Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 140 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 140 of 203)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

surfaces covered with vegetation. It is higher in the center of continents than near the
coasts (the rain being less and the heat greater), as seen on comparing the Pyrenees and
Caucasus; and on the e than on the w. coasts of continents, which is strikingly illus-
trated by Kamtchatka (5,249) and Unalashka (3,510), situated respectively on the vv. and
e. coasts of the n. Pacific. South of the equator it rises from to 18 very considerably,
and more so on the w. than on the e. of the Cordilleras, owing to the small amount of
rain and snow which falls on the w. of these mountains. It is as high in 83 s. lat. as
in 19 n. hit. ; but s. of this it sinks very rapidly, so that in the s. of Chili it is 6,000 ft.
lower than in the same latitude in the Rocky mountains, and 3.000 lower than in western
Europe. The mean temperature of the snow-line varies much from the equator to the
pole from 35 to 20 Fulir. In the Alps it is about 25; and in Norway about 23.

/>A~ Snow.


SNOW-SHOES, a species of shoe much used by the Esquimaux, Laplanders, and others
who inhabit those regions where snow prevails for a gnat portion of the year. It con-
sists of a flat frame, of a lanceolate form, from 8 to 14 in. in breadth at its widest part,
and of great length sometimes as much as 7, though generally about 4 feet. It is either
wholly of wood or is a wooden frame tilled in with wicker- work or thongs, and has
cross-straps on the upper surface to attach it to the foot. The broad surface prevents
the foot from sinking in the snow.


SNYDER, a co. in central Pcnn., bordered by the Snsquehanr.a river on the e., crossed

- by the Lewistown branch of the Pennsylvania railroad, drained by Penn's and Middle
creeks; 300 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 1797. The surface is mountainous and mostly covered
with forests of oak, chestnut and hickory; the soil is fertile. The main productions are
wheat, corn, hay, wool, clover seed, and lumber; cattle, sheep, and swine are raised.
It contains large deposits of coal and iron. The Pennsylvania canal is on the e. bonier.
It has manufactories of carriages and wagons, tanned and curried leather, also flour and
saw mills. Co. seat, Middleburg.

SNYDERS, or SNEYDEES, FKANCIS, a Belgian artist, celebrated for his powers as an
animal painter, was b. at Antwerp in 1579, and was formed in the school of Henry
van Baelen. Originally, he confined himself exclusively to painting fruits, and worked
with Rubens. In his pictures, with figures by Rubens, Jordaens, llonthorst, and Miere-
velt, it is difficult to discover any difference of touch. For Philip III. of Spain he exe-
cuted several hunting and battle pieces. Suyders knew how to give expression to the
passions of the lower creation, and his bear, wolf, and boar tights are scarcely surpassa-
ble. The best specimens of the artist are contained in the galleries of Vienna, Munich,
and Dresden, but there are also some line pictures of his in private English collections.
Snyders died at Antwerp in 1657.

SOAP (Lat. f<apo(n), Welsh sebontlie Romans considered soap to be a Celtic inven-
tion). This well-known material, according to Pliny, first became known to the Romans
by their conquest of Gaul. There are some notices of it in the English version of the
Bible, but it is believed that the words borith and nether, there rendered into soap, really
mean potash and soda.

The chemical composition of soap maybe explained as follows: The fixed fatty bodies,
stearine, palmitine, and oleine (we do not include margarine, for it is now generally
admitted that the fat to which this name was applied is mercjly a mixture of steariueand
palmitine), when heated with alkaline solutions, undergo the remarkable change known
under the title sa.ponification, or conversion into soap, during which process the fats
yield up a clear viscid liquid, which, from its sweetness, is termed glycerins (q. v.). The
nature of this change may be ascertained by decomposing the soap that is thus formed,
and which exists as a homogeneous transparent mass, freely soluble in warm water, by
the addition of some acid, such as tartaric or hydrochloric, which combines with the
alkali, and forms a soluble compound with it. A fatty matter separates in flakes, which
inelt on the application of heat, and form an oily layer on the surface of the fluid. This
substance, when cold, is found to be very different from the original fat. It has
acquired a strongly acid reaction, as may be ascertained by applying test-paper to it in
its melted state, and it is freely soluble in alcohol, the solution being strongly acid. It
at once forms a clear solution in hot alkaline liquids, while the original fat would under
similar conditions have formed a milky-looking fluid. It is, in fact, a true acid, capable
of forming salts, the potash and soda salts being known as soft-soap and fiard-wafywhfah
have been thus generated out of the elements of the neutral fat under the influence of
the alkali. Steariue, when thus treated, yields stearic acid (q.v.); palmitine yields
palmitic acid (q.v.); and oleine, oleic acid (q.v.); while common fat. which is a mixture
of the three above-named fats, affords, on saponification with an alkali, and subsequent
decomposition of the soap, a mixture of the three fatty acids.

