Contreras, and Churubusco. He was a
commissioner to conclude peace with Mexico, governor of Mexico, 1847, of Vera Cruz,
1848, also military commander of California and Texas.

SMITH, RICHARD, b. Ireland, 1823; when eighteen years of age came to the United
States and settled in Cincinnati, where he worked in a'carpenter shop for three years,
when he became a reporter. In 1849 he received the appointment of superintendent of
the Cincinnati chamber of commerce, and bought the Price Current, which he edited.
In 1854 he bought into the Gazette, and after a few years became its managing editor,
and still occupies the position.

SMITH, RICHARD SOWERS, b. Philadelphia, 1813; graduated at West Point, where he
was assistant professor of drawing, 1840-56, when he resigned from the army and became
professor of mathematics and drawing in the Brooklyn polytechnic institute' where he re-
mained till 1859. He served in the war against the rebellion till 1863, when he resigned to
become president of Girard college, where be remained till 1868. He has since been pro-
fessor of engineering at the Pennsylvania state polytechnic college, and of drawing at the
U. S. naval academy.

SMITH. ROBERT, D.D., 1732-1801; b. England; graduated at Cambridge, and ob-
tained a fellowship there; became rector of St. Philip's church, Charleston, S. C., 1759;
was a volunteer soldier during the revolution; preached in Queen Anne co., Md. ; pres,
ident of Charleston college, 1786-98; first bishop of the diocese of South Carolina, 1795,

SMITH, ROBERT ANGUS, PH.D., b. Glasgow, Scotland, 1817; studied at the univer-
sit)' of Glasgow and with Liebig at Giessen. He became a professional chemist; has
given much study to disinfectants, ventilation, and climatology, and has published
many papers on these and kindred subjects. In 1857 he was made a fellow of the Roval
society, has been president of the Manchester literary and scientific society, and is a
member of other scientific associations.

SMITH, ROBERT PAYNE, D.D., b. England, 1818: graduated at Pembroke college,
Oxford. 1841, obtaining there three oriental scholarships; curate of Trinity, master of
the Edinburgh academy, and afterward head-master of Kensington school; sub-libra-
rian of the Bodleian library, having charge of oriental manuscripts, 1857-65; canon of
Christ-Church, Oxford, and regius professor of divinity, 1865-71; and dean of Canterbury
1871 to the present time. He'was a delegate to the evangelical alliance at New York,
1873, and was a member of the Old Testament revision committee. His published writ
ings include several works of oriental scholarship; a defense of the authenticity and
Messianic interpretation of Isaiah, Bamptou lectures for 1865; and commentary on Jer-

SMITITt SAMUEL, 1752-1839; b. Carlisle, Penn. ; son of John Smith, a resident of Bai
timore, 1760, who was member of the legislature and chairman of the committee of wayg
and means in the revolutionary wr. . Samuel was educated at Carlisle, Baltimore, and
Elkton; entered his father's counting-room; and visited Europe, 1771; capt. in Small-
wood's regiment, 1776; performed effective service on Long Island. He distinguished
himself at Harlem and White Plains; lieut.col. of the 4th Md. regiment, 1777: defended
fort Mifflin, and received a sword and the thanks of congress. He was at Valley Forge
and at Monmouth. He was a member of the state legislature, and member of congress,
1793-1833; for a short time secretary of the navy under president Jefferson. In the war
of 1812 he was maj.sjen. of the state militia, and active in the defense of Baltimore;
mayor of Baltimore, 1835.

SMITH,' SAMUEL FRANCIS. D.n., b. Boston 1808, graduated at, Harvard college in
1829; studied theology at Andover, pastor of a Baptist church at Waterville, Me., and
professor of modern languages in Waterville college, 1834-42 ; pastor at Newton, Mass.,


1842-54. He has published Life of Rev. Joseph Orafton. He edited the Baptist Missionary
Magazine acd Christian Review. He is the author of several favorite hymns.

SMITH, SAMUEL STANHOPE, D.D., LL.D., 1750-1819; b. Penn. ; was a pupil and
teacher in his father's classical academy, where he also studied theology; tutor in th
college of New Jersey, 1770-73; ordained and preached in Virginia, 1774; was the first
president of Hampdeu-Sidney college, 1775-79; appointed professor of moral philosophy
in the college of New Jersey, 1779, and of theology, 1783; vice-president, 1786, and pres-
ident, 1795-1812. He was an eloquent preacher and of distinguished personal appearance
and manners. Among his published writings are, Lectures on tlie Evidences of Christian-
ity and on Moral Philosophy; System of Natural and Revealed Religion, and many sepa-
rate sermons and lectures.

