Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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was made for this purpose in the city of Washington, distant about 3i in. from the
capital; including, with later purchases, about 460 acres. This is, ia fact, the only
permanently established soldiers' home under the act of 1851. It comprehends a farm,
orchards, gardens, park, etc.; the building is white marble, calculated to accommodate
about 500 inmates at one time; and a chapel, well-stocked library, and hospital completa
the excellent service of the institution. The number of inmates of this establishment
up to the year 1878 was in the neighborhood of 2,000. Besides this one there were
founded under the acts of 1865 and 1873 homes for volunteer soldiers of the war of
1861-65 in Chelsea, near Augusta, Me.; Hampton, Va. ; Dayton, Ohio; and Milwaukee,
Wis. Appropriations are made annually by congress for the support of these institu-
tions. Similar institutions "are the Chelsea hospital, Eng. ; Kilmainham hospital, near
Dublin; a like establishment in Berlin; and the hotel des mvalides, Paris.

SOLDO. See SOLIDUS.

SOLE, &}lea, a genus of flat-fishes (pleuronectidce), of an oblong form, with a rounded
muzzle, which almost always advances beyond the mouth; the mouth twisted to the
side opposite to that on which the eyes are situated, which is usually the right side,
although individuals of the same species are found having the eyes and color on the left
side; the teeth very small in both jaws, but only in the under part of the mouth (the side
opposite to the eyes); the lateral line straight; pectoral fins on both sides; the dorsal and
anal fins long, and extending to the tail, but distinct from the tail-tin. The COMMON
SOLE (S. vulgnris) is a highly esteemed fish, abundant on the British coasts where th j
bottom, is sandy, and of which great quantities are brought to market. The London
market is supplied chiefly from the s. coast of England, the soles there attaining a larger
size than those of more northern coasts. They are caught by trawling, very seldom
with bait. The sole is in condition for the table during the whole year except five or six
weeks iu February and March, its spawning-time. The common sole is found on all the
coasts of Europe, except the most northern. It has been known to attain a size of 23
in. long, and almost 12 in. broad, weighing 9 pounds; but a sole of less than half that
weight is reckoned, very large. The upper side of the body is of an almost uniform dark
brown; the scales small, rough to the touch, and ciliated at the edge; the lower side M
white. The sole sometimes ascends rivers to a considerable distance from the sen, and
seems to thrive at least as well iu fresh as in salt water, a fact of which advantage has
not yet been taken for the stocking of fresh-water ponds. It breeds freely enough ia
fresh water. The only other British species of true sole is the LEMON SOLE (S. pegus<t),
which is sometimes taken with the common sole on the s. coast of England, and more
rarely in more northern parts. It is paler in color than the common sole, and broader
and thicker in proportion. It is equally esteemed for the table. The name sole is pop-
ularly extended to several genera recently separated from the true soles. In bmrhirux,
the dorsal and anal fins are united with the tail fin; but, as in solea, there are pectorals on
both sides. To this genus belongs the ZEBRA SOLE (B. sebnnus) of Japan, remarkable
for the zebra-like stripes which cross its whole body. In monochirus the pectoral fin is
developed only on the upper side. To this genus belong the VARIEGATED SOLE (.IT".
varkgatuj) and the LITTLE SOLE or SOLENETTE (M. linguatuluft), both found on the
British coasts, but of little importance, on account of their small size. In the geneni
achirtts and pluf/usia, of which there are no British species, the pectorals are wanting on
both sides.

SOL ECISM. A solecism is the term applied to any violation of the grammar or idiom
of a language, or of the usages of society. It is said to be derived from the oity of Soli
in Cilicia, whose inhabitants spoke very bad Greek, in consequence of their intercourse
with the Cilician natives, and provoked the fastidious Athenians to coin the epithet.

SOLEMN LEAGUE AND COVENANT. See COVENANTS, THE, ante.

SOLEN, a genus of lamellibranchiate mollusks, the type of the family solcnidv,
remarkable for the wide gaping of the shell at both ends, and the large and muscular
foot. In the genus solen the shell is remarkably elongated, its apparent length being,
however, more strictly its breadth. From its form the names RAZOR-SHELL and RAZOR-
FISH are often given to it. The species are numerous, and inhabit the sands of all seas
except iu the coldest parts of the world. Some of the tropical species have shells of
great beauty. The solens burrow iu sand, making their hole straight down, and ascend-
ing and descending by means of their foot, which is capable of being elongated and con-
tracted to bore a passage for the animal, and to drag it through. They are used for food
and aiso by fishermen for bait. To obtain them a hooked iron implement is used.
Another method is to drop a quantity of salt on the mouth of the hole, which causes
them to come up, when they are quickly seized The most common, and one of the
largest British species, S. siliqna. is about an inch in length, and 8 in. in breadth. It is
perfectly straight. Another common British species, &. ensin, is curved like a sword.



m Soldo.