The term soap is sometimes extended in meaning, so as to include compounds of the
fatty acids with other bases besides the alkalies, e.g., lime, baryta, magnesia, etc.; but
these compounds being insoluble are inapplicable to the purpose of cleaning. The true
soaps owe their cleaning power to their solubility, and their attraction for the matters

that ordinarily constitute "dirtiness." The presence of a portion of free alkali increases
the detergeut power, especially in the case of greasy matter.

Manufacture. In this country, and in the n. of Europe generally, hard-soap is made
from tallow, palm-oil, bone grease, and kitchen fat, by boiling to saturation with caus-
tic-soda. Cocoa, palm nut, and some other oils are occasionally used, chiefly in imitat-
ing supvrior sonps, and the only other ingredient of consequence is rosin, the residuum of
the distillation of rough turpentine. In the s. of Europe, coarse olive-oil is the staple
material, and from this is produced the marbled soap known as "Marseilles."

The soap-maker first dissolves in boiling water 6 to 8 cwt. of crude soda nsh (see
SODA) in a cast-iron circular vessel (contents may be 1000 gals.), furnished with a steam-
pipe in its center. He then adds half the weight of pure caustic lime, and boils the
mixture. When the lime has rendered the soda caustic, the boiling is discontinued,
subsidence takes place, and the lye is ready for use.

Soap-puns are of various sizes. One of moderate dimensions may turn out from six


to eight tons, ;md is usually formed of four pieces of cast-iron lower casting, say UTS
feet in diameter; upper, eleven. Heat is applied either by means of a furnace beneath
the bottom piece, or by open steam introduced by a pipe led to a circular perforated
ring at tlie bottom of the pan. Steam boiling being now extensively adopted, our
description will apply to that method..

Curd or White ISoap. 20 cvvt. of tallow being put into the soap-pan, and a quantity
of the prepared lye, steam is turned on, and boiling continued until the lye is thoroughly
incorporated with the tallow, and becomes a pasty ma>s. A few shovelfuls of common
salt are now thrown in when the lye begins to separate. The partially formed soap is
allowed to cool, and the salted lye, now deprived of its soda, subsides, and is drawn off
from the bottom by a pipe, or removed by a pump. The operation of adding and boil-
ing with lye is repeated until tlie tallow is saturated with soda, and the lyes show as
much alkali after boiling as before. The soap is now treated with weaker lye, and by
more or less water brought to the consistency the maker requires. From its tendency
to thicken rapidly, it is transferred to the frame at a higher temperature than the soap
next described.

Pale or Yellow Soap. When the tallow is saponified as above described, about one-
third of its \Veight of rosin is added, and the boilings with lye repeated, un'il the mass
is thoroughly saponified. The practiced workman being aware that perfect soap is
insoluble in strong alkali, avoids the risk of imperfect particles escaping the action of
the lye from being enveloped in perfect soap, by reducing the mass with water, and
adding lye gradually until the soap again floats as a curd on the liquid. The soap is
then cooled down, and the lye being removed as completely as possible, it is boiled with
the quantity of water necessary to bring it to the consistency required. These later
operations require much experience, and the best theoretical knowledge requires the
aid of tongue and eye to carry them through with success. The soap being now % /m-
ished (the technical term), the copper is covered up, and the contents allowed to settle
until the temperature falls to about 160 Fahrenheit. According to the quantity of
water used, so is the deposit, called the nigre, greater or less. When too much water is
used, the produce of soap is too small; when too little, the produce is large, buf of infe-
rior quality, from the insufficient deposit of impurities. This nigre is employed in mak-
ing second-class soap. When of proper temperature, the soap is removed, into frames,
now mostly made of fast-iron, containing about 10 cwt. each, where, after solidifying,
which it does in three days, it is cut by viie into slabs, which are again cut transversely
into bars ready for the market.

