Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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still at the present day a chief resort of pious Hindus from all quarters, who pay agnail
tribute to the Guicow'ar for liberty to perform tfceir devotions at this favorite shrine.
See Price's 3/o/iammedan History, vol. ii. ; Dow's translation of the /<r<V/<<V; Mirkhond's
liauzat-ttlani'it; sir John Malcolm's History of Persia, vol. i. ; and Smith's Life of Dr.
John JWJw(1878).

SONA TA, a musical composition for a solo instrument, sometimes accompanied by one
or Uvo other instruments, consisting of three, four, or even more movements; these move-
men'cS usually consist of a subject or subjects, given out first in the key of the dominant,
and after certain episodes, in which these themes are presented in a great variety of aspect,
they are repeated in the key of the tonic. This form is in general most closely adhered
to in the first movement of a sonata, and exhibits great room for a display of the in ventive-
nefla and musical resources of the composer. The second movement is generally slower
and shorter than the rest, and often in the form of a theme with variations. The most
important compositions of this kind are for the piano-forte, many of which have been
written by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, dementi, Dussek, and otjer masters. A short
sonata with two, or at most three movements, less elaborately worked, is called a v-jna-


SONDEE3EATJSEN, the chief t. of the principality of sen,
pleasantly situated on the Wipper. 36 m. n.w. of Weimar. Pop. '75, 5,723.

SQNDRIQ, a province in Lombardy, Italy; bounded by Switzerland on the n.,
Tyrol on the e., and Como, Brescia, and Bergamo on the s. , drained by the Adda river-,
1262 sq.m. ; pop. '72, 111,2-41. The valleys of Valtellina, 45 m. loner, and Chiavenna,
form the greater part of the province. Some of the loftiest summits of the Kheatian
Alps, are on the n. boundary, and include (he celebrated passes of SpKigen. Bernina, and
Stelvio, the last beingthc highest, over which carriages pass. Excepting the marshes
bordering lake Como, the soil is fertile, yielding flue crops of grain and fruit, particularly
grapes, which are manufactured into wine. The Sondrio cheese is particularly line. The
province contains iron and marble. Capital, Sondrio.

SONG, a short poem adapted to a vocal. melody. The word is generally applied to the
poetical and musical composition in union, but sometimes to one or other separately.
The poem generally turns on some single thought or feeling, and is divided into portions
of returning measure. The term sonir. properly implying an air of a simple kind, is
often, though not very correctly, applied to the elaborate aria of the opera, or the solemn
air of the oratorio. A songgencrally implies an air for a single voice a : r^ for nn>rc than
one voice being, however, sometime's called part-songs. England produced in the course
of last century a large number of beautiful songs. Of the numerous songs which are
continually appearing in this country at the present day, extremely few have musically
much merit, and in a large proportion of cases the words are of a silly and insipid de-
scription. Germany has of late produced a larger proportion of beautiful sr.ngs than any
other country. Among songs, not the least interesting are the national and popular airs
of different countries, generally of uncertain date, and almost always possessed of much

SONG OF BIRDS. All birds have some voice or cry which they utter, and mo. c t of
them various no'cs appropriate to various occasions. The power of producing clear
and sweet musical notes is chiefly found in certain families of the order inse*wix; some
of which, as the lark, pour forth their song in the air; but the greater number, like the
thrush and nightingale, sit while they sing. The compass and variety of notes, the
power of trilling and shaking, the loudness, clearness, and sweetness of ihc song, differ
very much in different species, each of which may be as perfectly recognized by its song
as by its form or plumage There are also, as is well known, great differences among
individuals of the same species, and Mr. Jesse asserts his confidence that there ate nota-
ble differences between the song of the birds of the same species generally in one district
and in another, just as there are provincial dialects and modes of pronunciation in human


speech. "The song, for example, of a thrush near London, or in any of the home
counties, has little resemblance, except in specific character, to that of the same bird in
Devonshire or near Exeter. The same notes. I suppose, will all of them be detected, but
they an arranged for the most part into a different tune, and are not sung in the same
way. They are given with different values, and the singing is pitched in a different
key. One great distinction between the two cases is the number of guttural notes of
which the song of a Devonshire thrush is often made up, but which near London are
heard only at the end of a bar, or even much less frequently; while those chief notes,
which mainly constitute the song of the other bird, and make it so impressive, are rarely
pronounced by the Devonshire thrush." Scenes and Occupations of Country Life, p.

