Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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dualists to describe the fine ethereal nature of the material soul. It is hard to say
'Vhether a thoroughgoing trichotomy was meant by the Christian writers, or whether
the soul was not merged in either of the extreme elements the coarse material body, or
(as commonly conceived) the finely attenuated but still material spirit. Till about the
4th c., the language of trichotomy prevailed in the Christian writings, but thenceforth
the doctrine became suspect, having been specially appropriated by certain heretical
sects, and soul and spirit came to be identified in substance, and distinguished only in
function. Aquinas, and, later, Calvin, pronounced in favor of the dualistic rendering,
after which modern popular expression has been molded, chiefly through the predomi-
nant influence of spiritualism since the time of Descartes. This gives prominence to the
word soul over spirit, except in religious and purely metaphysical aspects. 'The succes-
sors of Descartes have followed him in calling the single soul at once both rational and
sensitive; but in rejecting, almost without exception, his description of the lower ani-
mals as mere mechanical automata, they have ignored, without an attempt to explain,
the real difficulty that he sought to get rid of, and that the trichotomy sought to meet.
The ancient doctrine has been revived in various shapes by Paracelsus, Van Helmont,
the anatomist Willis, De Maistre, and others.

The Egyptian doctrine of the soul is one of the most important, as it is the most
ancient, for this nation appears to have been the first to declare that the soul was
immortal. The genesis of the soul itself, however, is not defined by the monuments,
although the existence of a cosmic soul, from which the others proceeded, is mentioned
by ancient authors. The following may be gathered from a comparison of the papyri
and monuments with the traditions handed down by the classical writers: The soul
itself, once separated from the cosmic or mundane soul, was supposed to undergo
numerous transmigrations, passing from one animated body to another till its cyi le of
existence was fulfilled. The soul was considered to be essentially distinct from the body,
* and only connected with it through the link of life. It was represented in the hieroglyphs
by several signs, as a basket of fire, a heron, a hawk with a human face, and a ram. Its
nature was divine, but after death it passed to the great judgment in the hall of the two
truths, where it was tried before Osiris and the forty-two assessors or demons of the
dead, whose verdict determined its future destiny. This depended upon the sins it had
perpetrated during life, and which more or less interfered with its transmigration
through the necessary cycle of existence till its ultimate union with the deity, and recep-
tion into the Egyptian heaven. In the judgment it was accused by the enemy or
accuser; and after the judgment it was either devoured or annihilated, passed to the
region of the Egyptian hell, or to the place of the metempsychosis, from which it
entered some body of man or animal on the point of entering into existence. The great
desire of the dying, indeed was, that his soul should pass off the earth, its detention
here preventing its ascent to the moon or heaven. The souls of the wicked passed into
the Egyptian hades, which the sun was supposed to traverse during the hours of the
night. There they were subjected to punishments of a corporeal rather than spiritual
nature burned in brasiers. plunged into streams, kept in utter darkness, and deprived
of the presence of the sun-god, uttering fearful howls and wails in the prisons within
which they were confined. After the passing of the great judgment the soul underwent a
series of transformations and adventures in the future state. It was justified, as Osiris
had been, against the accusations laid to its charge by evil spirits. It assumed the form
of a hawk, heron, swallow, and of a snake with a human head that of the cosmic soul.
In the fields of the Aah-en-ru, or Ahlu, the Egyptian Elysium, it sowed and reaped the
harvest of gigantic grain which grew in that happy plain. It ascended the makhen, or
mystical bark, and rowed through the winding of the celestial Nile, passed the fiery
caldron of the hades, revisited the body, entered the boat of the sun, and passed through
different regions of the Egyptian hell, in which the damned were detained, arriving
at last at the manifestation to light. To preserve the body.- in order that the soul
might revisit and probably reanimate it at a future period, not only was it em-
balmed with the greatest 'care, but amulet-; were attached to it which were sup-
posed to have the power of retaining the vital warmth, and of protecting it from
destruction or decay. .The period after which the soul was supposed to enter t>.<r;iin
into a human bcxly was 3,000 years, during which it transmigrated through other
orders of animated nature. The principal dogmas, indeed, of the soul among these
people were its creation or emanation from the cosmic soul, its transmigrations, and its
final reception into heaven, where it lived in the boat of the sun, and traversed the
liquid ether in company with that luminary. The Pythagorean and Platonic schools
seem to have drawn extensively from Egyptian sources" in regard to the nature and des-


tiny of the soul. The Brahmanical and Buddhistic notions of the soul have also much in
common with the Egyptian. See BUDDHISM, TRANSMIGRATION. Herodot. ii. 23; Plu-
tarch, DC Is til. c. 29; Hermes, t't'irix; Prichard, Egypt. Mythol.; Rheinisch, Denkm. in
Mir< (Wien, 1865); Tylor's Primitive Culture (1871).

