Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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nearly destroyed by the French in 1851. Bailee was in former centuries noted as a
haunt of pirates, and a Sulke rover was the dread of peaceful mariners in the Atlantic
and Mediterranean. It is particularly noted for the carpets which it produces, of fine
texture and bright colors. They are mostly used in Morocco itself. The chief export
from Bailee is wool. Pop. estimated at about 12.000, of whom 3,000 are Jews.

SALLET, FRIEDRICH VON, 1813-43; b. Germany; entered the Prussian army in 1829.
In 1830 he was coiideinned to imprisonment for 10 years, in punishment for a novel
reflecting on the military service, but he was released after two months. He retired
from the army in 1838. Among his works are Gedichte, 1835; Schdii Irla, 1838; and
Laienewngelium, 1845.

SALLOW, the popular name of a number of species of willow (q.v.), trees or low-
shrubs with downy branches, and generally ovate or obovate, wrinkled leaves, having
stipules. The GRAY SALLOW (salix cinerea) is one of the most common British species,

f rowing in moist and swampy places. Other common species are the ROUND-EARED
ALLOW (sallow aurita) and the GHEAT ROUND-LEAVED SALLOW (sallow ca-prea), the latter
remarkable for preferring a dry soil, and becoming a small tree, the wood of which is
used for the handles of agricultural implements. The LONG-LEAVED SALLOW (wllow
aeuminata) differs from the other kinds in its lanceolate leaves. It is frequent in Britain.
None of the sallows produce such long and slender twigs as the osiers, nor are they
adapted for any but the coarsest wickerwork, and some of them are so apt to break that
they cannot easily be used in that way. But shoots of two years' growth are split up,
and used for making hoops of barrels.

SALLOW-THORN, Hippopltae, a genus of plants of the natural order elcvarjnacea, con-
sisting of large shrubs or trees with gray silky foliage, and entire leaves. They have
dioecious flowers: the perianth is tubular, becomes succulent, incloses an enacheiiium.
and forms an acid fruit. Few species are known: one only is European, II. rhnm-
noides, sometimes called the SEA BUCK-THORN, a large shrub or low tree, a native of the
sandy sea-coasts of England and the continent of Europe. It is found also throughout
great part of Tartary. It is sometimes planted to form hedges near the sea, growing
luxuriantly where few shrubs will succeed. The berries are orarige-colored. They are
gratefully acid. They are used for making a sauce in the s. of France; a rob or jam is
made of them on the shores of the gulf of Bothnia, to impart tlavor to fresh fish; and a
preserve or jelly made from them is a favorite luxury of the Tartars. The #Ml<ite hairs
of the under side of the leaf, covering it like scales, are a beautiful microscopic object.

SALLUST, CAIUS CRISPUS, a Roman historian, was b. 86 B.C., at Amiternum, in the
Sabine country. Though of a plebeian family, he rose to official distinction, first as
quaestor about 59, and afterward as tribune of the people in 52, when he joined the
popular party against Milo, who in that year had killed Clodius. His reputation for
morality was never high; and his illicit connection with Milo's wife is assigned as the
cause of his being expelled in 50 from the senate, although his attachment to Caesar's
party is a more plausible reason of his expulsion. In the civil war he joined the camp
of Caesar; and in 47, when Caesar's fortune was in the ascendant, he was made praetor-
elect. and was consequently restored to his former rank. When in Campania, at the head
of some of Caesar's troops, who were about to be thence transshipped to Africa, he nearly
lost his life in a mutiny. In 46, however, we find hint engaged in Caesar's African cam-
paign, at the close of which he was left as governor of Numidia. His administration
was sullied by various acts of oppression, particularly by his enriching himself at Ihe
expense of Ihe people. He was. for these offenses, accused before Caesar, but seems to
have escaped being brought to trial. His immense fortune, so accumulated, enabled him
to lay out thoe magnificent grounds, still known as the- gardens of Sallust, on the
Quirinal, to retire from the prevailing civil commotion into private life, and to devote
his remaining years to those historical works on which his reputation rests. He died 34
B.C., four years before the battle of Actium. His histories, which seem to have been
begun only after his return from Numidia, are: 1st, The Catilina or Bellum Cntilinarvnn,
descriptive of Catiline's conspiracy in 63. during the consulship of s Cicero; 2d, The
Jnrjurtlui, or Bellum JugnrtJUnum, commemorating the five years' war between the
Romans and Jugtirtha, the king of Numidia. These, the only genuine works of Sallust
which have reached us entire, are of great but unequal merit. The quasi-philosophical
reflections which are prefixed to them are of no value, but the histories themselves are
powerful and animated, and contain effective speeches of his own composition, which he
puts into the mouths of his chief characters. With its literary excellence, however, the

ftK Salix.