The singing of birds is chiefly connected with the love-season; although some birds
sing at other seasons also, during fine weather, and when food is abundant, as if
merely to utter their happiness, and by uttering, to increase it. It is during the pair-
ing-time that they are most vocal; the singing of many is continued with frequency also
during the period of incubation, but with some change of character, exhibited in a
marked degree by the chaffinch. The male alone sings. Fsmale birds have voice also,
but do not, possess the power of warbling like their mates. There are generally con-
siderable anatomical differences in the larynx of the two sexes.

There can be no doubt that the singing of the male bird is 'intended to attract and
please the female, and that he delights in this display of his own powers. In this
respect, there is no difference between the birds of most melodious song and those of
Larsh discordant voice. The crowing of the cock and the gobbling of the turkey have
the same purpose as the song ef the nightingale. In them may be also seen an emula-
tion which is ready further to display itself in combats, and probably these lake place
among the males of all birds. But questions of rivalry seem in part to be decided among
some of the songsters of the groves by mere musical displays. Caged birds evidently
often sing from emulation. It is said that canaries may be taught to sing a complete
tune from a musical box, adjusted to play one tune only, A mirror should be placed
Before the bird and over the box.

The imitative powers so remarkably possessed by the mocking-bird and a few other
species, are to some extent possessed by many birds.

SONGHAY, a famous kingdom of Africa, extended both on the e. and w. banks of
the river Niger to the s. of the angle which that river makes at Burrum, in lat. 17 30'
north. The reigning king, said to have been the fifteenth of his dynasty, embraced
Islam in the beginning of the llth century. In 1468-69, the ruler of Songhay marched
upon Timbuctoo, conquered the town and surrounding state, and added them to his
own kingdom. Under Haj Mohammed A'skia, who came into power at the end of the
loth c., and who was perhaps the greatest sovereign that ever ruled over Negroland, the
Songhay empire extended from Hausa almost to the shores of the Atlantic, and from
lat. 12 n. to the confines of Morocco. After many years of revolution and civil war,
this great empire became a province of Morocco in 1607.

SON'NEBERG, a t. in Germany in the duchy of Saxe-Meiningen-Hildburghausen;
one of its principal town's; pop. about 4,000. It is 12 m. n.e. of Coburg, and exports
wooden wares, musical instruments, and toys. In the vicinity are ledges of slate, which
is quarried and made into lead-pencils.

SONNET, a short poetical piece, generally lyrical in its nature, and dealing with one
idea of a grave nature, presented under various aspects. It is restricted in length to
fourteen lines; the arrangement of the rhymes is peculiar and intricate, and will be bst
understood by an example Wordsworth's sonnet on the sonnet

Nuns fret not at their convent's narrow room;
And hermits are contented with their cells;
And students with their pensive citadels:
Maids at the wheel, the weaver at his loom.
Sit blithe and happy: bees that soar for bloom,
High as the highest peak of Furness Fells,
Will murmur by the hour in foxglove bells:
In truth, tke prison, unto which we doom
Ourselves, no prison is: and hence to me,
In sundry moods, 'twas pastime to be bound
Within the sonnet's scanty plot of ground:
Pleased if some souls (for such there needs must be)
Who Ivave felt the weight of too much liberty,
Should find short solace there, as I have found.

traveler and naturalist, born in 1751. Besides a residence for some years at Cayenne,
he traveled in Egypt, Greece, the Archipelago," and Asia Minor. ' He made many
valuable researches in natural history, and published several works, the chief being
Vonaqe dans In Haute et dans In Basse Egypte (1799), and Voyage en Qrece et en Turquie
(1801). Son nini died at Paris in 1812.

SON OF GOD. Considered from the side of dogmatic theology, the phrase Son of God
denotes the second person of the Trinity (q.v.). If we examine the use of the name in
the Scriptures, we find it to have been applied by Jesus to himself, and given to him by

All Songhay.


