Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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that a new organization corresponding to this unheard-of splendor shouH be introduced.
Accordingly, we hear of "princes,"!, e., great officers of state, not before heard of.
The two counselors of David's time disappear, in order probably to make room for a
whole body of legal advisers; the prophets are no longer to be found among the digni-
taries of state, but new military charges are created instead. The immense aeeumu'ation
of treasure also allowed the execution of a number of public works in Jerusalem, which
now first assumed the magnificence and station of a capital. A new wall with fortified
towers was erected around it; and the queen's palace " the house of the forest of Leba-
non " with a long hall joined to it by a cedar porch, call the " tower of David." outside
of which a thousand golden shields were suspended, and within which the king sat, iu
all his imperial splendor, to pass judgment, were built under his immediate orders. Ills
banquets, at \which all the vessels were of gold; his tables, with their four (or forty)
thousand stalls; his gardens and parks and summer retreats, were such as to dazzle even
eastern fancy. Twelve commissaries, distributed in the different provinces, had each in
his turn to furnish the means of sustaining this prodigious household. The dominion of
Solomon extended from Thapsacus, on the Euphrates, to Gaza on the Mediterranean.
The country was in the profoundest state of peace; the treasures accumulated by David
appeared inexhaustible; and the popularity of the; king, who listened to the meanest, of
his subjects; and gave judgment according to that wisdom, for which he had asked in
his vision at Gibeon, in preference to any other gift, and which has remained proverbial
from his day to ours, was naturally at first very great. Everything, moreover, was done
to develop and increase the national wealth and welfare. The rich internal resources
were developed, and commercial relations of the most extensive nature established.

Through the port established at Ezion-Geber, at the head of the gulf of Elath, an out'
let was gained to the Indian ocean; and the alliance with Phenicia, then under tho
sway of Hiram, gave an energetic impulse to these foreign expeditions. Manned with
Tyrian sailors, the Israelite fleets went to "Ophir," and brought buck, in exchange foi
their own exportation 3, "gold and silver^ apes and peacocks, ivory and spices; " and tho


* There is some discrepancy among investigators about this date; the beginning of his reign beinj
ed variously at 1009, 10:25, 990, etc.

01 Solitaire.


rest of the strange and precious produce of India, Africa, Spain, and other regions, pos-
sibly even cur \vn coasis.

Aeeonliug to iiis promise, Solomon, in the fourth year of his accession, commenced
the building of the temple on .Moduli, after the inodel v of the tabernacle, wherein he was
aided by Hiram, who not only sent him timber, but architects and cunning Phenician
artists in wood and ,-ione and metals. In the eleventh year of his reign it was completed, solemnly inaugurated in the following year at which occasion prodigious numbers
of sacrifices were slaughtered. Thirteen years more having been spent in the construc-
tion of the "house of ine forest of Lebanon*' (the royal palace), other buildings and forti-
fications among them that of Palmyra are recorded to have been undertaken by the
king, who. far from wishing further to extend his dominions, was only bent upon keep-
ing his frontiers safe from the raids of the neighboring hordes, and for that purpose alone
kept up an unprecedented!}' large army.

The fame of Solomon could not but spread far and near. The splendor of his -court
ami reign, heightened by his personal qualities, his wisdom and erudition for he was
not only the wisest but also the most learned. of men brought embassies from all parts
to Jerusalem to witness his magnificence, and to lay gifts of tribute at his feet. The
queen of Sheba's expedition and presents are well known; and as many Arab kings
made him annual presents of a no less splendid nature, his income from different sources
was calculated, in round numbers, at the enormous sum of 666 golden talents. That
people of Mo- is. which was to know no other wealth than flocks and the fruits of the
soil, had suddenly become a people of wealthy merchants, of soldiers, and of courtiers
and it did not profit by the change, chiefly through the bad influence of the king him-
self and his court. The army and the public buildings absorbed the resources of the
provinces. In the Temple, erected for the purpose of the true worship of Jehovah,
Solomon sacrificed three times a year; but nevertheless, to please his concubines, he
allowed, and perhaps himself indulged in, the rites of polytheism on the heights, thereby
setting the worst example to his subjects, sufficiently eager already to worship foreign
deities. His exaggerated polygamy fostered immorality and licentiousness among the
people; and, worst of all, the wise and gentle monarch, as his treasure got exhausted,
began, to\vard the end of his reign, to lay the yoke, which hitherto had lain only on his
Cauaanite subjects, upon the Israelites themselves. And he thus became, to all intents
and purport s. an eastern despot selling part of his dominion to raise money, and trying
to break the spirit of the nation by forced services and corporal chastisements.