value of Hie JugurtJm stops, as in military, geographical, and even chronological details,
it i.s very inexact. His now lost work, Historiarum Libri Quinque, is believed to have
described the events occuring between Sulla's death, 78 B.C., and the year of Cicero's
prsetorsliip, 66. The D>i<e Epistola de Republica Ordinanda and the Declamatio in Cicero-
ncm are of doubtful authenticity.

Apart iVom his literary qualities, which are rather those of an artificial than a natural
writer, aiul which arc not enhanced by his affectation of brevity, and his love of archaic
expressions, Sullust has the merit of having been the first Roman wJio wrote what we
now understand by "history." In official public life, he was more of a politician than
a statesman, and the views which he supported were liberal, not so much 1 because he
loved the people, as because he hated the nobility. The best editions of his literary
remains are those of Corfce (Leip. 1724), Gerlach (Basel, 1823-31), Krif/ (1828-34), Fabri
(1831), Dietsch (1842), and the German critical edition of 1859.

SALLY-POET, a gate or passage by which the garrison of a fortress may make a sally
(through Fr. from Lat. salio, I leap or spring) or sudden attack on the besiegers. The
name Ts applied to the postern leading from under the rampart into the ditch; but its
more modern application is to a cutting through the glacis, by which a sally may be
made from the covert way. When not in use, sally-ports are closed by massive gates of
timber and iron.

SALMASIUS, CLAUDIUS, the Latinized name of a celebrated French scholar, CLAUDE DE
SAUMATSE, who was b> at Semar, April 15, 1588. His father, Benigne de Saumaise, a man
of superior erudition, was his first teacher. At the age of ten, young Salmasius translated
Pindar, and composed Greek and Latin verses. He studied philosophy at Paris, under
the superintendence of Casaubon* From Paris he proceeded to Heidelberg, where he
devoted himself to the science of jurisprudence, apd publicly professed Protestantism,
to which form of the Christian religion he had been secretly attached for many years.
So insatiable at this time was his thirst for knowledge book-knowledge, at least that
he was wont to devote two whole nights out of three to hard reading, in consequence of
which he brought himself to within an inch of the grave. In 1608 he published from
MSS. two treatises of the sectary, Nilus, archbishop of Thessalonica, and a work of tlu
monk Barlaam on the primacy of the pope. In 1629 appeared his chief work, Plinititf*
Exercitationes in Caii Julii Solimi Polyhistom (2 vols., Par. 1629); after the publication
of which he set himself vigorously, and without the help of a master, to acquire a
knowledge of Hebrew, Arabic, Coptic, and other oriental tongues. In 1631 he was
called to Leyden, to occupy the chair that Joseph Scaliger had held there, and it is f ro n
this period that his European reputation as a scholar and critic dates. Various efforts
were made (163510) to induce Salmasius to return to France, but he declined them on
the ground that his spirit was too "liberal" for his native land. Queen Christina of
Sweden, however, managed to bring him to Stockholm, and fix him there for a year
(1650-51), after which he returned to Holland. He died of a fever caught by impru-
dently drinking the waters at Spa, Sept. 6, 1658. Salmasius was certainly a great
scholar of the old-fashioned clumsy sort; but neither his wit nor his acumen was suffi-
ciently keen to give an intellectual and critical value to his lucubrations; and though all
his distinguished contemporaries, Casaubon, Gronovius. Grotius, Vossius, etc. v delug"d
him with praise; though Balzac pronounced him infallible; though the curators of the
university of Leyden declared that "their university could no more do without Salmasius
than the world without the sun;" though Queen Christina went the length of saving,
with truly royal flattery, "that she could not live without him," he is remembered, not
for his inexhaustible stores of erudition, his editions of the classics, or his treatises on
classical antiquities, but for his controversy with John Milton, scarcely his inferior in
scholarship, and infinitely his supdrior in power of brain, and in all the arts of literary
warfare. The question at issue was the lawfulness of the execution of Charles I.
Apart altogether from the merits of the case, the great poet utterly overwhelmed his
adversary, partly by the magnificence of his language and sentiments, and partly by the
unscrupulous fury of his invective. Salmasius also is grossly abusive and acrimonious
in his treatise (Dtfensia Rcgia pro Carolo /., 1649): asmws(ass), pecus (beast), and such like
expressions being showered about quite freely; but he is deficient in logic, in real force
of sarcasm, and in intellectual vigor generally.