SOULANGES, a co. in w. Quebec, Canada; adjoining Glengarry co., Ottawa, on the
w. and bounded s. by the St. Lawrence river; ISSsq.m. ; pop. '71, 10,808. The surface
is undulating and fairly fertile; wheat, oats, rye, potatoes, and dairy products are the
staples. Co. seat, Coteau Lauding.

SOULE, GIDEON L., 1796-1879, b. Maine, educated at Bowdbin college. He was
connected with Phillips Exeter academy for more than 50 years; was for 17 years the
associate at that institution of Dr. Benjamin Abbot, its first principal, and was himself
principal, 1838-73. The school under his management took a high rank among Ameri-
can tilting schools.

SOULE, JOSHUA, p.rx, 1781-1867; b. Maine;' licensed to preach in 1798; joined the
Methodist conference iu 1799; ordained elder .in 1802; appointed presiding elder of the
Maine district in 18U4; chosen book agent and editor of the Method ixt MtKjuzine in 1816;
elected bishop iu 1820, but declined; stationed at ]S T ew York in 1821 and at Baltimore
in 1822-23; re-elected and consecrated bishop in 1824; was. delegate from the general
conference to the British Wesleyan conference in 1842. ard afterward traveled in the
British islands and France. On the division of the church he adhered to the south,
resided in Nashville, Tenn., and made an episcopal tour in California, 1803-54. He is the
senior bishop of the Methodist Episcopal church.

SOULE, PIKKKI;. 1801-70; b. Spain; educated at Bordeaux and Toulouse. He
took part in a conspiracy against the Bourbons; edited a radical paper; was sentenced to
imprisonment for articles reflecting on the ministry ; escaped and settled in IS'ew Orleans
in 1825. There he was admitted to the bar, and soon acquired a large practice. In 1847
he was elected to the U. S. senate to till a vacancy; re-elected in 1849. He repre-
sented extreme southern yiews, and was prominent in the debates on the compromise
measures of 1850. He was appointed minister to Spain in 1853. He wounded Turgot,
the French ambassador, in a duel; favored the insurrection in Madrid iu 1854; took part
in the Ostend conference in the same year, and returned to the United States in 1855.
He opposed the secession of Louisiana, was arrested in 1862 for disloyalty and imprisoned.
He. was released on condition of leaving the country, to which he returned shortly before
bis death. j

SOTJLIE. MEI.CHIOR FREDERIC, 1800^7; b. France. He was expelled from the
law school in Paris on account of his radicalism. In 1824 he published a volume of
poems, Amours Francais, and in 1828 his drama Romeo et Juliette was produced at the
Odeon. In 1832 his play Clot tide was performed, and in 1836 he wrote a novel, Diiiue
et Louise, which proved very successful. Among many other novels, he published Le
Muitre cCEcole ; ISi Jcuiicsse Savait, si Viffillesse Pouvait ; and Memoires du Diable.


SOULS, CURE OF (Lat. cnra aniinantm, care of souls), the technical phrase by which
the canon law describes the charge which is given to a pastor, no matter of what degree
of dignity, over the spiritual concerns of a flock; and the words especially imply the
right of administering the sacraments. In this sense the phrase is used to mark an
important distinction between two classes of benefices or church livings "benefices
with," and " benefices without " the cure of souls. Of the latter class are cauonries,
prebends, and the whole class known in the canon law as " simple benefices." Of the
former are parochial cures, vicarial cures, and still more the higher charges of archbishop,
bishop, etc.

