Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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contest with rival scenic writers, one of whom was ^Eschylus, he gained the first prize,
by the decision of the judges Cimon and his colleagues. He had, by Kicostrata, two
eons, and one by Theoris, a Sicyonian woman. lophon, one of his two sons by Xicos-
trata, summoned him in his old age before the Phratores, on the charge of incapacity to
manage his private affairs, but he refuted the charge by reciting to the court a beautiful
chorus from his (Edipus in Colonus. He died at the age of 90. full of years and honors.
His private character was easy and contented, but not, as has been hastily assumed, prof-
ligate. His turn of mind was devout, as is evident throughout his plays; and he evinced
no taste for political or active life, although he is said to have accepted command in the
Samian war. He was a prolific author. He was the reputed composer of as many as
130 plays, of which, however, 17 have been deemed spurious. He gained, according to
his biographer, the first tragic prize 20 times, bearing the palm on several occasions from
JEschylus and Euripides, not to mention less well-known competitors. He wrote also
paean", elegies, and epigrams, of which we have but few remains. He lived on terms
of intimacy not only with his <rrent rivals, but with Aristophanes and Herodotus. We
have no knowledge of the order in which his plays, that have survived, were written.
The most plausible arrangement is perhaps that of Muller, who graduates them as foP
lows: Antigone, Elcctra, Tmchinue, (Edipiis Rev. Ajax. Philocteiet, (Edijnts Coloneus.
Sophocles is justly accounted the most perfect of the Attic tragedians. In his hands
tragedy becomes the true and faithful reflex of human feelings, passions, impulses. His
ideas are ethical, with a constant reference to a divine disposer of events. "There has
hardly,'' says Muller, "been any poet whose works can be compared with those of
Sophocles for the universality and durability of their moral significance. Of all the
poets of antiquity, he has penetrated most deeply into the human heart. " His versifica-
tion is remarkable for its softness and fluency. The best editions are those of Wunder
(Gotha and Erfurt, 1831-46) and Schneidewin. The chief translations of Sophocles into
English are those of Potter (Lond. 1788), Dale (Lond. 1824), and Plumptre (1865). We
may also mention special translations by prof. Thompson of the Ajax, by Dr. Donald-
son of the Antigone, and by prof. Campbell of the Antigone, Eltctra, and t)ejanira.


SOPHOCLES, EVA^GELI^TUS APOSTOLIDES, LL.D., b. Greece, 1807; educated at Mt.
Sinai convent and at Amherst college in the United States, whither he emigrated. He
was tutor in Greek, for most of the time between 1842 and 1859 at Harvard college, where
since 1860 lie has been professor of ancient, modern, and Byzantine Greek. Among his
publications are a Greek Grammar (1838); Romaic Grammar (1842); Catalogue of Greek
Verbs (1844) ; History of the Greek Alphabet (1848); Glossary of Later and Byzantine Greek
(1860), of which a revised edition appeared in 1870 as Greek Lexicon of the Roman and
Byzantine Periods.

SOPRANO (Ital.), the highest species of female voice, whose range extends from
n -*-

, or in some cases higher. The highest notes generally belong to the

falsetto register. Sweetness and mellowness are the characteristic qualities of n soprano
voice, which is for the most part less full than an alto, but lighter, fresher, and more
expressive of joyful, lively, and highly impassioned feelings. Music for soprano voices
is usually written in the treble clef, but sometimes in the soprano clef with C on the first

^ ne tUt ' ^- v i ce sometimes distinguished as intermediate between alto and

Soprano, is the mezzo-soprano, whose usual compass is from tn? to

SO'BA, a city of southern Italy, in the province of Caserta, with '71, 5,100 inhabit-
ants. It stands in a fertile plain, watered on one side by the Liris or Garigliano, which
is spanned by two bridges at the town. The population is industrious and wealthy.
There are manufactories of woolen cloth and of paper. Sora was originally a Vblscian
town, passed into the possession of the Samnites, and then into that of the Romans.
Remains of the cyclopean walls of the ancient citadel are still visible.

SORAC'TE, a mountain in ancient Etruria, in the territory of Falisci, called Monte
di San Silvestro, and at present Monte di Sant' Oreste, from a village situated on its
side, noted for its sour wine. It is 25 m. n. of Rome, separated from the Apennines by
the valley of the Tiber, and rises abruptly 2,420 ft. above the adjacent plain. It had
formerly on its summit a temple dedicated to Apollo, to which companies of wor-
shipers proceeded from Rome, with great solemnity. The monastery of San Silvestro
whicli now occupies the site of the temple was founded by Carlornan in 746.