his disciples, to express the mysterious relationship In which he stood to God. The
phrase was one not altogether unknown to the Jews. The plural "sons of God," occurs
several times in the Okf Testament; in some cases it is applied (tropically) to angels, in
others to the children of Israel, and in their collective capacity as the favored nation,
they are twice called by God his "son" (Ex. iv. 22, 23; Hosea xi. 1). The use made in
the New Testament of the famous passage of the 2d Psalm ("Thou art my Son; this
day have I begotten thee") is thought by some to constitute conclusive evidence that the
spiritually-minded among the ancient people recognized a " Son of God." It has bec-n
argued, however, that if the Hebrews generally, or even their spiritual leaders, had bo-
lievcd the Messiah to be the "Son of God" in any other sense than that he was propheti' -
ally tilled with the spirit of God, both the idea and the phrase woukl have played a far
more prominent part than they do in the religion and literature of the nation. .Nor does
it appear that the idea of a " Son of God" (in the divine sense) had rooted itself in the
Hebrew mind. Hence we find that the assumption of the title by Jesus provoked the
bitterest opposition on the part of the great majority of his countrymen. They did not
hate him because he claimed to be the "Messiah," the " Christ;" on the contrary, they
were prepared to accept us such any teacher whose words or works might seem to them to
justify his pretensions to the dignity; but when Jesus claimed to be the " Son of God,"
equal and one with the Father, they sought to stone him. It was, in fact, this assertion
of his divinity that cost Jesus his life.

SONO'MA, a co. in n.w. California, bordered by the Coast range and San Pablo bay
on the e. , and on the w. by the Pacific ocean ; crossed by the San Francisco and North
Pacific railroads; drained by the Russian ri>er, Petaluma, Santa Rosa, and Sononui
creeks; 1400 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 25,926. The northern surface is mountainous, and thickly
covered with yellow and sugar pines, and fir and redwood trees. The beautiful valleys
of Petaluma, Santa Rosa, and Sonoma are particularly fertile, having fine orchards and
vineyards, the latter celebrated for its wine, which is lighter than that produced in oth-.r
parts of the state, and suitable for champagne. The climate is mild and uniform. The
geysers or hot springs are in the n.e. portion of the county. The principal products arj
lumber, wine, grain, potatoes, wool, hay, butter, and cheese. Cattle, sheep, and svvino
are raised in great numbers. It contains deposits of cinnabar, copper, limestone, gypsuia,
sulphur, alum, granite, and coal. It has manufactories of furniture, iron casting ;,
saddlery, harness, carriages, and wagons; tin, copper, wooden, and sheet-iron ware;
establishments for tanned and curried leather, breweries, and saw-mills. Co. seat, Suuu

SONO'RA, a frontier state in the n.w. of Mexico, bounded on the n. by the U. S. terri-
tory of Arizona, and on the w. by Lower California and the gulf of California. Area,
83,404 sq.m.; pop. '73, 109,388. Several fine bays indent the coast; lagoons occur near
the shore; and in the western part of the state there are several lakes. The great system
of the Andes skirts the eastern frontier, and throws off branches which occupy much of
the surface of the state. In the w. the surface is mostly flat, with a fertile soil, and a
warm but variable climate. The chief rivers are the Rio Colorado, Sonora, Yaqui, and
Mayo. Two abundant crops are gathered every year from the same land; and the prin-
cipal crops are wheat, maize, peas, and beans; though tobacco, sugar-cane, and cotton
are also grown. But the wealth of the state is not in its agricultural capabilities, but \.i
its mineral treasures, which are considered inexhaustible. "Hardly a village or grazing
estate," writes a recent traveler, "but can show some vein of gold, silver, lead, or
copper;" and he thinks that in all probability "not a fourth of its existing metallic
wealth is known, while not a moiety of that has been or is being developed." T.JO
inhabitants of Sonora are for the most part degraded, indolent, and uneducated, an,l
among them mining enterprise has now reached its lowest ebb. See Arizona and So writ,
by Sylvester Mowry (Lond. 1884).

SONSONA'TE, a t. of Central America, in San Salvador, and 40 m. w.n.w. of the city
of that name. Pop. about 10,000 inhabitants.

SONTAG, HENRIETTA, an eminent German vocalist, was b. in 1806, and educated for
the stage. After a brilliant operatic career at Vienna, Berlin, Paris, and London, she
married count Rossi in 1829, and left the stage in 1830. Compelled by pecuniary d'.tiir
cullies to reappear in 1849, she met with renewed success both in Europe and Americ..
She died in Mexico in 1854.