Solfatara.

SOLENHOFEN LITHOGRAPHIC STONE, a famous deposit of limestone of upper oolite
age, which from its fine-grained and homogeneous texture is admirably adapted for
lithographic purposes. It occurs near Aichstadt in Bavaria, and has been extensively
quarried since the invention of lithography. The quarrymen work upon the lines of
stratification, which are beautifully parallel, and all the fossils are found upon the natural
surfaces of the beds, and present an impression and cast in almost every instance. The
rock is quarried to a depth of 80 or 90 feet. It is of special interest to the geologist from
the singular assemblage of fossil remains which are preserved in it with wonderful minr
utcness. The most delicate tracery of the wings of the dragon-fly is often as perfect as
in living specimens. The rock is of marine origin, and while lithologically it has a strong,
resemblance to the white lias of Britain, its fossils correlate it to the Kimnieridge clay.
These are chiefly ammonites, nautili, Crustacea, winged insects, fishing, and pterodac-
tylcs. But the most singular fossil is one which has only recently been brought to light.
A single feather was first found, and some mouths after, the bones of a feather-covered
animal, which was considered by its first describers to be a lizard, but prof. Owen has
recently shown, on incontrovertible grounds, that it is a true though very anomalous
bird. The specimen which, with the exception of the head, Js almost entire, is now in
the British museum. It has formed the subject of an elaborate memoir by prof. Owen,
published in the Philosophical Transactions. He has named it Archceopteryx macrara.
It is certainly the oldest bird of which any remains have yet been found, but the rocks
which contain the numerous ornithic foot-prints in Connecticut valley (see ICHNOLOGY)
are more ancient; the most careful examination has, however, hitherto failed to discover
in them any indications other than the footprints. The Arehcsopteryx was about the
size of a rook. The anomalous structure which induced the earlier observers to make
it a reptile, and some that followed to imagine it as a transition form between the reptile
and the bird, is the tail, which, instead of consisting of a few shortened vertebrae united
together into a coccygean bone, as in all known birds, recent or fossil, was formed of
twenty elongated vertebra?, each of which supported a pair of quill-feathers. But this
departure from the bird type is not so anomalous as it at first sight appears, for in the
early embryonic condition of the bird, the vertebrae are distinct and separate, and the
anastomosis which invariably takes place in the subsequent development of the embryo,
docs not occur in the Archwoptei-yx, so that it may be considered to exhibit the temporary
embryonic condition of the bird as a permanent structure; and that this is the true posi-
tion of this singular fossil is further established by the existence of other features which
are found only in birds. These are the ornithic "structure of the wings and legs, the
occurrence of feathers, which are confined to birds, and the existence of a merry-thought
(furculum), which is found in no other class of animals. An elevation on the surface of
the slab containing the fossil is believed by many to be the cast of the interior of the
skull, and it corresponds remarkably in size and form with the cast from the skull of a
rook.

SO'LENT, the name of the western portion of the strait thnt intervenes between the
isle of Wight and the mnin-lnnd of England. At Hurst castle, which guards its entrance
on the s.w. , the Solent is less than a mile in breadth; and along this narrow passage the
tide flows with a rapidity which at certain times no boat can stem. The castle itself con-
sists of a central tower or keep, surrounded by several smaller towers, and mounted
with heavy guns.

SOLEURE' (Gcr. Solothurn), a canton in the n. of Switzerland, bounded on the w.and
s. by Bern, and on the n. and e. by Basel and Aargau. Area, 300 sq.m. ; pop. '76, 77.803,
mostly Roman Catholics. The greater portion of the canton is fertile and well cultivated,
especially along the banks of the Aar. Even the rugged and hilly districts are sources
of wealth on account of their fine pasturage. Besides grain, the principal products of
Soli >urc arc fruit, wine, flax, and cotton. Cherry -brandy is a very important article of
trade. The manufacture of iron, glass, pottery, hosiery, and recently of watches, is
carried <m to a considerable extent." Soleure entered the Swiss confederation in 1481
along with Freiburg. Its constitution is liberal. The legislative, body, or parliament,
is the grand council, consisting of 106 members, the whole of whom arc, since 18o6, chosen
directly by the people, who have besides a veto on the laws passed by the council. The
executive is chosen by the council, and consists of five members.

