Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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or reactionary effect The results of various experiments are conflicting. According to
Furbriuger the acid has no power in reducing the temperature in inflammatory fever,
but lias such power in septic fever. Zimmerman, however, found that septic fever
resulting from injecting putrid fluids in the veins of rabbits was not controlled by the
acid, a result which might have been expected. Such experiments have but little value
to the medical practitioner. As regards the effects of salicylic acid and salicylates upon
the human organism, very Inrire doses cnuse severe headache, muscular weakness and
tremor, tingling in the extremities, and raising the pulse to 140 beats per minute. The
urine gives a violet color on the addition of perchloride of iron soon after administra-
tloQ. showing a rapid passage through the system. It undergoes some change, however,
*m passing through the kidneys, because the urine does not have the power of checking
fermentation. The effects vary with circumstances and with different individuals. A
patient having rheumatism took six drams of salicylate of sodium in the course of 22
hours, and suffered no. pain in the stomach, but the appetite was improved. In one

Salient. f) A


case alarming symptoms, attended with delirium, followed the administration of one
dram. Sometime* there is roaring in the ears, disorders of vision, maniacal fury and
loss of power in the limbs. Gastric disturbance sometimes takes place resembling that
of corrosive poisoning. Children are more apt to be affected in this way than adults.
In one case of articular rheumatism a rapid cure was. thought to be taking place, when
buzzing in the ears, profuse sweats and extreme prostration came on, and the patient
died suddenly. Abelin states that acute nephritis (inflammation of the kidney) may
occur during the use of the drug. A case of urticaria is recorded as having taken place
from its use. In acute inflammations there is much contradictory evidence in regard to
the use of the medicine. One physician boasting of the antiphlogistic action of salicyline
reported a mortality of 11 cases out of 85, an unfavorable result. In diphtheria some
report favorable and others unfavorable, results. There is but little doubt, however,
that when carefully administered in smaller doses than, unfortunately, are to-> often
employed in modern practice, it may prove beneficial in some cases of Mptic disease,
and in hay fever. It has been reported to have cured cases of diabetes, but thifc may l>o
doubted; it may have suspended the elimination of sugar by the kidneys, but Si ch. an
action does not necessarily constitute a cure of this disease, which is one essentially of
assimilation and nutrition, depending usually OP a prolound affection of the nervous
system, and not to begotten rid of in any summary manner. As an external application
it has been used with benefit in several skin diseases, but it is probable that in all the
cases in which it has been used internally and externally, an equal or better effect could
have been accomplished by minute doses and applications of carbolic acid. As to it>
administration, that is to be left entirely to the physician, whether given in the form of
salicine (q.v.) salicylic acid or salicylates. It may be remarked here that when salicins
is given it is converted in the organism into salicylic acid.

SA LIENT, in heraldry, an attitude ol a lion or other beast, differing but slightly from
rampant (q.v.). He is supposed to be in the act of springing on his prey, and botu
paws are elevated. Two animals counter-salient are represented as leaping in opposite*

SALIENT, in fortification, is that which points outward from the interior of any
trork. For example, the central angle of a bastion, pointing toward the enemy, is v.
Salient angle.

SALIEN'TIA, a name sometimes applied to the order batrachia, or anovra, embrac-
ing the frogs, tree-frogs, and loads, bee BATRACHIA, FKOG, TREE-FKOG, and TOAD,

SAL'IERI, ANTONIO, 1750-1823; b. in the state of Venice; studied music in St.
Mark's cathedral, and in 1766 at Vienna under Gassman. In 1770 he produced his first
opera, Le Donne Letter ate. He became famous as a composer of dramatic and church
music. Of his operas, Les Danmcles and Tarnre are considered the best. He wrote in
all 46 operas, 3 oratorios, 8 cantatas, 2 symphonies, and many miscellaneous compositions.

SAIIF EROTTS SYSTEM, the name given by the earlier English geologists to the new
red sandstone (q.v.) formations, because the deposits of salt in England occur in these
strata. As, however, this substance has been found associated with strata of all ages in
diferent parts of the world, the name' has been given up.

SAL IFIABLE BASE, a term applied in chemistry to any substance capable of uniting
with an acid to form a salt.

SALI NA, or SALIXI, one of the Lipari islands (q.v.).