Left by the "prophets," probably since his open and revolting infidelity with regard
to the national worship, his advisers were chiefly insolent young courtiers, who awed
<ven his aged counselors into silence, and fiom that time forth a storm began to gather
over the land. The priests were on the side of the malcontents, and a vague talk of a
general ri>ing, which actually found utterance by a "prophet" in the face of Solomon,
was heard throughout the country. Ahijah of Shiloh predicted, as Samuel had done to
David, the partial dominion to life Ephraimite Jaroboam, who had to flee for his life to
Egypt. But notwithstanding these internal mutterings, and the open revolts of one or
two subject chiefs, such was the prestige both of David's and Solomon's name, that the
king was allowed to die in peace.

Solomon has been supposed to be the author of Canticles (q.v.), Ecclesiastes (q.v.),
Proverbs( q.v.), besides works on science which are said to be lost. But he is also to
be considered the prime cause of the final and decisive downfall of the Jewish common-
wealth for all historical times. His wisdom turned 'nto folly, his justice into tyranny,
raised a smoldering discontent which only awaited his death to break out into open
flnmcs of revolt and internal wars. His character presents the lamentable spectacle of
genius gone astray; and many have been the discussions on the part of learned theolo-

fians in old and late times as' to whether or rot there was any hope of his "salvation."
lis name and his glory, however, will, notwithstanding the shadows that fall over his
latter days, remain immortal, whether we look at the striking picture of him given in
Scripture, or to the more gorgeous kaleidoscope of eastern legends revolving round the
golden name of Suleiman: the lord and master of all animate and inanimate beings un-
der the sun, the most beautiful, the most wealthy of all created men, and win se wisdom
was as much without limits as were his rirhes and power. See for such legendary ac-
counts of Solo7iion, Weil's BiWiatl legend*, the Targumz, the Koran, Lane's Arabian
Niglil*, DTTerbelot. Ginsburg. Furst's Ptrknschnure Suleiman-Rameh in 70 books, as-
cribed to a Turkish poet, Firdusi, etc.


SOLOMON BEX ISAAC, 1040-1105. b. France; better known as Rashi. He wrot
commentaries on the Bible and the Talmud. His comments on the latter have been
adopted in all editions of the book.

SOLOMON ISLANDS, a chain of Islands in the Malay or Indian Archipelago, between
New Britain on the n.w. and the Queen Charlotte islands on the s.e. ; lat. 4 50 11
50' south. Area estimated at 10.000 sq.m.; pop. thought to be considerable, but not
ascertained. The natives are partly Negrilloes, partly Malays, and are still in the con-
dition of savages.


SOLOMON'S SEAL, Polygonatum, a genus of plants of the natural order
differing from lily of the valley (q.v.) chiefly in the cylindrical tubular perianth, and in
having live flowers jointed to their flower-stalks. There are three British species. The
COMMON SOLOMON'S SEAL (P. muUiflorum) is found in the woods and copses in many part*
of England, and a few places in Scotland. It has a stem about two feet high, the upper
part of which bears a number of large, ovate-elliptical, alternate leaves in two rows.
The flower-stalks are generally branched; the flowers not large, white, and drooping.
The NAKKOW-LEAVED SOLOMON'S SEAL (P. verticillatum) is a rare British plant, only found
in a few places in Scotland. The leaves are whorled. The ANGULAR, or SWEET-
SMELLING SOLOMON'S SEAL (P. offlcinaU) is also rare in Britain, and is found only in
England. It more nearly resembles the Common Solomon's Seal, but is smaller, and
has greenish, fragrant flowers. All these species are common in many parts of Europe.
They are very similar in their properties. The youn^ shoots of P. officinale are eaten by
the Turks like asparagus. The root is white, fleshy, inodorous, with a sweetish, mucil-
aginous, acrid taste. It contains Aspamgin. It is a popular application to bruises, to
prevent or remove discoloration, and its use is well known to those Avho are too apt to
get a black eye now and then. A kind of bread has been made of it in times of scarcity.
The berries are emetic and purgative.