London iiivttlcd is made of kitchen fat (no rosin). The process described in the mak-
ing of curd soap is followed here, except that when perfect the soap is, when almost boil-
ing, put into wooden frames three or four times as high as the ordinary frame of 5'2 in., and
the lye allowed to percolate through the soap to the lower part, of tlie frame, producing
the mottled appearance desired. As this soap, when subjected to any mixing operation,
lost its mottle, it long enjoyed a high reputation as a genuine so;ip; but now that cheap
imitations, having a beautifully marbled appearance, are produced from cocoa and palm
nut oils, with coloring and siliceous matter, its prestige is somewhat on the wane.

The numerous patents taken out for improvements in soap-making have had for the
most part more the object of cheapening, by the addition of various articles to soap iu
its semi fluid state, than of improving the manufacture.

S<>ft-*np differs from Inrd from having potash for its base instead of soda. The
repeated changes of lye described in the manufacture of hard soap are here inadmissible,
for all the lye employed remains in combination with the oily materials, and is never
separated. Hence open steam, as throwing in water into the mass, cannot be applied,
nor can salt, so useful an agent in the former manufacture, be used, as it would tend to
separate the soap from the lye, while a thorough combination is essential. The making
of soft-soap requires much experience and nicety, it being so easy to overdo the supply
of alkali, which cannot happen iu hard-soap. A ton of materials, consisting of 1900 Ibs.
offish or other oil, with 340 Ibs. tallow, is put into the soap-pan with 200 gallons of
American potash lye of such strength that 6,600 grains of real potash are in each. After
being bailed by the heat of a furnace, and well beat down on the surface to keep in
bounds the frothy mass, a stronger lye, containing about 8,700 grains of potash per gal-
lon, is added at short intervals, and the 'ooiling carried on until the workman ascertains
by taste and appearance that the soap is perfect. The tallow serves to give consistency
to the so;tp, and also produces white specks of stcarate of potash, which much enhance
its appearance.

SOAP, MEDICAL USES OP. The only kind of soap that should be used internally is
white i>da soap. It is prepared from caustic soda and either olive or almond oil. In its
purest stale it is called medicinal soap, while in its less pure forms it is known as Alleant,
Venice, or Spanish soap. When properly made, it should be perfectly soluble in pure
water and in alcohol. It is chiefly employed to form pills of a gently aperient and ant-
acid action. Pills containing a combination of soap and dried carbonate of soda are of
great use in certain forms of gravel. Soap is often added to pills as in, or for
the purpose of preventing them from becoming hard and insoluble. Wl.'ite so-ip affords
a ready antidote in cases of pisoning with the strong mmorai v.rh Foft-w>nj> ou^ht to


be made with olive oil and potash, and it should be of yellowish-white color, inodorous,
and of i he consistence of thick honey. It is of great service as au external application,
either aloiic or in association with sulphurel of potash and other remedies, iu various
cutaneous affections.

SOAPBERRY, fapindus saponaria, a West Indian tree of the natural order aapindacea,
the pulp of the fruit of which is used instead of soap in washing. This property belongs
to oilier species of the same genus. With the exception of 8. marginatus, found in the
southern states of North America the genus is entirely tropical. The use of the pulp as
soap, if often repeated, is apt to injure linen; but it is capable of cleansing as much linen
as sixty times its weight of soap. Each fruit contains a nut of a shining black color.
These nuts are very hard, and were formerly imported into Europe to he m.-.dc into waist-
coat buttons, being tipped with silver or other ructal. They were little liable either to
be injured by wearing or to be broken.