SALINE, a co. in central Arkansas, crossed by the Cairo and Fulton railroad, and
drained by Saline river and its branches; 800 sq.m.; pop. '80, 8,953. The surface is
undulating, and partly covered with forests of oak, hickory, and pine; the soil is fertile.
The principal products are corn, tobacco, honey, butter, wool, and cotton. It contains
large quarries of marble and soapstone, also slate and blue limestone. Co. seat, Benton.

SALINE, a co. in s. Illinois, drained by the middle and s. forks of the Saline river,
on the St. Louis and South-eastern, and the Cairo and Vincennes railroads; about
390 sq.m.; pop. '80, 15,94015,809 of American birth. The surface is rolling and
heavily timbered. The soil is fertile. The principal productions are corn, wheat,
tobacco, and live stock. Co. seat, Harrisburg.

SALINE, a co. in central Kansas; drained by the Smoky Hill and Sali'ie rivers;
traversed by the Kansas Pacific railroad; 720 sq.m; pop. '80, 13.81010,398 of Ameri-
can birth. The surface is mostly fertile prairie; wheat, corn, oats, hay, potatoes, and
butter are the staples. Co. seat, Saline.

SALINE, a co. in central Missouri, bounded n. and e. by the Missouri river, and
drained by branches of La Mine river; 750 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 29,988 28,683 of American
birth. 4.936 colored. The surface is mostly prairie land, and the soil rich. Coal, lead,
and building stone, are found. Tobacco, corn, sweet-potatoes, and sorghum are staples..
Co. seat, Marsa.-dl.

SALINE, a co. in s.e. Nebraska, crossed by the Burlington and Missouri River rail-
road, and drained by the Big Blue, and the north fork of Turkey creek; 576 sq.m.;

. p.-\ Salient.


pop. '80, 14,491. The surface is rolling; the soil is fertile. The principal productions
are corn, hay, live stock, and potatoes. Co. seat, Pleasant Hill.

SA LINE PLANTS are those which require for their healthy and vigorous growth
a considerable supply of cltlorule of sodium (common salt) and oilier salts, and which are
therefore limited to peculiar situations. Few of them are strictly aquatic plants, except
the marine, alga?, or sea-weeds, which grow immersed in salt water, either always or in
certain states of the tide, and derive their nourishment from it through their fronds, and
not by roots, from the rock to which they are attached. Grass-wrack (q.v.), however, is
an instance of a phanerogamous plant living. entirely and always immersed in salt-water.
Other phanerogamous plants grow chiefly or only on the sea-shore and in salt marshes.
Some of these, however, as the sea-kale, may be cultivated in gardens remote from the
sea, but they succeed best when liberally supplied with salt. Asparagus is another
well-known garden-plant, which derives much benefit from similar treatment. Some
of the saltworts (q.v.) and other saline plants yield much soda when collected and
burned, and the produce was at' one time largely imported into Britain from Spain and
other countries under the name of barilla (q.v.). The dry steppes of Russia and Tartary,
having in many places a strongly saline soil, are covered with a very peculiar vegeta-
tion. Among 'the ornaments of these steppes is halimodendron argenteum, a shrub of
the natural order leguminosae, often cultivated in gardens for its beautiful rose-colored
flowers and silvery-gray leaves. Saline plants have their whole tissues impregnated
with salt.

SALINE POWDER, COMPOUND, is a very popular and harmless form of aperient medi-
cine. The ordinary method of preparing it is by drying, at a gentle heat, and then pulver-
izing 4 oz. of pure chloride of sodium (common salt), 4 oz. of sulphate of magnesia (Epsom
salts), and 3 oz. of sulphate of potash. These salts must then be mixed and triturated
together, and kept in an air-tight vessel. Two or three drams dissolved in half apint,of
water, and taken- before breakfast, usually act efficiently. Dr. Neligan states that if
4 oz. of sulphate of soda be used instead of the sulphate of potash, and a sufficiently
high temperature be employed to expel all the water of crystaDization from the different
ingredients, one dram of the resulting compound acts as energetically as two or three
drams of the ordinary powder.

The following \A a more agreeable form than the preceding, and equally efficacious.
Take half an ounce of carbonate of magnesia, and r,n ounce of each of the following
substances viz., sulphate of magnesia, bicarbonate of soda, tartrate of soda and potash,
and tartaric acid. Expel all the water of crystallization, and mix. This powder, if
kept dry, effervesces when mixed with water, and one or two teaspoonfuls form the
average dose. The addition of a drop of oil of lemon and a little powdered white sugar
to each dose, makes this one of the most agreeable laxatives that can be prescr.bed.