SO'LON, the most famous of all the ancient Greek lawgivers, was a native of Athens
(b. about 638 B.C.), and belonged to one of the most distinguished families of Attica.
His father, Execestides, having seriously impaired his income by improvidence, Solon
was obliged, while still young, to embark in trade. At first, however, Solon comes
before us as an amatory poet. His earliest appearance in the field of politics was occa-
sioned by the contest between Athens and Megara for -the possession of Salamis. By
force of artifice, Solon revived the martial spirit of his countrymen, which had sunk
under the effect of repeated disasters, obtained command of a body of volunteers, and
conquered the island (circa 596 B.C.), in which, along with others, he obtained a grant of
land. Henceforth his public career is conspicuously noble and honorable. He figures
as a wise and unselfish patriot, seeking earnestly, and not in vain, to compose the dis-
tractions, partly social and partly political, that rent las native city. The Athenians
generally had thorough confidence in his integrity; and in 594 B.C. he was chosen archon
or chief magistrate, and received unlimited permission to act as he saw best for the good
of the state. In short, to borrow a phrase from Roman history, he was invested with
dictatorial power. The nature and extent of the Solonian legislation has been the sub-
ject of much criticism in modern times, and Mr. Grote, in particular, has made it very
clear that the "later ancients" (Plutarch and Diogenes Lae"rtius), on whom we are
obliged to rely for almost all our information about Solon, are full of confusions, misap-
prehensions, and contradictious, and that it became a habit among them to mythically
attribute to the great Athenian every bit of wise legislation whose paternity they could
not discover.

In order to alleviate the wretchedness arising from the existing relations of debtor
and creditor, which was no longer supportable, and was likely to create'a social war,
Solon proposed and carried a notable measure the seisnchtlieia" or "disburdening ordi-
nance" (from seio, to "shake off," and achtlws, a " burden") which received its name
from its design viz., to lighten the burden of debt that weighed down the tlieles, or
lower classes. How this was effected, is far from being correctly explained by Plutarch,
and the reader who wishes to have the most rational solution of 'the matter must consult
Grote's History of Greece (vol. iii.). From redressing the grievances of a class, Solon
proceeded, at the solicitations of his countrymen, to remodel the constitution; and here,
too. the qualiiies that are popularly associated with his name shine out conspicuously.
Abandoning the semi-civilized theory which regards the nobles as alone worthy of
citizenship, and of the honors of public office in the state, be introduced the timocratic,
or rather the plutocratic principle classifying citizens according to their wealth or
property; the effect of which was not to wrest all power or dignity from the hands of
the eupatridw, or well-born class, but only to give a portion of it to others who might be
as wealthy, and therefore, presumably, as intelligent and cultivated as -they. Such a
reform has been compared to that previously effected by Servius Tullius in the constitu-
tion of ancient Rome; and there is at least a striking resemblance in the method, if not
in the design, of the two reforms. See ROME. Solon distributed the citizens into four
classes. The first embraced all those whose yearly income reached 500 medimni; the
second, those of between 800 and 500 medimui; the third, those of between 300 and 200
medimni, and the fourth, those whose income fell below 200 medimni. The first three
classes were liable to direct taxation; the fourth not; but ail were liable to indirect taxa-
tion. With regard to the hixilf, or deliberative assembly of four hundred, it would seem
that Solon left'it the strictly aristocratical body that he found it. Its power, however,
was practically limited by a new ecclima, or assembly of the four classes, whose ratifica-
tion was necessary to all measures originating in the boitle, or "upper house." On the
other hand, the ecclexiti itself could originate nothing, and thus the attic aristocracy and
the attic plebs could mutually chock each other's assumptions. The part of Solon's
legislation relating to the industrial pursuits of the citizens appears to have been as

COO Solomons.


excellent and well considered as the rest, but the number of his special enactments is so
great that we cannot afford space to mention them. It is enough to state that they
embraced almost every subject of social importance; and the best testimony to their
value lies in the fact, that when Peisistratos violently overthrew the political constitu-
tion established by his kinsman, he allowed his social legislation to stand. See PISIS-


The story of Solon's leaving Athens for ten years, after he had completed his labors
as a lawgiver, and traveling into foreign countries, may be, and probably is historical, but
the details are untrustworthy; and in particular, the celebrated incident of his interview
with Croesus will not suit I lie requirements of chronology, and must be relegated to the
domain of historic myths. Paring his absence, the old dissensions among the Athenians
broke out, and when he returned, Solon struggled in vain to repress them. A strong
hand, as well as a wise; head, was needed, and the conspiracy of Peisistratos was quite
as much one against anarchy as against the constitution. After Solon's defeat, he with-
drew into private life, but occasionally assisted with his advice his bold, ambitious, and
able kinsman, who had so effectively crushed the Athenian "disorderlies" of all parties.
The date of his death is uncertain.