SOO-CHOW, or SU-TCHOTT, or SOO-CHOW-^OTJ (fou merely signifying city), a large city
of China, in the province of Kiang-su, 60 m. w.n.w. from Shanghai. It stands near the
Grand canal which connects Hang-chow with Nankin and Pekin, but its port is Shang-
hai, with which also it has water-communication. It is about 10 m. in circumference,
and is inclosed by fortifications, outside of which are 4 very large suburbs. The country
around Soo-chow is level, and remarkable for its fertility, so that the Chinese speak of it
as a terrestrial paradise. The city has silk manufactures, printing establishments, and
a large trade in books. In 1857 Sop-chow was captured and sacked by the Taepings.
In 1863 it was invested by the imperialists, under a British officer, and, the rebel chiefs
having surrendered, were treacherously beheaded by the governor of the province.
U. K. XIII. 41


SOODAN, SOUDAN, or SUDAN, a vast tract of central Africa, bounded on the n. by the
Sahara; on the w. by Senegambia; on the s. by Upper Guinea, from which it is separated
by the Kon^ mountains; and on the e. by the Nile provinces of Egypt. The Kong
mountains rise to the height of 3,000 ft. ; while mount Atlantika, near the sources of
the Chadda, is 10,000 ft. in height. The Niger (q.v.) waters the western regions, and in
the e. are lakes Tchad and Fittri. The climate of the w. and middle districts resembles
that of Senegambia and Guinea; that of eastern Soodan is still imperfectly known.
Agriculture is pursued with considerable skill; cotton, tobacco, and iudigo are abun-
dantly grown ; and wheat, rice, maize, Guinea-corn, and millet are among the ordinary
crops. Gold-dust, which abounds in the rivers; iron, made from iron-stone, which pre-
vails in all parts of the country; and ivory and feathers, are the principal exports. Of the
numerous states into which the country is divided, the following are tiie chief: Bambara,
Masina, Gando, Sokoto, Bornu, Bagirmi, Waday, and Dar-fur (now annexed to Egypt).
Area estimated at 2,250,000 sq.m. ; pop. 10 to 50 millions. Soodan is the peculiar home
of the negro race. Soodan is also the name of a province of Egypt, which is a continua-
tion eastward of the preceding. It includes Kordofan, Nubia proper, Sennaar, etc.,
with a pop. of about 10,000,000.



SOO'SOO, Platanista Gangeticus or Soosoo Gangeticus, a cetacean of the dolphin family,
inhabiting the Ganges, and most abundant in the sluggish waters of its delta, but found
also as far up the river as it is navigable. Itjs supposed to be the platanista of Pliny. It is
the only known existing species of its genns, and is interesting as a fresh-water cetacean.
It attains the length of about 12 f t. , and is not unlike the dolphins in its general form. The
habits of the soosoo are sluggish, except that in pursuit of prey it moves with great energy
and rapidity. The flesh resembles lean beef, but is never eaten by the Hindus, who,
however, set a great value on the fat, which lies between the skin and the flesh, as an
external medicinal application. There are several fossil species of this genus.

SOOT is that portion of fuel which escapes combustion, and which is mechanically
carried up by the current of hot air, either to be deposited on the sides of the chimney,
or to be discharged into the atmosphere. The soot of coal and that of wood in all prob-
ability differ materially, the former containing more carbonaceous matter and more
ammouiacal salts than the latter. Braconnet published an elaborate analysis of the soot
of wood; but good recent analyses of both kinds of soot are still required. Both kinds
are used as manure ; and wood-soot, under the title fuliyo ligni, was f ormerly contained
in the British pharmacopoeias. According to Neligan, it has been found most efficacious
in the latter stages of whooping-cough in children, and in some forms of hysteria; and
he gives directions for the preparation of a decoction, an extract, a spirit, and a tincture.
See Neligan's Medicines, etc. (6th ed. p. 53). Contact with soot often gives rise to a
peculiar form of cancer, which is consequently known as chimney-sweepers' cancer.

SOFHI'A, a t. of Bulgaria, 170 m. n.w. of Adrianople. in a beautiful plain on the river
Isker. Besides about 30 mosques, it contains several Christian churches, is the see of &
Greek and a Roman Catholic archbishop, and carries on manufactures of cloth, leather,
silk goods, and tobacco. Its hot springs and baths are highly esteemed. Pop, 24,000.
Sophia occupies the site of the ancient Sardica.