SALIH3 (anc. $altna>), a t. of the department of Jura, France, 52 m. n. by w. from
Geneva, on the Furieuse. a feeder of the Doubs. It is situated in a narrow rocky gorge
between two lofty hills, looking upon a fertile and beautiful valley. It derives its impor-
tance from its salt-works, from which also it has its name. The salt is obtained from
brine-springs, and the evaporation of the brine is mostly carried on in a great building,
in the valley below the town, which has long borne the name of the &tlines Royales;
but that of the weaker springs is conveyed in pipes to the forest of Chaux. 15 m. off,
where it is first slowly evaporated in maisom de graduation, and afterward by boiling.
There are iron-works, soda-factories, tanneries, and quarries of gypsum in Salins and its
immediate neighborhood. Pop. '76, 5,577

SALISBURY, a village in n.w. Connecticut, on the Housatonic river and the Con-
necticut Western railroad; pop. '80, 3,715. It is in Litchficld co. in the midst of a fertile
region, noted for its picturesque scenery The surface is mountainous, and in the
vicinity are 5 beautiful lakes. It is 63 m. from Hartford. Iron ore abounds. It has 7
ore mines, 2 blast furnaces, the railroad repair shops of the Housatonic railroad, 2 iron
foundries, 2 woolen mills, and a manufactory of railway car wheels. It is the seat of an
institution for feeble-minded persons, and comprises the villages of Salisbury, Chapin-
ville, Lakevillc, Lime Rock, and Ore Hill. Its scenery makes it an attractive summer

| SALISBURY, or NEW SARUM, the capital of Wiltshire, is an episc'opal city, and a
municipal and parliamentary borough, and stands in a fertile valley on the Avon, at the
junction of that river with two of its affluents, 83 m. s.w. of London by the South-west-
ern railway, and 23 m. n.w. of Southampton* by a branch of the same. Its several pi^rts
are connected by 3 bridges. The town dates from 1220. in which year the cathedral w.-ia
founded, and the inhabitants of Old Sarum (see SARUM, OLD), 2 m.* to the n., removed to
Salisbury, attracted to the new site by the abundant supply of water. At the founda-
tion of the town, the ground was divided into squares, or " chequers" as they arc failed,
to which the town is inm-b-ed for its appearance of airiness and regularity. The e-'the-
dral, the principal building of Salisbury, is one of the finest specimens of early English
in the country. It was begun in 1220, and was finished in 1258. The spire, which w;s
added after the building was completed, is the "most elegant in proportions and the
loftiest in England." Its height from the pavement is 400ft., only 60 ft. less tlum lhat in

Salisbury. ff)

Salivation. Uw

S'.rssburg. The cathedral is 449 ft. long; height in the interior, 81 ft. ; width of great tran-
sept, 203 feet. It is in the form of a double cross, is perfect in its plan and proportions,
and in the main uniform in style. The \\. front is still rich, beautiful, and giaceful,
though now denuded of statues, upward of 100 in number, with which it was once
enriched. The cathedral has been recently restored. Tiie manufactures of cutlery and
clo.h, for which it was once famous, have long declined, and its trade is now chieliy in
retail. Pop. '71, 13,839. It returns two members to parliament.

SALISBURY, EDWAUD E., a distinguished oriental scholar and linguist, professor of
Sanskrit at Yale college for 13 years, from 1841, and of Arabic for nearly 20 years.
Prof. Salisbury has for many years been editor of and contributor to. the Journal of the
American oriental society, of which he was one of the founders. The present Sanskrit
professorship of the college was endowed by him.

land, 183); educated at Eton and Oxford, lie was a conservative member of parlia-
ment, 1853-6^, when he succeeded to the title. During t'histune he contributed much to
periodicals. lie was secretary of state for India in lord Derby's third administration in
1863, but resigned the next year, differing with him as to the reform bill, lie was again
secretary of state for India in the Disraeli cabinet of 1874. Two years later he was sent
as special ambassador to Turkey, and with sir Henry Elliot represented Great Britain at
the conference of Constantinople, in whose proceedings he took a leading part. In 18T8
he succeeded lord Derby as secretary of state for foreign affairs, and soon afterward,
with the earl of Beaconsfield, represented Great Britain at the conference of Berlin, lie
went out of office with the Beaconsfield administration in 1880, and has since vigorously
opposed the foreign policy of the Gladstone government. He is now (lf>81) leader of
the conservatives in the house of lords, and a candidate for the leadership of that party.

