Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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the lower layers. Prof. Henry in 1865, ignorant of the theory, confirmed the above
points, observing the audibility of a sound signal against the wind, heard at a ship's mast-
head, and that the cloud shadows exceeded the ground wind in speed. 4. Prof. Reynolds,
1874, showed first the refraction of sound from difference of temperature. Since the dif-
ference in velocity of sound per second is 1 ft. to 1 Fahr. , so when the lower air is
warm, the sound beams arc tilted up by increased speed below, and when cold, the upper
strata bend over and depress the focus; in either case favoring audibility at a distance.
Thus is explained the ease of extended hearing in Arctic regions.

SOUP (A.-S. Kup-an, to sip or sup) is a well known form of food, obtained either from
flesh and vegetables, or from vegetables alone. Before noticing the most important varie-



Sound.
Sour.

ties of sonp, it is expedient that we should have a clear idea of what soup really is, or, in
other words, what relation soup bears to the solid ingredients which enter into its com-
position. The researches of Liebig have thrown much light upon this point. When
finely chopped muscular flesh (or butcher-meat) is lixiviated with cold water, and exposed
to pressure, there is left a white fibrous residue consisting of muscular fibers, of connec-
tive or areolar tissue, and of vessels and nerves. This lixiviated flesh is of precisely the
same quality from whatever animal it is obtained, communicates no flavor to water in
which it is boiled, cannot be masticated, and as Liebig observes, "even dogs reject it."
When the cold water has taken up all that it is capable of extracting, it is found that it
has dissolved from 16 to 24 per cent of the dry chopped flesh. This watery infusion
contains all the savory and much of the nutrient matter of the flesh, and is usually of
reddish tint, from the presence of a little of the coloring matter of the blood. On grad-
ually heating it to the boiling-point, it is observed that the albumen of the flesh (varying
in amount from 2 to 14 per cent, according as the animal was old or young) separates in
nearly colorless flakes when the temperature has risen to 133, while the coloring-matter
of the blood does not coagulate till the temperature rises to 158. The liquid is now clear,
and of a pale yellowish tint; and as it reddens litmus-paper, it must contain a free acid.
The infusion of flesh thus prepared has the aromatic taste and all the properties of a soup
made by boiling the flesh. When evaporated it becomes dark-colored, and finally brown;
and on ceasing to lose weight, there is obtained a brown, somewhat soft mass of "extract
of flesh," or " portable soup," amounting to about 12 per cent of the weight of the origi-
nal flesh, supposed to be dried. "This extract," says Liebig, "is easily soluble in cold
water, and when dissolved in about 32 parts of hot water, with the addition of some salt,
gives to this water the taste and all the peculiar properties of an excellent soup. The-
intensity of the flavor of the dry extract of flesh is very great ; none of the means employed
in the kitchen is comparable to it in point of flavoring power." The soup thus made of
the flesh of different animals (as, for example, the ox and the fowl) possesses, along with
the general flavor common to all soups, a peculiar taste, which distinctly recalls the smeil
or taste of the roasted flesh of the animal employed. In order to obtain the strongest
and best-flavored soap, chopped flesh should be slowly heated to boiling with an equal
weight of water; the boiling should only be continued for a few minutes (for prolonged
boiling only gives rise to the formation of gelatine, a substance of no nutrient value, from
the connective tissue of the flesh), and the soup should be then strained off from the solid
residue. As a matter of economy, it is often desirable that the meat should be left in an
eatable state, which is not the case with soup made according to the preceding directions.
To attain this end, the joint or mass of flesh should be set on the lire with cold water,
which should be gently heated to boiling; the flesh thus undergoes a loss of soluble and
savory matter, while the soup becomes richer in them. The thinner the piece of flesh is,
the greater is the loss which it experiences. Hence the method of boiling which yields
the best soup, gives the dryest, toughest, and most tasteless meat. " The juice of flesh,"
says Liebig, " contains the food of the muscles; the muscular system is the source of all
the manifestations of force in the animal body; and in this sense we may regard the juice
of flesh as the proximate condition of the production of force. Soup is the medicine of
the convalescent, and as a means of restoring the exhausted strength, it cannot be replaced
by any article of the pharmacopoeia. Its vivifying and restoring action on the appetite,
on the digestive organs, the color, and the general appearances of the sick, is most
striking."