SOULT. XICOLAS-JEAN DE DiEU, Duke of Dalmatia and Marshal of France, the son
of a notary, was b. at Saint-Amens-la-Bastide, in the dep. of Tarn, March 29, 1769.
In 1785 he enrolled himself as a private in the royal infantry regiment, and so distin-
guished himself by his steady obedience to discipline, indomitable xtiny-fmid, and gen-
eral intelligence that, in 1792, he became adjutant-major. His behavior at Fleurui
gained for him (Oct. 11, 1794) the brevet of general of brigade. From 1794 to 1799 he
was employed on the eastern frontier, and in the retreat after the defeat of Stockach
(March 25, 1799), his able handling of the rear-guard alone prevented the annihilation
of the French army. Appointed general of division (April 21, 1789), and put under
Ma-ssena. whom he ably seconded in Switzerland and Italy, he was afterward, on the
warm recommendation of Massena, appointed by Napoleon to one of the four colonel-
sbip-< of the consular gnards, and now became an ardent Xapoleonist. This devotion,
doubtless, was a jmvit means of his obtaining the hSton of marshal of France;' but he
most c'Ttainly justified his appointment by his brilliant achievements in the subsequent
campaign against die Aus'rians. clo-cd by the battle of Ausferlitz, which he decided by
piercing the Russian center. He also did good service in the Prussian campaign, and
took an important, though, not a prominent, part iu the Russian campaign of 1806-7,



after which he was appointed governor of Berlin and created duke of Dalmntia. Soult
was next placed at the head of the second corps in Spain, pursued the retreating British,
attacked them at Coruna, and though repulsed, forced them to leave all their materiel
behind. He then conquered Portugal and exercised vice-regal authority over it, but the
sudden arrival of Wellesley at Coimbra, and of Beresford at Chaves, made him retreat
rapidly to Galicia. In Sept., 1809, he became commander-in-chief in Spain, gained a
brilliant victory at Ocana (Nov. 18); and at the commencement of the following year
'overran and subdued Andalusia, continuing to command in person the southern army.
In attempting to succor Badajos, which he had captured and garrisoned (March 11), he
was defeated by Beresford at Albuera (May 16, 1811). After tlie battle of Salamanca
and the advance of the British on Madrid, Soult became thoroughly disgusted at the
rejection of his admirable plans for transferring the theater of war to Andalusia, and
demanded and obtained his recall; but on the news of Vitoria (q.v.) reaching Napoleon,
Boult, whom alone he considered capable of turning the tide of ill-fortune, was, in all
haste, restored to the command-in-chief of the army of Spain. Now, howeveY, it was
not in Spain, but in France, that the contest had to be waged, and the advantage of
numbers, discipline, and prestige were all -on the enemy's side; nevertheless, by a system
of military tactics which has been universally admired, he completely neutralized the
consummate strategy of Wellington, and reduced the campaign, during the seven months
it lasted, to a mere trial -of strength, the defeats which he sustained at Orthez and
Toulouse being due to the superiority of the British soldiers, not of their general. With
his usual suppleness of character he became an ardent royalist after the abdication of
Napoleon; but on the return of the latter from. Elba, he abandoned Louis XVIII. and
became maj. gen. of the imperial army. After Waterloo he rallied the army at Laon;
and on July 3, at the council of war" coincided with Carnot as to the uselessness of
further resistance. To avoid the punishment due to his treachery he published a
memoir traducing Napoleon in the basest manner, and lauding the "lawful princes"
(i.e., the Bourbons); but in spite of this he was banished and not recalled till May, 1819;
however, in the course of a few years more, he was restored to all his former honors,
and took an active part in politics and in the development of French industry. In 1838
he was sent as ambassador to England, and. as the great antagonist of Wellington, was
received with the utmost enthusiasm. In 1845 he retired from active duty, was honored
with the appointment of " marshal general of France," and retired to his residence of
Soultberg, where he died, Nov. 26, 1851. In the following year a statue of him, in
white marble, was placed in the galleries of Versailles. See Soult's Me moires ; also,
Napier's History of the Peninsular War ; Thiers's Histoire de la Revolution et de I" Empire;
and Salle's Vie Politique du Marechal Soult (1884).