SO'BATJ, a t. of Prussia, in the province of Brandenburg, 63 m. s.s.e. of Frankfort.
on-the-Oder. It has important bleach-fields, print-works, and color-works. Pop. '75,
13,191. Sorau is one of the oldest towns in Prussia.


SOBBONNE. a celebrated academic body at Paris, which dates from the middle of
the 13th c., and which, down to the French revolution, held a prominent place in all
church controversies. It derives its name from its founder, Robert de Sorbon, a canon
of Cambrai, born at Sorbon, in the Ardennes, in 1201. He was selected by Louis IX.
as his chaplain and confessor. At this time the university of Paris was at the very
height of its celebrity, and Robert de Sorbon resolved on opening in it an institution in
which a society of secular priests, being provided with all the^ necessaries for their own
maintenance, should devote themselves gratuitously to the teaching of theology. It was
established with the sanction of king (afterward St.) Louis in 1252, originally for the re-
ception of 16 scholars, four respectively from the Gaulish, Norman, Picard, and English
nations, to which the German was subsequently added. Robert was himself the first
head; and in 1270 drew up its constitution, which remained in force without any sub-
stantial alteration till the French revolution. It was not confined to the original poor
scholars, but extended to the bachelors and doctors aggregated to the body of the Sor-
bonne. All these were of necessity graduates of the faculty of theology of the university
of Paris, but they were only admitted to membership of the Sorbonne by the votes of
that body, which formed one of the four constituent parts of the theological faculty,
and after a public disputation, technically called the "Sorbonica," or " Robertina," in
which the disputant was required to sustain against all antagonists, from the hour of
five in the morning to that of seven in the afternoon, theses or propositions selected from
the whole range of theological science. The first disputant was a Franciscan friar named
Mayron, a scholar of John Duns Scotus; but he was followed by many of the greatest
names in mediaeval and post-reformation history. These "Sorbonne acts" form m some
respects one of the most characteristic chapters in mediaeval literary history. The dis-
putants in some cases exceeded 60 in number. The foundation of Robert de Sorbon was
approved in 1268 by Clement IV. ; but the name of Sorbonne does not appear to have
been appropriated to it till the 14th century. Robert de Sorbon also established another
preparatory college for the study of the humanities and philosophy, which was called the


college of Calvi, or the little Sorbonne. In the 15th c. the Sorbonne, as being in great
measure identified with the theological faculty of the Paris university, holds an im-
portant place in the history of theological controversy, and in all the contests which fol-
lowed the reformation in France; there being few of the great names of the Gallicau
church which are not included in its academic roll. Among the munificent works of
the great cardinal Richelieu, who was a pupil of the Sorbonue, was what may be de-
scribed as a complete reconstruction of the buildings. The new Sorbonne comprised, in
addition to the public academical hall, lodgings for the 36 doctors, which were assigned
to the doctors successively in the order of seniority. The head of the Sorbonne institute
was called provisor, and was elected by the members together with the archdeacon of
Paris, the four deans of faculty, and some other dignitaries of the university. Besides
the resident members of the Sorbonue, there were also external associates, called " Soci-
Hospitalitatis," who had no share in the governmental acts of the institution. The Sori
bonne continued in the enjoyment of its privileges and its revenues down to the revolu-
tion, when it shared in the common ruin of all the ecclesiastical establishments of
France. At the re-organization of the university by Napoleon in 1808, the Sorbonne
was re-established as the theological faculty of that body; but it failed to recover its old
prestige even with the clerical body. One of the conditions of membership was an oath
to maintain the celebrated four " Gallican propositions." See GALLICAN CHURCH. This
condition deterred many; and although it was revoked by the proposed concordat of
1817, yet on the failure of this concordat, it still continued in force down to the revo-
lution of 1830. In the more recent organization of the university of France, the Sor-
bonne has resumed its place as the representative of the faculty of theology, with seven
professors and a dean of faculty. The professorships are of dogmatic theology, moral
theology, sacred scriptures, canon las, church history, Hebrew, and sacred eloquence.
These professors, however, are named by the minister of public instruction; and the
absence of control on the part of the bishops over their appointment and their teaching
h;ts led to the general withdrawal of clerical students from the schools. Nevertheless,
the Sorbonne still possesses at least the permissive sanction of the church, and the au-
thorization of the archbishop of Paris may be seen attached to the printed programme of
its courses. Distinguished churchmen like the late bishop of Orleans have been of
the number of its professors.