SOAP-TEST. This test, for which science is indebted to prof. Clark of Aberdeen, is
now universally employed for determining the degree of hardness of water. Every one
knows how much more readily a lather is formed as, for example, in washing the hands
with soft than with hard water. This is accounted for by the earthy bases of the
hard water displacing the alkaline bases of the soap, and forming compounds insoluble
in water. This is the foundation of the soap-test. A hard water of known strength is
first prepared by dissolving 10 'grains of pure carbonate of lime in pure hydrochloric acid,
evaporating to dryness. a-nd Iving the resulting chloride of calcium in a gallon of
di.-tilled water. This gallon of chloride of calcium solution accurately represents a natural
water whose hardness is due to 16 grains of carbonate of Lme in a gallon. A solution of
soup in proof-spirit is next prepared of such strength as that a quantity of it which will fill
82 measures of a volumetric tube, each measure of which contains 10 grains, will be
exactly able to convert 1000 grains' measure of the standard solution of hard water into
the earthy soap described. This point is thus ascertained: The hard waler is placed in
a stoppered bottle, and the soap solution added to it by degrees, the bottle beir.g shaken
after each addition, when a I ml Me will form, which vapidly disappears so long as any
lime is present; but when at last it is all used up, a froth of soap bubbles remains after
hard shaking, such as to last unbroken for three minutes. If, now, a given sample of
water be examined, and this point is reached at the expense of the entire 32 measures, it
is a water of 16 degrees of hardness. Now, perfectly soft water consumes 2 measures of
the soap solution before permanent bubbles are formed, so that a water of 16 degrees of

hardness has in reality only consumed 30 measures of the soap solution. But = 0.53;


hence, if any given measures of the soap-test be used in estimating the hardness of a.
water, we must first subtract 2 from the amount, and then multiply by 0.53; and the
result will give us the degree of hardness. For example, let a given sample require 27
measures of the soap test. On subtracting 2 and multiplying by 0. 53, we find its hard-
ness to be 12.25. Clark's Soap-test Table for Hardness of Water is given iu the article
"Soap-test" in Knight's Ear/Halt Cyclopaedia; and full details regarding the mode of work-
ing the test, to determine the amount of lime, magnesia, soda, sulphuric acid, and pure
carbonic acid, are given in Dr. Parkes's Manual of Practical Hygiene (Loud. 18G4).

SOAPWOST, Saponaria, a genus of plants of the natural order caryophyllacece, having a
cylindrical or ventricose 5-toothed calyx, without any outer calyx or attendant bract cae,
five undivided petals with long claws, ten stamens, two stigmas, and a capsule opening
at the top by four valves. Some of the species have very beautiful flowers. 8. mlnbrim
has of late become one of the most favorite annuals pf cur flower-gardens. COMMON
SOAPWORT (S. officinalis) is found on waysides, in thickets, and on the banks of streams,
in most parts of Europe, although it is a somewhat doubtful native of Britain. Both the
root and the leaves contain saponine (q.v.). in consequence of which they are sometimes
employed for washing. The brownish-red color of the baik of the root, however, is apt
to tinge white articles. The root of this plant has also medicinal properties, being ap< ri-
t-nt, resolvent, and alterative. It is sometimes sold as RED SOAP-ROOT.

Nearly allied to the genus saponarin, but having an angular calyx and a 5-valved
capsule, is the genus fnfpsopfula, some species of which are called SOAP-KOOT, and con
lain much saponin. Thus, the EGYPTIAN SOAP-ROOT. (G. strutftitiin), and the SPANISH
SOAP-KOOT (G. Ilispanica), called Jabonera in Spain, have been employed for washing
from time immemorial, and the roots not having a dark rind can be used for washing
white articles, and are to some extent an article of commerce, being used for silken
and other stuffs, the colors of which will not bear the application of soap. The roots of
lychnis dimca, one of the most common British plants, possess the same properties in an
inferior degree. The bark of qitillnjn saponaria, a Chilian tree of the natural order
Rosac&s, contains much saponin. is generally used for washing in Chili and Peru, and
there forms a considerable article of commerce. Some of the tropical South Sea islands
produce a species of vine (ritu mponarin), the stem of which, especially the thicker
part, cut into pieces, and softened by cooking on hot stones, produces in water a rich
Jather almost equal to that of soap. See also SOLAJTUM.


v>O*Jlt lA

S022I1JG is merely a modification of the ordinary movements of respiration excited
by menial emotions. It is the consequence of a series of short convulsive contractions
of the diaphragm, and is usually accompanied by a closure of the glottis, temporarily
preventing the entrance of air into the lungs.

S93BAON,' a village on the left bank of the Sutlej, 25 m. e.n.e. of Ferozpur, near
which on Feb. 10, 1848, a most obstinate battle was fought between the British army of
15,000 men, under sir Hugh Gough, and a Sikh force numbering 80,000. The Sikhs
were strongly intrenched, and vigorously resisted the attacks of their opponents, but the
courage and"pei - severance of the latler ultimately gave them the mastery; the various
earthworks were captured in succession, and the Sikhs driven across the Sutlej, with a
loss in killed, wounded, and drowned of 13,000. Gough immediately followed up his
victory by crossing into the Punjab in pursuit of the fleeing enemy.