SOLOR' ISLANDS, THE, lie e. of Flores, between 122 56' 30" 124 25' e. long., and
belong to the Netherlands residency of Timor. Besides several groups of smaller islands,
they consist of Solor, with an area of 105 sq.m., and a pop. of 15.000; Adauara, 302
sq.m., pop. 36,000; Lomblem, 520 sq.m., pop. 120,000; and Pautar, 275 sq.m., with
60,000. inhabitants. Solor and Adanara are separated from Flores by narrow straits,
Lomblem and Pantar lie in succession further east.

Solor has little cultivated land, the natives being good sailors, and chiefly employed
in fishing. Much sulphur and saltpeter are found, from which gun-powder is made.
The women weave coarse fabrics for clothing, and exotic cotton has lately been planted
with success. Edible nests are extensively collected. In all the villages on the coast,
markets are statedly held, and numerously frequented. The natives near the sea are
Malays, friendly to the Dutch, a few of them Christians, the others Mohammedans.
Those of the interior are Alfoors, wild and warlike, who use shield and bow, sword and
fire-arms. Adanara is governed by an independent rajah. It is a lovely island, having
hills and dales, picturesque villages, and cultivated fields. The people are Malays, partly
Mohammedans and partly Roman. Catholics. Lomblem is alto beautiful, the native's
Malays; those of Pantar being Papuans.

The Solor islands are mountainous; the volcano Lobetolle, in Lomblem, is 4,914 ft.
high; and the mountains of Pantar, 3,o32. They are clothed to their summits with for-
ests. In 1851 the Portuguese relinquished all claim to these islands, which are now gov-
erned by the miaiary commander at Larautooka, in the e. of Flores; a Dutch post-holder
being stationed at Lawajang, the chief place of Solor.

SOLSTICE (Lat. Folxtititim, from xol, sun, and sto, I stand), that point in the ecliptic at
which the sun is furthest removed from the equator, and where he is consequently at the
turning-point of his apparent course. There are two such points in the ecliptic, one
where it touches the tropic of Cancer, the other where it touches that of Capricorn.
The former is the summer, and the latter is the winter solstice to those who inhabit
northern latitudes, nnd rice verm. The term is also employed to signify the time at which
the sun attains these two points in its orbit, viz., June 21 and Dec. 22.

SOLT, a t. of Hungary, county of Pesth, 48 m. s. of Pesth, in a marshy district on a
branch of the Danube. Pop. '69, 5,696.

SOLUTION. A substance is said to undergo solution, or to become dissolved, when
the force of adhesion between it, and a liquid in which it is immersed is sufficient to over-
come the force of cohesion between the solid particles. Thus sugar or salt is dissolved
by water, camphor, or resin by spirit of wine, and silver by mercury. The liquid which
effects the solution is termed 'the solvent, or sometimes the menatrttum; and some solu-
tions have special names for example, the term syrup is applied to a solution of sugar
in water, nnd tinc-ture to a solution of a solid in alcohol. If a solid body be introduced
in' successive small portions into ;x definite quantity of a liquid capable of dissolving it,
the first portions disappear the most rapidly, and each successive portion dissolves more
slowly than its predecessor, until a point is reached at which the liquid ceases to p
any further solvent power. When this occurs the forces of cohesion and adhe.-ion aie
balanced, nnd the liquid is said to be x<ttnr<tt,il. Solution is promoted by increasing the
extent of surface in a solid, or by reducing it to powder. An elevation of temperature,
by diminishing cohesion, will generally also increase the solvent power of ihe liquid; but
there are exceptions to this rule as for instance, in the case of lime and its salts, water
just above the free/.imr-point dissolving nearly twice as much lime as it does when boil-
ing. A compound of lime and sugar, very soluble in cold water, is separated from the
solution almost completely if heated to boiling. But the most remarkable ra.-e of the
kind occurs in sulphate of soda (Glauber's salt), which in its crystalline form di> olves in
about ten times its weight of ice-cold water, and rapidly becomes more soluble as the
temperature rises until it reaches 91"; from this point until the -ohilion boils the solu-
bility slightly decreases, the boiling liquid only retaining about four-fifths of the quan-
tity which was dissolved at 91'*. Carbonate aiid seleinate of soda, and sulphate of iron.