SORE CID.3E, a family of mammalia, of the order carnaria, and section insediwra of
Cuvier. They are generally small animals, covered with soft hair; under which, on each
flank, is a band of stiff closely-set bristles, and among them glands which exude a pecul-
iar odorous fluid. The legs are short, and the feet are five-toed, and generally formed
for burrowing. Some species are aquatic, and their feet webbed. The sorecidae are all
plantigrade. Most of them are nocturnal animals. They generally feed on insects and
worms. A remarkable characteristic of the family is the elongated muzzle. They
have long incisors, and their molar teeth are generally furnished with conical points.
The tail is generally scaly. To this family belong shrews, shrew-mice, musk rats or des-
mans, etc. They are found both in warm and cold climates. Those which inhabit cold
climates generally pass the winter in a lethargic or dormant state.

SOREL', a t. in Richelieu co., Quebec, Canada, on the St. Lawrence, near the mouth
of Sorel or Richelieu river, 45 m. below Montreal; on the South-eastern railroad; pop.
'80. 7,500. It was the summer resort for Canadian governors for many years, and ves-
sels plying between Montreal and Quebec make it their w T inter-quarters. Dealing in
lumber and ship-building are the most important interests. It contains manufactories of
engines, stoves, plows, leather, mill machinery, and bricks, also saw and flour mills. It
has a Roman Catholic college, academy, and' hospital, weekly papers, and a periodical
printed in French.

SORESINA, a mercantile t. of northern Italy, province of Cremona, with (1871) 8,553
inhabitants. A great trade is carried on in a kind of condiment called Moztarda, which
is prepared there; consisting of fruits, etc., preserved in vinegar and sugar, and also in,
a kind of liqueur called Mistrd, held in great repute in Italy as a carminative.



SOROCA BA, a t. of Brazil, in the province of Sao Paulo, stands on a river of the same
name, 70 in. w. of the city of Sao Paulo. Pop. 12,000.

SORO'SIS, a women's club in New York; organized March, 1868, occasioned by the
refusal to women of equal privileges with men at the Dickens dinner Mrs. Jennie C.
Croly leading in the movement. It is divided into ten working committees: art, science,
music, literature, education, philanthropy, drama, journalism, house and home, and
working women. Its meetings are held at Delmonico's on the first and third Mondays
in each month; at the first, friends of members are entertained by social exercises, in
charge of two of the committees; at the second, for members only, facts relating to the
advancement of women and other topics are discussed, interspersed by musical exercises.
The presidents have been Miss Alice Cary, Mrs. Croly, Mrs. Wilbour, and the treasurer
Mrs. Ruth O. Delematec.


SORREL, Rumex, a genus of plants of the natural order polygonece, very closely allied
to polygonum (q.v.) and fagopymm (see BUCKWHEAT), but having the perianth divided
into six segments, the three inner of which enlarge and cover the aclienium. The genus
is very naturally divided into two sections, the first of which is already noticed in the
article DOCK. The name sorrel belongs only to the second, characterized by dioecious
flowers, and acidity of stems and leaves. COMMON SORREL (JR. acetosa) is a perennial
found in meadows and pastures throughout the whole of Europe, and is very plentiful
in Britain. Its stem is from a foot to two feet high; its leaves arrow-shaped. It is an
agreeable salad, and is used in soups and sauces, and as an addition to dishes of greens.
It is therefore sometimes cultivated in gardens. FRENCH SORRSL, or ROMAN SORREL
(R. scutatus), a native of France and Italy, has broader and blunter leaves, and is more
frequently cultivated than common sorrel, being considered of finer flavor. SHEEP'S
SORREL, (R. acetosella} is a very similar plant, but of much smaller size, and its roots run
very much under-ground, so that it is a very troublesome weed in gardens and fields of
poor dry soil, in which it is very common in all parts of Britain. For WOOD SORREL,
see OXALIDE^E. For the RED SORREL of the West Indies, see HIBISCUS.

SORKEL TREE, Lyonia arborea, formerly Andromeda arborea, a tree of the natural
order ericece, remarkable in that portion of the order to which it belongs for its magnitude,
its near allies being generally small shrubs. It grows chiefly on the Alleghany moun-
tains, from Virginia to Georgia, and attains a height of 50 ft., with a trunk 12 to 15 in.
in diameter. The wood is of little or no use. The leaves are acid, and are sometimes
used tor dyeing wool black.