SOLEURE. (Gcr. Solothi/rn). capital of the canton, is situated on the Aar, 16 m. n.n.e.
of Bern by railway. The scenery in its vicinity is among the loveliest in Switzerland.
The Aar flows through the town, dividing it into two unequal parts, which arc connected
by two wooden bridges. The most notable building is the cathedral of St. Ursinus,
with a cupola and facade of Corinthian columns, reckoned the most costly cathedral in
Switzerland. Soleure has some manufactures, but derives its chief industrial importance
from its transit-trade. Pop. '70, 7,054. Near to Soleure are the baths of \Veissenstein.

SOLFATA RA (Fn Sotifriere, Ger. Schirefclgrube or Sfhicefelsee}. the Italian name for
such volcanoes as, "having become less active than volcanoes in an actual state of erup-
tion, only exhale gases. The most notable of them are found in Italy, in the Antilles,
in the interior of Asia, and Jn.Tava. The Solfatara of Pozznoli. near Naples, is an irregu-
lar plain. 1368 ft. long, and 1310ft. broad, almost surrounded by broken hills of pumi-
ceous tufa, the ancient walls of the crater. From the crevices of the rocks, steam or



Solfeggio.
Solitaire.

noxious gases, chiefly sulphurated hydrogen, mixed with a minute quantity of muriatic
acid and muriate of ammonia, exhale. lu the cracks and fissures of the rocks, sulphur,
alum, and sulphate of iron abound. The vapors exhaled are used as medicinal baths,
and huts, constructed of boards, have been erected in which the baths may be obtained.
The Soufriere of Mornc-Gurou, in the isle of St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles, about three
miles in circuit, and over 500 ft. in depth, has in its center a cone, the summit of which
is covered with sulphur.

SOLFEG GIO, in music, seven syllables, which are sometimes used as a nomenclature
for the seven notes of the scale, "in singing, the art of applying these syllables to the
notes as an exercise for the learner is called solmization. The syllables are lit (or do),
,re, mi, fa, sol, la', and si. The first six are the commencement of the lines of an ancient
monkish hymn to John the Baptist, which had this peculiarity, that the first syllable of
each line was sung to a note one degree higher than the first 53- liable of the line that pre-
ceded, so as to present the type of a scale :




Fa-mn-li tu - o - rum Sol ve pol-lu-ti Za-bi-i re- a - turn Sane - to Jo-han-nes.

These syllables are said to have been first made use of by Guido of Arez/.o, in the llth
c. ; and Le Maire, a French musician of the 17th c., added to them si, f r>r the seventn of
the scale. When applied to the key of C, their equivalents, in the ordinat v musical nomen-
clature, are:

Do re mi fa sol la si do
CDEFGABC.




pitch

to be of service to the learner in keeping prominently before him the principle that there
is'but one scale in music, which is raised or lowered according to the pitch of the key.
Different variations in the way of using the syllables have recently given rise to various
supposed short and easy modes of teaching singing, the best known of which is Mr. Cur-
wen's system of "tonic solmizalion," where the ordinary notation of the s'aff. with its
lines and spaces, is entirely rejected, and a notation substituted which is formed of the
solfeggio syllables, used to express not pitch but relation to the key-note. One disad-
vantage of this and similar schemes is the entire withdrawal of the direct irdication of
the pitch of the sounds to the eye, by the notes ascending as the sounds ascend, which
is so beautiful a feature of the common notation. And even if it be grant* d that the
first rudiments of music can. as has been asserted, be taken up with remarkable ease by
the pupil who learns on the tonic sol-fa system, it is undeniable that as soon as lie comes
in contact with notes of different lengths, or begins to modulate from 01 key to
another, he is beset with serious difficulties. There is, in addition, the further objection




capacity can overcome.

SOLFERI NO, a village of northern Italy, province of Brescia, 20 m. n.w. of Mantua,
with 1400 inhabitants. It stands on a hill* and has a tower called the Spy of Italy (Spia
cC Italia), from which the whole plain of Lombardy may be seen. There, in 17:^5, the
Erench conquered the Austrians. On June 24, 1859. Solterino was again the scene of an
overwhelming victory obtained by the French and Italians over the Austriaus.

SOLICITOR. See ATTORNEYS.