\ SALMON, Scilmo, a genus of fishes of the family salmonidce (q.v.), which, as charac-
terized by Cuvier, has teeth on the vomer, both palatine bones, and all the maxillary
bones; and includes numerous species more recently divided by Valenciennes into three
genera, salmo, fario, and salar: the first characterized by a few teeth at the end of the
vomer; the second by a single line of teeth running down the vomer; the third by two
rows of teeth on the vomer, without any remarkable group at its upper end. To many
naturalists, however, this division seems too artificial; and the characters, although
excellent for distinguishing species, not such as ought to divide genera; an opinion
confirmed by the fact, that the teeth are numerous along the vomer in the young of the
species, as the common salmon, which finally retain only a group of them at the end.
The division made by Valenciennes separates the salmon, the salmon trout, and the gray
or bull trout, the only British species which ascend rivers from the sea, into the two
genera salmo and fario; whilst the common trout is referred to salar. A much more
U. K. XIII. 5



natural division, having regard to characters really conspicuous and important, and to
the habits of the species, is the simple one of Mr. Pennell (The Angler Naturalist, 1863),
which is really nothing more than a formal recognition of groups practically recognized
by every one acquainted with the fishes which compose them; " 1. The silver or migra-
tory species (i.e., those migrating to and from the sea); 2. The yellow, or non-migratory
species; 3. The charrs, or orange and red coloured species." The present article is
devoted to the first of these groups. The second is noticed in the article TKOUT: the
third, in the article CHARR.

By far the most important of the three salmonida which ascend the rivers of Britain
from the sea is the SALMON (nalmo salar), in commercial importance far superior to any
other fresh-water fish, both on account of the abundance in which it is procured in the
northern parts of the world, and of its rich and delicious flavor. From aneient^imes it
has furnished important supplies of food; and the salmon fisheries of Britain have long
been a subject of anxious attention to the legislature. Even rivers of Iceland now yield
a rent, and are regularly netted for the supply of the British market, to which the
salmon are brought, as from other northern regions, fresh, in ice. Many rivers and
streams, also, are rendered valuable by the salmon which periodically visit them, as
affording sport to anglers with which nothing of the same kind is deemed worthy of
comparison, and those of Norway, as well as those of Britain itself, are now frequented
by British anglers.

The salmon is one of the largest species of the genus, having been known to attain
the weight of 83 Ibs., whilst salmon of 40 or 50 Ibs., and even upward, are occasionally
brought to market. Very large salmon, however, are not common, owing to the eager-
ness with which the fishery is prosecuted. No fish i| more symmetrical or beautiful
than the salmon ; and its form is admirably adapted to rapid motion even against power-
ful currents, by the regular tapering from the front of the first dorsal fin both to the
snout and to the tail, but more suddenly in the former direction, by the nearly equal
convexity of back and belly, and by the perfect smoothness and want of angularity.
The head is about one-fifth of the whole length of the fish. The under-jaw of the male
becomes hooked during the breeding season with a kind of cartilaginous excrescence,
which is used as a weapon in the combats then frequent, woundo so severe being inflicted
with it that death sometimes ensues. The lateral line is nearly straight. The scales are
small, and the color a rich buish or greenish gray above, changing to silvery-white
beneath, sprinkled above the lateral line with rather large black spots. The opercular
bones show a rounded outline at the hinder edge of the gill-covers, which at once dis-
tinguishes this species from the only other British species that can be confounded with
it, the salmon trout and the gray or bull trout. The tail is forked in the young salmon,
but becomes nearly square in the adult. The mouth of the salmon is well furnished with
teeth; a line of teeth on each side of the upper jaw; an inner line on the palatine bone,
two or three in the adult state at the end of the vomer, two rows on the tongue, and one
row along the outer edge of each lower jaw-bone. This array of teeth indicates vorac-
ity, and the salmon seems to prey readily on almost any animal which it is capable of
capturing, though it is a somewhat singular fact that the stomach when opened is rarely
found to contain the remains of food of any kind : two or three herrings of full size have,
however, been found in its stomach; the sand-launce and other small fishes seem to
constitute part of its food; and when in fresh water, the minnow, trout-fry, or the fry
of its own species, worms, flies, etc. The angler catches salmon with the artificial fly,
or with the minnow or the worm; and no bait is more deadly than the roe of the salmon
itself, the use of which is indeed prohibited in British acts of parliament intended for
the protection of the salmon fisheries. The eggs of crustaceans have also been found in
the stomach of the salmon in such quantities as to show that they form a very consider-
able part of its food.