SMITH, SEBA, 1792-1868; b. Me.; educated at Bowdoin college. After editing at
Portland the Eastern Argus, and the Courier, he removed to New York in 1842. His
Life and Letters of Major Jack Downing (1833). a series of humorous letters on political
subjects, was exceedingly popular. Among his works may be mentioned Way Down
East (1854).

SMITH, Rev. SYDNEY, a celebrated wit and humorist, and the original projector of
the Edinburgh Review, was born at Woodford, in Essex, in 1771. His father was an
eccentric English gentleman of moderate independence ; his mother was the granddaugh-
ter of a French refugee; and Sydney, it was said, fairly represented both nations. He
was educated at Winchester school, and New college, Oxford, and, having entered the
church, became curate of Amesbury in Wiltshire. "The squire of the parish," he says,
" took a fancy to me, and requested me to go with his son to reside at the university of
Weimar; before AVC got there, Germany became the seat of war, and in stress of politics
we put into Edinburgh, where I remained five years." During this time he officiated
in the Episcopal chapel there, and published Six Sermons (1800). In conjunction with a
few accomplished literary associates Jeffrey, Homer, Brougham, Dr. Thomas Brown,
Playfair, etc. Smith started the Edinburgh Review, the first number of which appeared
in Oct., 1802, constituting a new ei-a in the history of periodical literature, and of
independent thought and criticism in this country. In 1803 Smith removed to London,
and was soon popular as a preacher, as a lecturer on moral philosophy (1804-6), and
as a brilliant conversationist, the delight and wonder of society. Church preferment,
however, came slowly. In 1806, during the short reign of the whigs, he obtained from lord
Erskine, chancellor, the rectory of Foston-le-Clay, in Yorkshire; some eighteen years after
ward the duke of Devonshire gave him the living of Londesborough, worth 700 per
annum, to hold until Mr. Howard, son of the earl of Carlisle, came of age. In 1823
lord chancellor Lyndhurst presented him to a prebendal stall in Bristol, and enabled
him to exchange Foston for Combe Florey, a more desirable rectory in Somersetshire.
In 1831 earl Grey appointed him one of the canons residentiary of St. Paul's; and this
completed his round of ecclesiastical preferments. He sighed for a miter, but it never
came; and lord Melbourne is said to have regretted this omissio/i in his career as prime
minister. The writings of Smith subsequent to 1800 were his contributions to the Edin-
burgh Review, which he collected and republished, with other miscellaneous works, ia
1839; Peter Plymley's Letters, written in 1807, to promote the cause of Catholic emanci-
pation, and abounding in wit and irony worthy of Swift ; Sermons in two volumes (1809) ;
Speeches on the Catholic Claims and Reform Bill (1825-31); Three Letters to Archdeacon
Singleton on the Ecclesiastical Commission (1837-39); The Battot, a political pamphlet
(1837); Letter to Lord John Russell on the Church Bills (1838); Letters on Railways (1842);
Letters on American Debts (\%43); etc. Though gay, exuberant, and witty to the last,
Smith suffered from periodical attacks of gout and other complaints, and he died on
Feb. 22, 1845. Ten years afterward, his daughter, wife of sir Henry Holland,
physician, published a memoir of her father, with a selection from his letters.

The works of Smith were mostly written on temporary topics and controversies, yet they
bid fair to take a permanent place in our literature as specimens of clear and vigorous
reasoning, rich unctuous humor, and solid good sense. His jokes, exaggeration, and
ridicule are all logical, driving home his argument; and his wit was sportive, untinctured
with malice. His views on political and social questions were moderate, wise, and prac-
tical; and he lived to see most of them realized. He erred at times in treating Bacred
subjects with levity and seeming irreverence; but this fault was one of natural tempera-
ment, and had no root in infidelity. He was a sincere, benevolent, and a good man, a
true patriot, and a happy Christian philosopher.

SMITH, THOMAS SOUTHWOOD, 1788-1861; b. England; educated at Edinburgh univer-
sity, became a physician, and in 1820 removed to London, where he was one of the found-
ers of the Westminster Review. He became eminent in his profession, published "many
\ medical treatises, and was prominent in the passing of the "anatomy act," in ameliorat-
ing the condition of children and other factory employees, and in the adoption of sani-
i tary measures for London.

"I SMITH, WILLIAM, D.D.. 1726-93; b. Scotland; graduated at the university of Aber-
deen in 1747; came to America in 1750; had charge of a college in Philadelphia, 1751-52;
returning to England was ordained in the church of England in 1753; was inaugurated

KQ1 Smith.


In 1754 provost of the university of Pennsylvania. His works were edited by bishop
White in 8 vols.