Most soups contain an admixture of meat and vegetables in their preparation; but
many good soups can be made either entirely without the use of flesh, or with fish in
place of flesh. In the former class may be placed pea-soup (which is, however, much
improved if a piece of bacon enters into its composition), green-pea soup, carrot-soup,
potato-soup, asparagus-soup: while for fish-soup, pike, tench, and eels are specially used.
A collection of excellent recipes for such soups will be found in A Handbook of Foreign
Cookery, published by Murray in 1845. The basis of all good soups, excepting those in
the preceding category, is *tock, or broth made from all sorts of meat, bones, remains of
poultry or game, etc., put together, and stewed in the stoffc-jxrf.

Public attention was some time ago called to Liebig's soups for cJiildren. This prep-
aration, which is hardly entitled to be called a soup, as the word is generally understood
in this country, is made as follows: Take 1 oz. (one large table-spoonful) of seconds flour,
and mix it very slowly and carefully with 10 oz. of cold skimmed milk, until the whole
is smooth; add 7^ grains of bicarbonate of potash, dissolved in a tea-spoonful of water
(if 60 grains of the potash be dissolved in 1 oz. of water, 1 tea-spoonful must be used at
a time), and then heat it gently to the boiling point, and keep it boiling for five minutes.
Stir it well while it is being heated; add to the whole fluid 1 oz. (1 large: dessert-spoonful)
of malt flour (malt ground in a coffee-mill and sieved), mixed with 2 oz. of water, and
stir it well. Cover the pan, and let it stand for half an hour in water which is nearly
boiling, so as to keep the fluid warm ; then strain through a fine sieve, and lx>ttle it. This
quantity is sufficient for a day's supply for a child under two years of age, and a quart of
milk should be sdded to it.

SOUR-SOP, Arwna muricata, a small tree of the West Indies, which bears a white,
pulpy, succulent fruit, similar to the custard-apple, slightly acid in taste, weighing from
2 to 3 Ibs., and much relished by the people of the West Indies.
U. K. XIII. -42



Soutane.

South Australia.

SOUTANE (Ital. soffnna, Fr. soutane, Lat. talaris, i.e., vestis, " a garment reaching
to the ankles"), the mime usually given in France aud Iialy to the outer garment worn
in civil life (commonly with a flowing over-dress or robe) by Roman Catholic ecclesias-
tics, wheu the strict law of clerical costume is in force; and also ordered to be Avorn
under the priestly robes used in the public ministerial offices of the clergyman. In Eng-
land it was called cassock. It is not peculiar to bishops, priests, or even to cleric? in
holy orders, but may be worn by all who have received even the tonsure (q.v.). Indeed,
the council of Trent (Die. de IteJ'ann., sess. 23, c. vi.) declares that no cleric shall be held
entitled to the "privilege of clerics" unless lie shall we;ir the sout;ine. The ordinary
material of the soutane is serge or woolen cloth; but it is often of more precious stuffs.
The color for the secular clergy is commonly black; but dignitaries wear o'.hcr colors.
Thus, the pope wears a white cardinals, a red bishops, a violet many canons, a blue
soutane; and in religious orders and collegiate bodies the color is regulated ly special
laws, which need not be particularized. Its use, as obligatory, was very general in
former times, but it has gradually fallen off since the French revolution: It is but little
worn in Germany, even in the southern provinces; and in Italy, except in the former
papal states, iris much less universal than it was 80 years since. In all places, however,
it is strictly required to be worn under the sacred vestments by a priest ui. ministering the
sacraments, or otherwise officiating publicly.