SOUND (Lat. somtus) is the impression produced on the ear (q.v.) by the vibrations of
the elastic medium, such as air or water, in which it is plunged. That this is the case
is proved, first, by the fact that a bell or tuning fork in vacuo gives no sound when struck ;
second, by the fact that mere currents, as such (winds, running water, etc.), do not pro-
duce the sensation of sound until they are frittered down into vibratory motions by

The most untutored ear distinguishes at once between a mere noise and a musical-note.
It of course distinguishes a loud sound from a faint one. Moreover, it distinguishes
musical notes from one another by their shrillness or gravity, or, as it is technically
called, their pitch. Again, as in the case of vowel-sounds sung to the same musical note,
or as in the case of different instruments (flute and violin, for instance) playing the same
note, it distinguishes something further which is called the quality of the note. It is on
the pitch of notes that the theory of music (q.v.) is based, for the quality is only of
importance in giving variety, as in orchestral music or in giving richness of tone in a
golo. The most perfect music, so far as theory goes, may be executed on the poorest
instrument, but it gives little pleasure from the want of richness or quality. In the same
way a singer may possess faultless intonation, yet the performance, though musically
perfect, may, from the harsh quality of the voice, be unpleasant. We intend in the
present article to avoid everything connected with music, and have made these remarks
to show that there is something in the theory of sound more profound than is contem-
plated in the theory of music.

The questions we have now to discuss are:

1. What constitutes the difference between a mere noise and a musical note?

2. On what does the pitch of a note depend?

3. On what does its quality depend?

The answers to these queries are all contained in the following statement :
Every musical note consists in the repetition at equal small intervals of time, of some defi-
nite noise; the pitch depends on the rate of repetition; and the quality upon the nature of the
fundamental noise. ,

Rough experimental illustrations of the parts of this statement are easily given, more
refined ones will be afterward alluded to. If, for instance, the edge of a card be held to
a revolving toothed-wheel, a derinite noise is produced as each tooth bends the card and
allows it to spring back. While the 'wheel revolves slowly, we can distinguish these sue-



cessive noises; but when it is revolving so fast that they are no longer separately distin-
guishable, the character of the sound changes completely. It now becomes continuous,
and, so fur as the ear can detect, uniform, and thus becomes a musical note (with such
an apparatus, not a pleasing one). As the wheel is made to revolve faster and faster,
the pitch of the note rises till it becomes a sort of shriek, and finally becomes inaudible.
The sirene (q.v.) gives another excellent illustration. In this case the fundamental noise
is produced by a puff of air escaping from an orifice; and we observe, just as before,
that the greater the number of such puffs per second, after they have become so fre-
quent as to be separately uudistinguishable, the higher is the pitch of the musical note

Now, if by machinery we arrange matters so that the sirene and the toothed-wheel
give the number of puifs and the number of impacts on the card the same per second,
the musical note produced by each has the same pitch. But the notes differ greatly in
quality, the one being exceedingly soft and pleasant, the other harsh and grating. The
pitch, therefore, depends on the number of noises per second, and the quality upon the
nature of the fundamental noise. We shall find a complete theoretical proof of this

The general nature of the mechanical process by which sound is propagated in the air
will be illustrated, and compared with other cases of wave-motion, in our article on
WAVES. Meanwhile, it is only necessary for us to observe that, as the velocity of sound
is ten times greater than that of wind in the most violent hurricane, it is not air itself
which is transferred from place to place, but a state of disturbance (condensation or rare-
faction) of the air. Each successive layer of air in the path of the sound suffers this dis-
turbance in turn, and by virtue of its elasticity (q.v.) passes it on to the next.

Newton was the first who attempted to deduce from mechanical principles the velocity
of sound, but only for the particular case in which each particle of air in the path of the
sound is supposed to move backward and forward according to the same law as the bob
of a pendulum (q.v.). He showed that this species of motion is consistent with the elastic
properties of air, as given by Boyle's or Mariotte's law (q.v.), viz., that the pressure of
air is proportional to its density. The velocity of sound in this case is of course to be
found from the time which elapses between the commencement of the motion of any
one particle of air, and that of another at a given distance from it, in the direction in
which the sound is moving. The numerical result deduced by Newton with the then
received experimental data for the compressibility of air, was 979 ft. per second. This
investigation was very defective, applying, in fact, solely to the special case of a pure
musical note, continually propagated without lateral divergence; yet the solution
obtained by Lagrange from a complete analysis of the question, gave precisely the same
mathematical result.