SOPHIA DOROTHEA, 1666-1726; b. Germany; called princess of Ahlden; daughter
of George William, duke of Celle, and a French lady. She was celebrated for her
beauty; and in 1682 she married George Lewis (eldest son of her cousin, the elector Ernest
Augustus of Hanover), who became George I. of England. She was divorced in 1694
on account of her intimacy with Konigsmark, a Swedish colonel whom she had known
in her youth; the intrigue resulting in the assassination of the adventurer and her
banishment for life to the castle of Ahldeu near Celle. Her son who became George II.
took the side of his mother; her daughter became the queen of Frederick William I. of

SOPHISTS. The Sophists were the leading public teachers in ancient Greece during
the 5th and 4th centuries B.C., and their character has been a subject of much dispute.
Most of the historians of philosophy influenced seemingly by the lampoons of Aris-
tophanes, the comic poet, and by the disparaging remarks of Socrates, Plato, and
Aristotle, who stood in a quite different position from the teachers by profession
Represent the Sophists as "ostentatious impostors, flattering and duping the rich youth
for their own personal gain, undermining the morality of Athens, public and private,
and encouraging their pupils to unscrupulous ambition and cupidity." Mr. Grote, in
his History of Greece, chap. Ixvii., has combated these positions, and given a much
more favorable view of the Sophists.

A Sophist, in the original sense of the word (derived from sophos, wise or learned),
was a wise man, a clever man, one who stood prominently before the public for intel-
lect or talent. Solon and Pythagoras are called Sophists; the name was applied even
to great poets. Socrates was repeatedly so designated; Plato is alluded to by the same
title. By the general public, any man of intellectual eminence would be spoken of as
a Sophist. With the feeling of admiration toward the intellectual class, there was

ftJQ Soodan.


mixed up a certain invidious sentiment, from whatever cause arising; and the name
Sophist being often used to express the dislike as well as the admiration, came
ultimately to have a predominating bad sense. Still, the general public, in the use of
the word, comprehended Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, andlheir philosophical disciples
and followers, equally with the professional teachers.

The great intellectual start made in Greece during the 5th c. B.C., led to an advanced
standard of general instruction. There had been an established popular education
long before including music, reading, and recitation but now there were found,
among the public teachers men of die highest accomplishments that the age could
furnish, who t:iught whatever was known of astronomy, geography, and physics, as]
well as the newly starred controversial discussions in ethics and in metaphj'sics. These
men shared with the other intellectual celebrities the title of Sophist. But there was one
circumstance in their case that greatly deepened the invidious sentiment they taught
for pay. This brought them under the odium of two classes: in the first place, the
poor, who could not afford the fees, felt themselves in- a new position of inequality
with the rich; secondly, the philosophers, properly so called, who had not yet begun
to receive money from their disciples, held in contempt those that did. Both Socrates
and Plato had a vehement repugnance to the idea of a money-bargain between master
and pupil; in their eyes, the relationship was one of pure attachment and devotion;
and they considered that all the invidious part of the designation Sophist, and more,
was richly deserved by the teachers for hire; and as these public teachers, by the nature
of their vocation, would probably be often shallow and superficial, as compared with
the great philosophers, we can understand the full definition of Sophist by Aristotle
"an impostrous pretender to knowledge, a man who employs what he knows to be
fallacy, for the purpose of deceit and of getting money." With all the great authority of
Aristotle, this charge applied indiscriminately to the body of men employed in training
youth for active life, will not bear investigation. Enough is known of the lives,
characters, and doctrines of the class to refute the accusation. The Sophists were a
profession growing out of the circumstances, and supplying a want, of the age. The
most valuable ideas and habits of any accomplished Athenian were due to his education
under some teacher of the class Rhetor or Sophist. So far from the age of the Sophists
being an age of corrupted public morality, Mr. Grote contends that it was the reverse.
He adduces a multitude of historical facts to prove that the morality of the Athenian
public was greatly improved at the end of the 5th c. B.C., as compared with the begin-
ning of that century.

SOPHOCLES, the great master of Greek tragedy, was b. at Colonus, a village about
a mile from Athens. The date of his birth is not exactly known, but is fixed at 495
B.C. Sophillus, his father, a man of good birth and fortune, bestowed much care on his
son's education; insomuch that, aided by his highly prepossessing appearance, Sophocles
was selected for his skill in poetry and music to lead with dance and the lyre, after the
victory of Salamis, the chorus of youths in a triumphal paean composed by himself.
In his 28th year he is said to have exhibited his first play; and three years before, in a

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 148 of 203)