SOUTH, ROBERT, D.D., the son of a London merchant, was b. at Hackney in 16C3.
His earlier education he received at Westminster school, of which Dr. Busby was then
master: and in 1651 he became a student at Christ Church, Oxford. In 16oo and 1657
successively he took his degrees of bachelor and master of arts; he was ordain-, d in
1658; and in 1660 he was appointed university orator. In this function he was fortu-
nate enough to please the lord chancellor Clarendon on his installation as chancellor of
Oxford, and, in reward of his complimentary periods, South was made his domestic
chaplain. In 1663 he took his degree as doctor of divinity; the same year saw him pro-
moted to a prebendary stall at "Westminster; and in 1670" he became a canon of Chdst
Church, Oxford. In 1677 Laurence Hyde, son of the chancellor, being sent to Poland as
ambassador, he was accompanied thither by South, who had been his tutor, and was the
object of his warm regard. Shortly after his return, the rectory of Islip in Oxfordshire,
was conferred upon him, and he was made chaplain-in-ordinary to Charles II. He might
readily now have become a bishop, but through this and the succec ding reign he steadily
continued to decline the offers of higher preferment pressed upon him. The designs of
James II., tending to a Roman Catholic revival, he regarded with deep disapproval and
alarm; but so strong was his Beuse of the duty of submission to the reigning monarch
that he declined all share in the conspiracy to oust him in favor of the prince and prin-
cess of Orange. When, however, the revolution was accomplished, he gave in his ;idhe-
rin to it. But, to his honor, he refused to profit in the way of preferment, by the
deprivation of such of the higher dignitaries of the church as could not conscientiously
go along with him in recognition of the new order of things. A stanch and even bigoted
adherent of the church of England, he continued to wage unsparing war from the pul-
pit, and with his pen, against Puritanism and every other form of dissent, occasionally
oeoap5"ing himself with discussions more strictly theological, till in July, 1716, death
came to conclude his controversies. He is now chiefly remembered by his sermons; they
are masterpieces of vigorous sense and sound English, and abound in lively and witty
turns, not always in severely decorous consonance with the seriousness of the subject-
matter. As a man, South seems to have been of sound and estimable character; of pure
life and unblemished integrity. His entire works were sent from the Clarendon press in
7 vols. 0823), 5 vols. (1843). An edition in 2 vols. appeared in London in 1850.

SOUTH AMERICA. See AMERICA, ante.

SOUTHAMPTON, a co. in s.e. Virginia, bordering on North Carolina, and bounded
on the e. by Blackwater river, and s.w. by the Meherrin river; crossed by the Seaboard
and Rbanoke, and the Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio railroads; drained by Nottaway
river; 000 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 18,012. The surface is mostly level, and partly covered with
forests of cypress and pine, the latter yielding large quantities of tar and turpentine; the
soil is sandy. The principal products are wool, corn, oats, and sweet-potatoes; cattle,
sheep, ami swine are raised. Co. seat, Jerusalem.

SOUTHAMPTON, a municipal and parliamentary borough, important sea-port, and
county of itself, in the s. of Hampshire, 78 m. s.w. of London by the Lom'on and South-
western railway. It occupies a peninsula at the heael of Southampton Water, and bet-
ween the estuary of the Test or Anton on the w. and s., and the mouth cf the lichen on
the east. The High street, which is the principal thoroughfare, extends from the water-
side to the Bargate, and thence to the outsl-'irts of the town. Crossing the High street at
riu'ht ancles are many important streets, and handsome lines of new houses arc found in
the northern and western suburbs. Southampton is furnished wilh tlic usur.l i -.unicipr.l
and other institutions common to all thriving towns. St. Michael's church, the cldi stia
the borough, contains Norman tower arches, and sever;'.! of the private houses arc of
Norman architecture. The Domun Dei, or God's house, dates from the enel of the 12th
c., and is one of the earliest hospitals in England. The docks can float the largest
gteamers, and have been greatly extended and improved; the revenue of the Dock com



(* ~ O Sou tane.