SOLICITOR-GENERAL, the nrtYne given to one of the law-officers of the crown. The
solicitor-general of England has powers similar to those of the attorney -general (q.A .). l
whom he' gives aid in discharging his functions. During the absence of the attorney-
general, he may do every act and execute every authority of that officer. He \ K , ex
offirw, one of the commissioners of patents.

The solicitor-general of Scotland is one of the crown counsel, next in dignity to the
lord advocate (see ADVOCATE, LORD), and exercising all his functions along with him.
His office cannot be traced further back than the union. Like the lord advocate, he has *he
privilege of pleading within the bar. All proclamations for the observance of days of
public lasting and thanksgiving are addressed to the solicitor-general.

SOLICITOR TO Tin-; TREASURY, an officer who acts as attorney for the government in
all l-'-nl proceedings. He has also to act as solicitor for the three secretaries of sty'", ,
tke privy council office, the board cf trade, the mint, the war office, the stationery



Solfeggio.
Solitaire.

oulcc, and for all the other principal departments for which no solicitor is specially
appointed.

SOLIDUNGULA. See EQUID^.

SOLIDUS, the name by which thn old Roman " aureus" (equivalent to 1 Is. Ud.,
according to the present value of gold) was known after the time of Alexander Severus;
h;it during the reign of Constantino the great its value was diminished in the ratio of
8:5, and so remained till the end of the empire. The weight of these later solidi was
fixed at ^ of an ounce, the gold being 23 carats fine, and the alloy mostly native silver.
The "solidus," or " solidus aureus," was adopted by the Franks under the Meroving-
ians and Carlovingians (at sT to the Roman pound) till the time of Pepin, who suppressed
it; but another solidus of silver, or " solidus argeuteus" the ^ of the libra or pound
which had been used only as a money of account, was soon after made a coin. In after-
times, this "sol," or "sou," like all other coins, underwent an infinity of variations in
fineness and value (see Livui:). On the introduction of the decimal system (1793) into
France, the sou was abolished, and a pfcce of "5 centimes (^ of a franc.) substituted, but
the ;iamo continued in common use, and the old sous were retained in circulation. The
eolidus also appears in the xo'.do, which was a coin in use in northern and central It*ly,
and was essentially the same with the sou.

SO LINGEN, a t. of Prussia, province of the Rhine, and government of Blisseldorf,
capital of a circle of the same name, is situated on a height 13 m. e.s.e. of Dlis>eldorf.
and not far from the river Wupper. It is a very old place, and has long been famous
for its steel and iron ware manufacture.-;, especially sword-blades, helmets, cuirus>es,
knives, s<:is<(>rs, which are exported to all parts of the world, and rival the excellence
of English wares. In the town and circle of Solingen there are about 3,000 workshops,
employing over 10,000 hands, and producing yearly half-a-million hand-bells, knives in
millions of dozens, scissors, revolvers, etc. Solingen hand-bells have been famous since
the middle ages, and are sent to the most distant lauds. Pop., '75, 15,140.

SOLIS, ANTONIO DE, 1610-86, b. Spain; entered holy orders in 1667. lie wrote
several plays, of which La Gittanilla, " The Little Gipsy Girl," is the best known. His
historical writings are of more importance, especially his Historia de la, Conquista di)
.V >. (1684). which was translated into English by To'wnsend, 1724. He was long royal
historiographer.

SO LI S, JrAN DIAZ DE, about 1470-1516, b. Spain. He accompanied Pinzon in his
explorations, and in his company discovered Yucatan in 1508. Shortly afterward they
explored the South American coast from cape St. Augustine to lat. 40 3 south. After their
return to Spain, 1509, a quarrel between them resulted in the imprisonment of Soils,
while Pinzon was in court favor, He was released, indemnified, and in 1815 made
further explorations from cape San Roque to Rio de Janeiro, and discovered the La
Plata. He was killed by the Indians.