I?'* 140' '58' 116*

exhibit the same peculiarity in a less marked degree. "These anomalous results may-
be partly, explained, "says Dr. Miller, "by the consideration that heat diminishes the
force of adhesion as well as that of cohesion. Generally speaking, cohesion is the more
rapidly diminished of Ihe two. although not uniformly so; and in these cases it would
appear that the adhesive force decreases in a greater ratio than the cohesion of the saline
particles" (Chemical P/iysica, 3d ed. 1803, p. 72). The accompanying diagram shows the

unequal solubility of vari-
ous of the more common
gaits in water of different
temperatures. The lines of
solubility cut the verticals
raised from points indicat-
ing the temperature upon
the lower horizontal line,
at heights proportional to
the quantities of salt dis-
solved by 100 parts of
water. For example, 100
parts of water dissolve
at 32, 8 parts, at 122% 17
parts, and at 212, 26 parts
of sulphate of potash.
"Water which has been sat-
urated with one substance
.that is, which refuses to
dissolve any more of that
212' 230r substance, will often con-
tinue to dissolve others.

In true or simple solution the properties, both cf the solid and the solvent, are retained.
"When, however, any chemical action ensues between the solid and the liquid, the result-
ing solution commonly presents perfectly new r and distinct features; as, for example,
v lien the metals are dissolved by acids, or oils by the alkalies (as in soap-making). For
tl.e solubility of the gases in water we must refer to the article GASES.

The uses of solution in laboratory processes are numerous. By the difference in
degree of their solubility we can separate one substance from another; and by dissoiring
a body we can pur if}' it, either by filtration or crystallization. Moreover, when it is
required that two bodies shall react on one another, they do so with incomparably more
force in their dissolved than in their solid state.


SOLWAY FIBTH in its upper part best regarded as the estuary of the river Esk; in
its lower, as au inlet of the Irish sea separates the n.w. of Cumberland from the s. of
Scotland. Its entire length/until lost in the Irish sea, is calculated at 33 m. ; its average
Imadtli for the first 12 of these is not more than 2i m., but afterward it gradually,
although irregularly, increases to upward of 20. The principal rivers flowing into it,
besides the Esk. are the Annan, Nith, Dee, and Urr, from the n. or Scottish side; and
the Eden and Derwent flora the s. or English siele. The most striking feature of the
Sol way firth is the rapidity with which its tides ebb and flow. The spring-tides are
peculiarly swift and strong the wave rushing in from 3 to 6 ft. high, and at the rate of
8 to 10 m. an hour, occasionally inflicting serious damage on the shipping; while after
it has retreated, gveat stretches "of the bed of the firth are left bare, and in some places
one can even cress over from the English to the Scottish shore. The salmon-fisheries of
Ihe Solway are valuable. Sohray Mnx& is a district of Cumberland about 7m. in circum-
ference, lying w. of Longtown, and immediately adjoining Scotland. As its name
implies, it was once a bog. but is now drained and cultivated. It is historically notable
as the scene of a battle between the English and Scots in 1542, when the latter were
defeated. Here also, on Nov. 13. 1771, an extraordinary disaster occurred. The boggy
ground, surcharged with moisture the effect of heavy rains rose, swelled, and burst
like a torrent, sweeping along with it trees and houses, and destroying some 30 small

SOLYMAN (SULEIMAN) II., surnamed "TiiE MAGNIFICENT," the greatest of th
^Turkish sultans, was b. in 1496; and in Sept., 1520. succeeded his father, Selim I. (q.v.),
who had carefully initiated him into the secrets of Ottoman policy. At the commence-
ment of his reign, he restored a large amount of unjustly confiscated property, and
removed from office all who were unrit for the proper discharge of their tluties. After
having suppressed the revolt of the governor of Syria, he exterminated the Egyptian
Mamelukes, and concluded a treaty with Persia. The foolish insolence of the Hungarian
court next drew him thither with a powerful army, and Belgrade, the key of that coun-
try, was captured (1521). He next drove the knights of St. John from Rhodes (1522);
and for 3 years following devoted himself to improvements in the administration; but

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 146 of 203)