The salmon is found on the coasts of all the northern parts of the Atlantic, and in
the rivers which fall into that ocean, as far s., at least, as the Loire on the European
side, and the Hudson on the American. Slight differences can be noted between the
American and the European salmon, but they are not generally thought sufficient to
distinguish them as species. The salmon frequenting one river are, indeed, often
characteristically different from those of another river of the same vicinity. The salmon |
is not found in the Mediterranean nor in the Black sea, nor in any of the rivers falling-
into thenl; and in the Arctic ocean and its fivers, as well as in the northern parts of the
Pacific ocean, other species of the same genus take its place. The preservation of
salmon in a fresh state by means of ice, being an invention of recent times, this fish
never appeared at the luxurious tables of ancient Rome except dried or salted, although
its excellence was well known, the Romans having become acquainted with it in their
northern conquests. Salmon is in perfection for the table only when recently taken
from the water, whilst the fatty "curd" remains between the flakes of its flesh, which,
however, lietrins to disappear within 12 hours, although otherwise the fish is quite fresh.
Hence the peculiarly high value formerly ascribed in London to Thames salmon.

The salmon, after its first migration to the sea. passes a great pjirt of its life in it,
although under the necessity of periodically ascending rivers, in which the salmon that
ascend to spawn or for other causes in autumn, often remain during most of the
winter. Salmon return, in preference, to the same rivers iu which they have passed



the earliest part of their existence; as appears both from records of marked salmon, and
from the characteristic differences already alluded to. Salmon ascend rivers to a great
distance from the sea, as the Rhine to the Falls of Schaffhausen, and the Elbe to
Bohemia. The speed with which they glide through the water in their most rapid
movements is very great; it is said to be not less than 1500 ft. in a minute, or at tlie rate
of 400 m. a day; but this, of course, is sustained only for a few moments, and the ordi-
nary rate of progress in ascending rivers is supposed to be from 10 to 25 m. a day. The
fish, also, almost always chooses to lie for a time in some spot, waiting a fresh flood in
the stream. The perpendicular height which the salmon can pass over by leaping,
when there is abundance of water in the river and sufficient depth in the pool below tl.e
fall, seems to be not more than 12 or 14 feet; they attempt higher leaps, but often fall
back exhausted, or fall on adjacent rocks, where they die or are captured. They do,
however, rush up steep and broken cataracts of much greater height. The ascent of
many rivers by salmon has been stopped by high weirs and other obstructions; but very
simple and effectual means have been devised for preventing this by fish-stairs or Jifft-
ladders, which are often very conveniently formed by partitioning off a portion of the
fall, and intersecting it from alternate sides, two-thirds oi its width, by transverse steps
of wood or stone, so as partially to divide it into a succession of falls. The salmon soon
find out the ladder, and le;ip up from one step to another. By this, the interests of
manufacturers and of fishery proprietors are in some measure reconciled.