SORREN'TO (Lat. Surrenttim, Gr. Syrentum), a maritime t. in the s. of Italy, province
of Naples, is situated on the s.e. side of the beautiful bay of Naples, on the promontory
which separates the latter from the gulf of Salerno, about 7 m. s.w. of Castell&mare.
Pop. '71, 5,502. It is an archiepiscopal see, and possesses a cathedral. The manufacture
of silk is extensively carried on. There are still considerable remains of the walls which
were erected in the middle ages, and on the landward side it is surrounded by a broad and
deep ravine, the side toward the sea being protected by precipitous rocks. On the n . w. of
the town is a considerable plain or table-land, called Piano di Sorrento, about 1000 ft.
above the sea level, surrounded and protected from the cold e. winds by a range of hills ; it
is intersected by numerous gorges and ravines, studded with villas and farm-houses, nnd
covered with orange groves and vineyards; all which combined render the vicinity of the
city in a high degree picturesque. It is celebrated for the mildness, dryness, and general
salubrity of its climate, on which account it has been much resorted to both in ancient
and modern times by invalids and convalescents. Among the Romans the wine of
Sorrento was held in high reputation ; it had to be kept about 25 y*;ars before it arrived
at maturity. Nothing certain is known of the origin of Sorrento, but it is believed to be
very ancient, and many ruins are pointed out by the ciceroni as being remains of Roman
temples, etc. Tasso was a native of Sorrento.

SORTES BIB'LICJE, SORTES YIRGIIIA'NJE, etc. Among the anc'ents, a favorite kind
of divination was that known as stichomancy, or divination by lines of poetry. The
method pursued was to select a number of verses from a poet, mix them together in an
urn, draw one out at random, and from its contents to infer good or evil. As Virgil
was the most popular and admired of all the Latin poet, his writings, and especially the
JLneul, became the favorite book for this purpose, and it was undoubtedly this practice
that laid the basis of the great reputation as a magician Virgil enjoyed during the middle
asres. The Sibylline oracles were also much used for the same purpose. The practice
did not cease with the introduction of Christianity; but instead of Virgil, or, to speak
more correctly, alongside of Virgil, the Bible was employed to ascertain the future. In
place, however, of throwing lines into a "heathen" urn, it was customary to open the
book, as it were accidentally, or to stick a pin between the leaves at hazard, and then
open the book the passage first catching the eye being regarded as pregnant with
prophecy as to your future welfare. Such lots drawn from Scripture were called, in the
middle ages, Sortes Biblica, just as those drawn from Virgil were called Sortes VirgihancB.
The custom of using (or abusing) the Bible in this grossly superstitious way still lingers
in England, Scotland, and other countries, but it is now more a frolic of children than
aught else. The poet Hafiz is still so used in Persia.

SORTIE, an outrush of a beleaguered garrison, equivalent to SALLY (see SAM.T


SOSTENUTO (Ital.), a term used in musical notation, to indicate a sustained mode of
execution, continuous in respect of tone.


8OTHERN, EDWARD ASKEW, 1830-81; b. Liverpool. He was educated for the
church, but the stage was more congenial to his tastes. In 1851 he came to the United
States, and appeared at the National theater of Boston in the character of "Dr. Panglos."
He was a stock actor in Barnum's museum, New York, till 1854, when he joined Wallack'


company. In 1858 the character of " Lord Dundreary" in Tom Taylor's comedy Our
American Cousin was assigned to him. He accepted the part with great reluctance, but
his drawl, lisp, and peculiar skip made the play a great success, and it ran for 140 con-
secutive nights. In 1861 he appeared as" Lord Dundreary" in London, and the play was
performed 496 nights. In 1864 he appeared as " David Garrick"; in 1874 in the part of
"Brother Sam," written for him. by John Oxcnford. He returned to New York in 1874,
played "Dundreary" and " Garrick" at Wallack's theater, and appeared later in the same
parts in all the large cities. In 1878 he was again very popular in the character of
"The Crushed Tragedian."

SOTTEVILLE-LES-ROUEN, a small t. of France, in the dep. of Seine-Inferjeure, 4 m.
8. of Rouen by railway. Pop. '76, 11,278.