SOLITAIRE, Pfzophap*, a genus of birds of the Dodo (q.v ) family (Didiii.fr}, but
differing from the dodos in a smaller bill and longer legs. Like the dodos, th only
species of this genus, of the existence of which there is any evidence (P. &olit>
seems to be now extinct, and to have becom3 extinct in very recent times. It inhabited
the island of Rodriguez, an island about 15 in. long by 6 broad, situated about 300 in.
to the e. of Mauritius, and appears to have been peculiar to that small and lonely island,
where it was abundant at the bc-ginning of the 18th century. Rodriguez was uninhabited
till 1691, when a colony of French Protestant refugees settled on it, under the command
of Francois Leguat, who, in his Voyages ct Adventures, has left an interesting and trust-
worthy account of the solitaire. He describes it as a large bird, the males sometimes
weighing 45 His. ; taller than a turkey, the neck alittle longer in proportion, and carried
erect; the head of the male without comb or crest, that of .the female with something like
a widow's peak above tiic bill; the wings small, and the bird incapable of living, but
only using the wings to flap itself or to flutter when calling for its mate, or as a w-
of offense or defense; the bone of the wing being thickened at the extremitv Bp
form a round mass, about the size of a musket-bullet, under the feathers, and to increase
the force of the blow given by it; a roundish mass of feathers irstead of a tail. He
further describes the plumage as very full and beautiful, not a feather out of its place,
so there can have been no feathers with unconnected webs, as in the ostrich, lie says
the bird is called solitaire because it is very seldom seen in flocks. He tells us that the
bird is with diiiiculty caught in the forests, but easily on open ground, because it can
be outrun by a man; and that its flesh is very good to eat But the solitaire seems to
have completely disappeared from Rodriguez, which is now a British settlement. Bones
have been found, although not yet abundantly, and some are preserved in the Paris
Museum, some in the Andersonian Museum, Glasgow.

The figure here given is derived from a rude cut in Leguat's work, and its general
accuracy is attested by its correspondence with small figures introduced in a. landscape
and two maps in that work.

The name solitaire was originally given to a species of dodo inhabiting Bourbon, and
applied by Leguat to this bird, in a mistaken belief of its being the same. See Xfrie
and Helvi'.lc on the Dodo and its Kindred.



Solitaire.
Solomon.

SOLIT AIEE, a species of game or rather puzzle, which, as the name denotes, is played
by only one person. The apparatus for the game consists of a round or octagonal flat
board, indented with 83 or 37 hemispherical hollows, and 33 or 37 balls, one in each
hollow. The process of the game consists in removing one ball from the board, and
then, having created a vacancy, capturing one of the balls adjoining by causing the one
behind to leap over it into the vacant hollow; there are now two vacancies, and the
game is continued iu the same manner by capturing ball after ball, till only one remains,
when the game is icon. Should more than one be left, and they be so isolated as not to
1 e liable to capture by each other, the game is lost. This puzzle may be solved in an
jnmense number of ways; one of the prettiest modes consists in removing the central
ball, and so capturing the others that the last ball shall be in the center.

SOLLER, a small town and sea-port of the Balearic isles, in Majorca, 14 in. n. of
Palma. It exports oranges and wine, and contains 7,000 inhabitants.

SOLMIZATION. See SOLFEGGIO!

SOLO, a term used in musical compositions of several parts, whether vocal or instru-
mental, to indicate those voices or instruments that are to perform alone or in a more
prominent manner, as soprano solo, violino solo. The plural soli, is used when two or
more voices or instrumental parts are to be performed together, such parts, of course,
never being double. A composition for a single instrument accompanied is also termed
a solo.

SOLO FRA, a small city of southern Italy, province of Avellino. Pop. 5,376. It is
situated on the Apennines, and is surrounded by wooded mountains.

SOLOMON (Hebr. Sh&lomo, Salomon, Salomo, Suleiman, derived from shalon, peace
peaceful, like Germ. Friedrich), the second son of David and Bathsheba; successor of
the former on the throne of the Israelitish empire for 40 years (1015-975 u.c.*). Noth-
ing is known of his youth except that he was probably educated by Nathan (or Jehiel).
Equally uncertain is the age at which he succeeded to the crown of his father. Tiiat he
was older than 12 or 14 years, as some traditions tell us. seems certain. The way in
which his succession to the throne during the lifetime of his father was brought about,
to the exclusion of his elder brother Adouijah, is not undeserving of the name of c<tp
d'etat, which has been bestowed upon it (see the Scripture narrative). Having, by tho
execution of Adonijah and the leaders of his faction, secured his dominion againsf internal
'foes, he, Avith complete disregard of the Mosaic law. set himself to seek foreign alliances,
and with this view married as his principal wife th~ c!.:ug"nler of Pharaoh, probably of
Psusenes (Vaphrcs?), of the twenty-first dynasty. Besides her, however, he had avast
number of wives-700 "princesses," and 300 "concubines" the greatest part of whom
were recruited from nations with whom an alliance had been strictly prohibited. Having
inherited fabulous wealth, and further adding to it enormously from his own multifarious
revenue:, so that "silver was nothing accounted of in his days," it became necessary



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 145 of 203)