SMITH, WILLIAM, 1769-1839; b. England; began life as a land-surveyor, became
interested in the study of geology, made a careful examination into the geological
strata of many parts of England, and collected a valuable museum of fossil remains,
and prepared notes which have been published comparing the identity of formations
where similar fossils were found. He made important geological discoveries for which
be received the Wollaston medal from the geological society, 1831. He was a popular
lecturer, and in 1828-34, took charge of the model farm of sir John V. B. Johnstone in
Yorkshire. In 1838 he was commissioned to select the stone for the new parliament
buildings, and subsequently received a government pension of 100. He pub. a treatise
on Irrigation, 1806, Mineral Survey or Deliniatiom of the Strata of England and Wales, 1815,
and other works; and also issued, 1819-24, 21 colored geological maps of English counties.

SMITH, WILLIAM, LL.D., D.C.L., b. London, 1813; graduated at the university of
London, having won the first prizes in Latin and Greek; professor of Greek, Latin, and
German, in Highburg and Homerton colleges (independent) and of the Greek and Latin
languages and literature in New college, consolidated from the former two; classical ex-
aminer in university of London, 1853; and editor of Quarterly Review, 1867. He has
published many approved classical school-books, an English-Latin dictionary, a Biblical
and classical atlas, and a series of student's histories in which he was assisted by hia
brother Philip. His dictionaries of classical antiquities, biography, and mythology, of
the Bible, and of Christian antiquities, have great value, and have attained a large circu-
lation in England and the United States.

SMITH, WILLIAM FARRAR, b. St. Albans, Vt., 1824; otherwise known as " Baldy;"
graduate of West Point, 1845; rose through successive grades to maj., 1863; assistant prof,
of mathematics at West Point 1846-48 and 1855-56. He was assigned to the survey of
the lake Superior region, Texas, and California, and was placed on the commission to
decide the Mexican boundary line. At the beginning of the rebellion he was sec. of the
light-house board, at Washington. He took command of the 3d Vt. vols., 1861, and wa
engaged in the first battle of Bull Run, on the Chickahominy, at South Mountain, Antie-
tarn, and Fredericksburg, in the latter commanding the 6th army corps. He was chief
engineer of the department of the Cumberland, of the Mississippi, at Chattanooga, and
Missionary Ridge. He commanded the 18th corps, army of the Potomac, 1864, and was
present at Cold Harbor, and Petersburg; pres. International telegraph company 1864;
brevetted col. for White Oak Swamp and Antietam; and maj. gen. for Chattanooga and
gallant service throughout the war. Resigned, 1867, and for a time was on the police
board of New York city.

SMITH, WILLIAM ROBERTSON, b. Scotland about 1848; graduated at the university of
Aberdeen, and continued his studies at Bonn, GOttingen, and Berlin; was appointed assist-
ant professor in the university of Edinburgh; and afterward professor of oriental languages
and Old Testament exegesis in the Free church college at Aberdeen. When his article
on " The Bible," in the new edition of the Encyclopaedia Brittannica appeared, it excited
suspicions of heresy which in 1876 led to charges against him in the presbytery of Aber-
deen, which referred the case to the general assembly. The assembly directed the
presbytery to go on with the trial, and the presbytery referred the matter again to the
assembly. Professor Smith having at length been suspended from his professorship and
restored by the assembly, was, on the appearance of an additional article in the Encydo-
pcedia, suspended again by the commission of the general assembly, and the case will
again come before the assembly of this year (1881).

SMITH, WILLIAM STEPHENS. 1755-1816 1 ; b. N. Y. ; educated at the college of New
Jersey. He was aid-de-camp of Sullivan, Steuben, and Washington, successively; sec-
retary of legation in London in 1785, to John Adams, whose daughter he married; sur-
veyor of New York ; a member of the assembly of that state, and of congress.

SMITH, WORTHINGTON, D.D., 1795-1856; b. Mass., graduated at Williams college,
1816; studied theology at Andover seminary, 1816-19; pastor of Congregational church
at St. Albnn's, 1823-49; and president of the university of Vermont, 1849-56. After hi*
death a volume of his sermons was edited by professor Torrey.

SMITH COLLEGE, at Northampton, Mass., for the education of women exclusively,
was founded in 1875 by the munificence of Miss Sophia Smith of Hadley, Mass, fta
endowment amounts to $400,000, and it has admirable buildings, valued at $150,000.
It has an ample and beautiful site in one of the most charming villages in the valley
of the Connecticut. Its high standard of admission, and its curriculum, place it
among colleges of the first rank. It has (1880) 24 professors and 135 student*.
L. Clark Seelye, D.D., president.

SMITHFIELD. This name has become so celebrated, in connection with a cattle-
market in London that it has been applied to similar establishments elsewhere Smith-

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 136 of 203)