SOUBISE, BENJAMIN DE ROHAN, Seigneur de, 1589-1641 ; the brother of the due d
Rohan; served when young with Maurice of Nassau in Holland. In 1621 he took
command of the Protestant forces in Brittany, Anjou, and Poitou. After the capture
of St. Jean d'Angely he received the pardon of Louis XIII., but in 1622 was again in the
field for the cause of the reformation. Again defeated, he fled to Germany jind England;
was again pardoned, but, after three years of inaction, siezed the isle of line, and after a
sea tight fled a second time to England. He sailed with Buckingham and Denbigh to
Rochelle, both expeditions proving failures. A third attempt was prevented by the
murder of the duke of Buckingham by Felton. The rest of Soubise's life was spent in.
England in intrigue against the French monarchy.

SOUBISE, CHARLES DE ROHAN, Prince de, 1715-88: b. France. He served Louis XV
as aide-de-camp during all the campaigns from 1744 to 1748, and in the last year was mad
field marshal. In 1751 he was placed at the head of the Flanders and Hainault govern-
ment, but was disgracefully defeated by the Prussians at Rosbach. But he was the
favorite of Mme. Pompadour, and was made state minister by Louis. In 1758 .he was
again placed at the head of the army and defeated the Hessians, Hanoverians, and Eng-
lish ai Sondershausen and Sutzelberg. Soubise paid court to Dubarry, the king's new-
favorite, and even allowed his cousin to marry her nephew. Of all the courtiers, he
alone followed the body of Louis XV. to its grave. Under Louis XVI. he retained his
position as minister.


SOUFFLE, a light and agreeable dish, consisting chiefly of the whites of eggs, to
which other ingredients (chocolate, cheese, vanilla, orange-flower water, rose-water,
various essences, etc.) are added, to give consistency, flavor, and variety. The materials
have to be agitated with a whisk until the whole is in a creamy froth; which is then
baked in a souffle-pan, made of such a form as to fit into a dish or proper holder, that
can be sent to table, and quickly handed round.

SOUKCHOUM KALE', a sea-port town of Asiatic Russia, in the government of Trans-
caucasia, on the e. coast of the Black sea. In 1831 a commercial port was established
here, which, however, has surrendered its pre-eminence to Poti, a town about 70 m. to
the s.e. Soukchoum Kale was captured by the Turks at the beginning of the Russian
war of 1877. Pop. '67, 1612.

SOUL, in the language of spiritualistic philosophers, covers the whole region of mind,
and is generally conceived of as a naturally imperishable entity, in relation with the
body, but definable, for the most part, only "in terms of the complete negation of mate-
rial attributes. With this the popular conception in the main coincides, though it is
less labored and considerably* less negative. In its original signification the word
appears to have stood for the principle of life both in men and in animals. The modes
of conceiving it were various: it was sometimes regarded as the mere harmony of the
bodily functions, and sometimes as a distinct entity of highly ethereal nature, and gener-
ally supposed to be seated in, or connected with, the blood; but no essential distinction
was made between the soul of man and the soul of brutes. Very soon, however, the
manifest superiority of man to the lower creation suggested difficulties, which were
increased as the thought of an after-life, in a different sense from transmigration, was
gradually developed. And in man, the constant war among his members, the oppo-
sition of passion and reason, as it began to be observed with the growing habit of intro-
spection, called for some explanation which should apply to humanity only. To meet
all such difficulties, a " trichotomy,' or three-fold division of the human constitution
was assumed, according to which a naturally immortal and rational element was sup-
posed to make p?rt of man, besides the animal soul (always variously conceived) which
he shared with the brutes. Between the two distinct elements the animal and the
rational soul the various mental energies were differently apportioned by different
thinkers, according as those energies were thought more or less noble and divine.
Without going back upon obscure traditions regarding the beliefs of the early peoples,
Plato's views may be cited as amounting to a trichotomy, and in Aristotle there is the


distinct mention of a noetic principle in man by the side of the animal soul. Later
Greek schools put forward a similar view; and Philo, the forerunner of the Neoplaton-
ists, even spoke of the soul of the soul. Lucretius has the same curious expression, to
which corresponds the distinction of Roman writers in general between animus and the
animal soul, anima. The earliest Christian writings occasionally distinguish body, soul,
and spirit (pneuma). Such a threefold division was unfamiliar to the Jewish mind,
which appears to have rested in a kind of dualism, and was removed even from th
common Greek philosophical expression, pueuma being the word employed by Stoic

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 149 of 203)