SOCAGE, or SOCCAGE (originally hlaford-socn, seeking a lord; whence we have also
toe, a rij

tricfs of England." At the time 'when the allodial tenure was converted Futo immediate
dependence on the crown, this tenure seems to have arisen out -of the necessity for com-
mendation or seeking a lord. In Domesday, socmen are often mentioned as bound "to
seek a lord," or free to go with their land where they pleased. The socmeu of Stam-
ford are said to be free to seek a lord, being only liable to the king for the toll attached
to them as inhabitants of a borough. The obligation of socage in its origin has been
compared to the mutual bonds of allegiance of Liter times so common in tne highlands
of Scotland, and known as bonds of man rent (see MANRENT). Three kinds of socage
have been enumerated as existing at a later period viz., free and common socage, soc-
age in ancient tenure, and socage in base tenure. The second and third kind are equiva-
lent to tenure in ancient demesne and copyhold tenure (see DEMESNE, ANCIENT and
COPYHOLD), and the first is what has generally and more properly been denominated soc-
age, where the services were both certain and honorable. Besides fealty, which the
socager was bound to do when required, he was obliged to give attendance at the court
baron of his lord, if he held one, either for a manor or for a seignipry in gross. _

By an act passed during the commonwealth, and confirmad after the restoration by 1"
Car. II. c. 2i, tenure by knight-service was abolished, and all lands except church-land.}
held in free alms, were directed to be held in free and common socage, which is now
(with that exception) .the universal tenure of real property in England and Ireland.

Socage tenures are unknown in Scotland, where, unless at a very early period, they
never existed.

SOCIALISM, the name given to a class of opinions opposed to the present organization
of society, and which seeks to introduce a new distribution of property and labor, i.i
which organized co-operation rather than competition should be the dominating principle,
under the conviction that the happiness of the race, and especially of the classes with-
out capital, would be benefited thereby. Historically considered, socialism, like many
of the significant phenomena of our age, is a product of the French revolution. That
terrible outburst of popular discontent is most properly regarded as an anarchic attnck
on the social system that had its roots in the feudalism of the middle ages. The furious
hatred of the court and the aristocracy, the passionate love of the "people, "of "human-
ity," of "liberty," though called forth by special circumstances, and never formally
worked out into a theory of social life, virtually contained in themselves the germs of
all later proposed organizations. In the middle ages, the right of freely and fully enjoy-
ing life, property, and political independence was limited to a favored few; while the
great masses were condemned to dumb servitude, and a perpetual minority. Even the
industrial population did not recognize the socialistic idea. The members of the differ-
ent guilds or fraternities claimed exclusive right to exercise certain branches of industry,
and probably the great majority of the inhabitants of a town remained in a disregarded
and dependent state. Amid such social conditions, resting, as they did, on a belief in
the necessity of different distinct ranks, the free action of individual life, and even the
vital progress of the whole community, became well-nigh impossible. "We have not
space here to trace the course of the various minor reforms that weakened the authority
of the mediaeval theory of life; but we must not omit to notice the speculations of the
"< political philosophers of the ISth c. in France, England, and Germany, as operating
powerfully in favor of a new social system, in which the idea of humanity (assuming,
at the French revolution, as we have observed, the concrete form of the " people") stands
out prominently. Nevertheless, the first shape that the modern spirit of industry took
was not socialistic, in the strict and proper sense of the term; it was rather individualis-
tic, and found, as it still finds for it is yet the prevailing theory its natural expression
in such proverbs as, " A fair field, and no favor;" " Every one for himself, and God for
us all." But still, even this lawless individualism is to be regarded as a protest against
the false e&m-legislation of preceding times, and as an assertion of the absolute right of
each me.mner nf society to a share in the general welfare. That it has not universally com-
mended itself to civilized mankind as a perfect system, is demonstrated by the appear-
ance and temporary popularity of such schemes of society as those of Owen (q.v.), Fou-



Tier (q.>v.), St. Simon (q.v.), and the enthusiasm excited at intervals in different parts of
Europe by the promulgation of extreme communistic opinions. See COMMUNISM. It is
objected to socialism, under its various forms, that it makes human happiness too much

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 140 of 203)