SALISBURY PLAIN, an extensive tract of undulating chalk country, in Wiltshire,
befwccn Salisbury and Devizes, about 20 m. long from n. to s., and about 14 m. broad.
Its rolling surface resembles that of the ocean heaving after a storm. On this plain,
about 8 m. n. of Salisbury, is Stonehenge (q. v.). Until within recent years, the expanse
of Salisbury plain ivmained in a state of nature, and was covered with a tine turf, which
afforded pasture to sheep. The natural features of the plain, however, are now much
changed. North and s. of Stonehenge, wild slopes of thistle-covered turf still extend;
but both e. and w of it, the country is laid out in cultivated fields; and within gun-shot
of the des late old relic, is a neat modern farm-house.

SALISH, or SELISH, an Indian family of the Columbian group, in Idaho. Montana,
and Washington territories; between theSahaptins and the Shush wape. They comprise
the Flatheads in Montana; the Spokanes on the river of that name; the Skitsuish on
lake Skitsuish; the Pisquorises on the Columbia; the Kalispels, of whom there are three
groups, and the Colvillis. about Kettle Falls, on the Columbia. Many of these tribes are
Roman Catholics. Their language and customs are not much different from a number
of tribes of the Shushwap family.

SALIVAHANA is the name of a Hindu prince who is said to have reigned i:i Mugadha
or South Behar. He instituted an era which bears his name, and the beginning or which
took place when 3,179 years of the Kali-yuga. or the present mundane age, had expired;
that is, 73 years after the beginning of the Christian era. This era is called S'alivahana
Saka or simply S'aka. Thus 1865 of the Christian era would be tantamount to S'uka
(i.e., in the S'ika era), 1787. The S'aka year is the same as, and begins with, the com-
mon solar year.

SAL IVARY GLANDS. Under this name we designate three pair* of glands the
parotid, the sub.naxillary, and the sublingual, each gland having an efferent duct, which
conveys the glandular secretions into the mouth, where, when mixed with the mucus
secreted by tiie follicles of the mucous membrane lining the mouth, they constitute the
ordinary or mixed saliva.

The parotid g'and, so called from the Greek words para, near, and ous, the ear, is the
largest of the three glands occurring on either side. It lies upon the side of the face
immediately in front of the external ear, and weighs from half an ounce to an ounce.
Its duct is about two inches and a half in length, and opens into the mouth by a small
orifice opposite the second molar tooth of the upper jaw. The walls of the duct are
dense and somewhat thick, and the caliler is nbont that of a crow-quill.

The nnbiniLfUUry fj'aad is situated, as its name implies, below the jawbone, and is
placed at nearly equal distances from the parotid and sublingual glands. Its duct is
about two inches in lemrth, and opens by a narrow orifice on the top of u papilla, at the
side of \\wfrcenum of the tongue.

The sublingual c/l.nd is situated, as its name implies, under the tongue, each gland
lying on either side of the/ra/rm of the tongue. It has a number of excretory ducts,
which open separately into the mouth.

The minute structure of the parotid gland is described in the article GLANDS, and the
other salivary glands are similarly constituted. True salivary glands exist in all mam-
mals, except the cetacea, in birds, and reptiles (including amphibians), but not in tishee;
and glands discharging a similar function occur in insects, many mollusks, etc. The

O Salisbury.


chemical and physical characters of the saliva are sufficiently described in the article

The most common disease of the pnrotid gland is a specific inflammation, which has
been already described in the article MUMPS. The term parotid tumors is given to
tumors of various kinds occurring in front of the ear and over the parotid gland. With
regard to surgical interference, Liston recommends that "if there he reason to suspect
that the disease is of a malignant nature, and not thoroughly limited by a cellular cyst,
no interference is admissible; if, on the contrary, it be at all movable, has advanced
slowly, possesses a smooth surface, and is firm, then an operation may be contemplated."

Certain functional disorders of the salivary glands require notice, of which the most
important is that known as salivation (q.v.), or ptyalixin, which consists in a much
increased secretion of saliva. Deficient Accretion is indicate;! by clamminess or dry ness
of the mouth, and is common in low forms of fever. It is important as indicating the
condition of the system, and seldom requires treatment. If it should occur as an original
affection, it must be treated by local sialogogues (q.v.), such as liquorice, horse-radish,
pellitory, etc. Alteration of the nailed is not unlrcquent in disease. For example, it
sometimes loses its alkaline character, and becomes acid, as in acute rheumatism, dia-
betes, etc. ; whilst in other cases, it becomes so fetid as to lie a source of annoyance both
to the patient and his friends, as, for example, in scurvy, various forms of dyspepsia,
salivation, etc. The undue acidity may be corrected by tlie administration of carbonate
or bicarbonate of soda, while the fetor may be relieved by attention to diet, and by
the use, both local and general, of creosote, nitre-muriatic acid, charcoal, chlorate of
potash, etc.