But, by direct measurements, carefully made, by observing at night the interval
which elapses between the flash and the report of a cannon at a known distance, the
velocity of sound has been found to be considerably greater in fact, about 1090 ft. per
second, at the temperature of freezing water.

Newton seeks for the cause of the discrepancy between theory and observation in the
idea that the size of the particles of air is finite compared with their mutual distance; and
that sound is instantaneously propagated through the particles themselves. Thus, sup-
posing the particles to have a diameter of the distance between them, we must add
1 to the space traveled by sound in a second, i.e., to the velocity which will thus be
brought up to(l -f- ) 979 ft. =1088 ft. nearly, which is a very close approximation to the
actual value given above.

This is not one of Newton's happiest conjectures for, independent of the fact that
such an assumption would limit definitely the amount of compression which air could
undergo, and, besides, is quite inconsistent with the truth of Boyle's law for even mod-
erate pressures, it would result from it that sound should travel slower in rarefied, and
quicker in condensed air. Now, experiment shows that the velocity of sound is unaf-
fected by the height of the barometer; and, indeed, it is easy to see that this ought to b
the case. For in condensed air the pressures arc increased proportionally to the increase
of condensation, and the mass of a given bulk of air is increased in the same proportion.
Hence, in a sound-wave in condensed air, the forces and the nvissrs nre increased pro
portionally. and thus the rate of motion is unaltered. But the temperature of the mrJtat
an effect on sound, since we know that the elastic force is increased by heat, even when
the density is not diminished; and therefore the velocity of sound increases with the
temperature at the rate of about 4 ft. per Fahr. degree, as is found by experiment. |

Newton's explanation of the discrepancy between theory and experiment being thus
Bet aside, various suggestions were made to account for it; some, among whom was
JEuler, imagining that the mathematical methods employed, being only approximate, in-
volved a serious error.

The explanation was finally given by Laplace, and is simple and satisfactory. When
air is suddenly compressed (as it is by the passage of a sound-wave), it is heated; when
suddenly rarefied it is cooled, and this effect is large enough to introduce a serious modi-
fication into the mathematical investigations. The effect is in either case to increase the
forces atjwork for, when compressed, aud consequently heated, the pressure is greater



than that due to the mere compression and, when rarefied, and consequently cooled,
the pressure is diminished by more than the amount due to the mere rarefaction. When this
source of error is removed, the mathematical investigation gives a result as nearly agree-
ing with that of observation as is consistent with the unavoidable errors of all experi-
mental data. It is to be observed that, in noticing this investigation, nothing has been
said as to the pitch or quality of the sound, for these have nothing to do with the velocity.
It must, however, be remarked here that, in the mathematical investigation, the compres-
sions and rarefactions are assumed to be very small; i.e., the sound is supposed to be of
moderate intensity. It does not follow, therefore, that very violent sounds have th
same velocity as moderate ones, and many curious observations made during thunder-
storms seem to show that such violent sounds are propagated with a greatly increased ve-
locity. (See a paper by Earushaw in the Phil. Mag. for"l861.) It is recorded that in one
of Parry's arctic voyages, during gun-practice, the officer's command ' Fire ' was heard
at great distances across the ice after the report of the gun.

Since sound consists in a wave-propagation, we should expect to find it exhibit all the
ordinary phenomena, of waves (q.v.). Thus, for instance, it is reflected (see ECHO) ac-
cording to the same law as light. It is refracted in passing from one medium to another
of different density or elasticity. This has been proved by concentrating in a focus the
feeble sound of the ticking of a watch, and rendering it audible at a considerable dis-
tance, by means of a lens of collodion filled with carbonic acid gas.

Sounds interfere to re-enforce each olher, or to produce silence; just as the crest of one
wave in water may be superposed on the crest of another, or may apparently destroy all
motion by filling up its trough. The simplest mode of showing this is to hold near the
car a vibrating timing-fork and turn it slowly round its axis. In some positions, the
sounds from the two branches re-enforce, in others they weaken, each other. But if,
while the sound is almost inaudible, an obstacle be interposed between the ear and one of
the branches, the sound is heard distinctly. Beats, which will shortly be alluded to,
form another excellent instance.

To give an idea of the diminution of loudness or intensity of a sound at a distance

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 150 of 203)