As the time of spawning approaches salmon undergo considerable changes of color,
besides the change of form already noticed in the snout of the male. The former brill-
iancy of the hues gives place to a general duskiness, approaching to blackness in the
females, much tinged with red in the males; and the cheeks of the males become marked
with orange stripes. Salmon in this state are "foul fish," being considered unfit for the
table, and the killing of them is prohibited by British laws, notwithstanding which.
however, multitudes are killed by poachers in some of the rivers, nor do those who eat
them either fresh or "kippered" (i. e., dried) seem to suffer from any unwholesomeness,
such as is sometimes alleged to belong to them, although they are greatly inferior in
quality to salmon in other states. Salmon which have completed their spawning, con-
tinue for some time, at least if in fresh water, very unfit for the table. Their capture is
prohibited by British laws. They are calhd "fovl fl*h," or more distinctively, "spent
fxh, " or kelts; the males are also called kippers, kip being a name for the cartilaginous
hook of the under jaw, and the females tfieddws or baygits. Such names, originally
local, have become of more general use from having been introduced into acts of parlia-
ment. The name kdt, in particular, is now very commonly employed. When they
remain for a considerable time in fresh water after spawning, kelts recover very much,
and increase in weight, whereas, before spawning, there is a diminution of weight. " A
well mended kelt" approaches in quality to a good or " clean" salmon, although far from
being equal to it.

The time of spawning is from the end of autumn to the beginning of spring, or even
the beginning of summer; differing considerably in different rivers, whilst in each river
it is prolonged throughout months, the elder and stronger fish of the former year prob-
ably ascending to spawn first. The difference of season in different rivers is probably
to be accounted for by the temperature of the water as affected by latitude, and by the
relations of the river to lakes, to low warm plains, and to snow covered mountains.

Salmon spawn on beds of fine gravel, in shallow parts of rivers, such as are used for
the same purpose by trout. Some beds of this kind, in salmon-frequented rivers, have
been notable from time immemorial as favorite spawning-places; and large numbers of
fish, both the salmon and its congeners, deposit their spawn in them every year. The
spawning female approaches the bed, attended by at least one male fish, sometimes by
more than one, in which case fierce combats ensue ; she makes a furrow in the gravel
with her tail, and deposits her spawn in it, on which the male afterward pours the vivi-
fying milt. It was formerly believed that the furrow was in part made by the snout of
the fish, and to this the snout of the male at the spawning season was supposed to be
particularly adapted; but it has been found by observation that the snout is not used in
this work. The eggs, when deposited and vivified, are covered by the action of the tail
of the female; the male doing nothing but depositing his milt, and fighting with
any other of his sex that may attempt to dispute his place.

The time occupied by a female salmon in spawning is from three to twelve days.
After spawning the salmon generally soon descends to the sea. The descending kelts
are very ravenous, and therefore a great annoyance to anglers who desire to take none
but clean fish, and must return the kelts to the water.

The eggs deposited in the spawning bed are liable to be devoured by trouts rind
other fishes, which are ever ready, and by insect larvae of many kinds, which work their
way even through the gravel: ducks and other waterfowl also search there f or their
food; and sometimes a flood changes the bed so much as either to sweep away the eegs
or to overlay them with gravel to a depth where they are never hatched, or from which
the young can never emerge. The number of eggs hatched in ordinary circumst an ITS
must be small in proportion to the number deposited, and by far the greater part of the
fry perish before the time of descent to the sea.

In from thirty to sixty days after the deposition of the eggs in the spawning bed


they begin to show signs of life, and the eyes appear .is small spooks. The time which
elapses before the egg is hatched varies according to the temperature of the water, and
therefore is generally shorter in England than in Scotland, 140 days being sometimes
requisite in cold climates and late springs; while it has been found that in a constant
temperature of 44 D F. sixty days are enough, and in a higher temperature eggs have been
hatched even in thirty days. A temperature above 70 F. is, however, fatal to them.
Salmon eggs are easily hatched in an aquarium, in which proper care is taken to pre-
vent stagnation of the water, so that the conditions may resemble those of a bed of
gravel in a running stream, and many interesting observations have thus been made by
Mr. Frank Bucklaud on the development of the young salmon, of which the results
have from time to time been given to the world through the columns of the Field news-
paper, and his excellent work on Fish- Hatching*

The young fish lies coiled up in the egg, which it finally bursts in its struggles to
be free, and it issues with a conical bag (umbilical vesicle) suspended under the belly,
containing the red yolk of the egg and oil globules, which afford it nourishment during
the first five or six weeks. The mouth is at first very imperfectly developed, as are the
fins, and the whole body has a shape very different from what it is seen to assume, and is

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 15 of 203)