Ordiiun-i/ inflammation of these glands (distinct from mumps) may proceed from cold
or local injury, but it is often produced by decayed teeth.

SALIVATION, or PTYAi,isM.(from the Gr. ntyalon, the snliv.i), is the term employed to
designate an abnormally abundant flow of saliva. It most commonly arises from a ^p>
cific form of inflammation of the parotid glands, induced by the action of mercury, in
which case it is termed mercurial salivation; but it occasionally arises from the action of
other drugs, especially iodide of potassium; and sometimes it. occurs without any apparent
cause, in whic.i case it is said to be idtopathic, or spontaneous.

Meivury, in some form or is so common an ingredient in the quack medicines
\vh.>se advertisements are unfortunately allowed to occupy a large space in many of our
new>p ipers (especially in those medicines which are falsely stated to be of purely vegetable,
oi'Jc/in), that a popular knowledge of the most remarkable manifestations of this powerful
mineral should be as widelv diffused as possible. When this medicine is given in such
a way as to exci.'c salivation, a metallic taste in the mouth is soon recognized by the
patient, and a remarkable but indescribable smell, known as the mercurial fel or. may
be detected in his breath: the gums become swollen and spongy at their edges, and
usually present a few slight ulcers; and an increased flow of saliva takes place, accom-
panied by pain in the teeth on pressure. If these symptoms lie not checked (and it- fortiori
jf more mercury be given), the tongue, cheeks, and throat swell and ulcerate, and the
saliva that flows away amounts to several pints in the course of the day. This peculiar
action of mercury varies extremely in different persons. Dr. Watson, in his 14th lecture,
records several remarkable cases in which a single small dose of mercury produced the
severest salivation. Cases of the opposite kind, in which no impression on the gums or
salnary glands can be made by the freest use of mercury, are by no means uncommon.
It is worthy of notice that salivation is rarely produced in children below the age of ten
years. Until a comparatively recent period, salivation was deemed the only
certain indication that the system was duly under the influence of mercury (and, indeed,
it was believed that the cause of the disease was carried out of the body with the saliva);
but now it is well known that all that is requisite is. that the gums should become dis-
tinctly tender, and that the mercurial fetor should be unmistakably present, and that
those symptoms should be kept up for a certain time. Unfortunately, however, the
physician cannot always stop the action of the mercury at that definite stage, and saliva-
tion to a distressing extent often occurs, even when the greatest care h:;s been taken in
the administration of the medicine. To check this excessive salivation, the internal
administration of chlorate of potash in scruple doses, three times a day. together with
the frequent use of a gargle of the same salt, has been recommended by several Iiigh
authorities. Dr. Watson strongly advocates the use of a gargle composed of one pjirt of
brandy to four or five of water, and the application of moistened tannin to the gums;
and wlien there is much external swelling, he applies eight or ten leeches beneath the
edges of the jaw-bones; followed by the application of a soft hot poultice to the neck.

It is worthy of notice that, in the confluent form of small-pox, there is almost always
more or less abundant salivation, which lasts for several days; and if it cease abruptly,
the peril is usually great. Moreover, there is a more or less marked tendency to saliva-
tion in scurvy, hysteria, hydrophobia, some forms of mania, and not uufrequeutiy in

Various cases of spontaneous salivation have been collected by Dr. Watson in his
44ih lecture. In one instance of a girl ten years old, under his own care, no less than
three pints of saliva were excreted in twelve hours. Medicine had no effect; but the

Salix. f*A


salivation finally ceased spontaneously after a severe attack of influenza. In these cases,
astringent washes, as a solution of alum, or the infusion of catechu, or a few drops of
creosote suspended by mucilage in waiter, are deserving of trial.



SAL LEE, or SLA, a seaport t. of Morocco, in the territory and former kingdom of
Fez, 106 in. w. from Fez. It stands on a low sandy point of the shore of the Atlantic,
at the mouth of the Bu-Regreb, on the northern side of the river, while opposite to it,
on the southern side, is the town of Rabat. Both Bailee and Rabat were bombarded and

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 14 of 203)