South Australia.

pr.r.y in 1375 was 103,426. Southampton is the place of departure and arrival of the
i and Bi-ay.il, the Mediterranean, East Indian, ( hina, and Australian, and the
South African mail steam-packets. There is considerable traitic between Southampton
and the Chann< 1 i., lands and French co.ist, and also a large cattle-trade with Spain and
Por.;ig..l. Its harbor is perhaps the most motley and picturesque in England, being fre-
quently crowded with Lascars, Creoles, Arabs, etc., and, on the arrival of mail-steamers,
with Indian and American planters, East Indian nabobs, foreign dignitaries, naval
o.'.i -cr-i, a:;d o:hrr Briti.-haud foreign officials in every variety of costume. In 1873,
1733 vessels of 6J7, 255 tons entered, and 1045 of 588,479 tons cleared the port, \acht
und s'.:ip building and engine-making are actively carried on, and there n an extcn.-ivc
general trade, hou;hampton is also a fashionable resort in summer. It returns two
members to the house of commons. Pop. '71, 5o,741.

Southampton supplanted the ancient Clatuenlum, which stood one m. to the n.c., and
its foundation is ascribed to the. Anglo-Saxon. It is called llamtune and Sutu-liamturt
in the Saxon Chronicle. After the conquest Southampton, from which there was ready
transit to Normandy, began to prosper rapidly, and in early times it traded with Venice
a:id Bayoune, Bordeaux and Ilochelle, Cordova and Tunis. A great part of it WT.S
burned by the combined French, Spanish, and Genoese fleets in 1338, and in Hie fol-
lowing year its defenses were strengthened. Southampton is the birthplace of
"Walts (io whom a monument has been erected in the NVcst park), and of Tho.iu.s
Dibdin.

SOUTHAMPTON, HENRY WRTOTHESLEY, 3d earl of, 1573-1624 ;b. England; nfi-i'-nd
of the earl of Essex, witli whom he went in the expedition to Cadiz and afterward u
Ireland. He was convicted, though he strenuously asserted his innocence, of complicity
in the treasons of Essex, attainted, and condemned to death; but Elizabeth stayed tiu
latter penalty, and the former was reversed by parliament early in the reign of James 1.
He was at-tive in the colonization of America, and was governor of the Virginia com-
pany. He was imprisoned in the tower in 1G21 for his opposition to the arbitrary
measures of Charles I.; after his release he commanded a regiment in aid of the Dutch
against the Spanish, and both he and 'tis son died of a fever contracted in the Nether-
lauds. He is best remembered as the pairon io whom Shakespeare dedicated Venus and
A'.lonis and The Rape of Lucrece.

SOUTHAMPTON WATER, a fine inlet, stretching n.w. from the point at which the
Solent and Spit head unite. It is 11 m. long and about 2 in. wide. The isle of Vv'i 'lit,
which intervenes between the Southampton Water and the channel, forms a magnifi;v::t
natural breakwater, and occasions a second high-water two hours after the first. Soutu-
umpton Water receives the Test or Anton, lichen, and Hamble.

SOUTHAIiD. SAMUEL LEWIS, LL.D., 1787-1845; b. N. J. ; educated at the college of
New Jersey, and called to Ihe bar. He was appointed associate justice of the New Jer-
sey supreme court in 1815; elected U. S. senator, 1821; appointed secretary of the navy,
1823; was for short periods acting secretary of the treasury and of war; attorney general
of XL- .v Jersey in 1829; and governor, 1882. He was again a member of the U. S. senate
from 1832 to his death, and president of that body'in 1841.

v SOUTH AUSTRALIA. Recent legislation has rendered this name a misnomer by
extending the boundaries of the colony so as to include the entire center of the Australian,
continent comprised between the Southern and the Indian oceans, and befwcen the 129th
and the 141st degrees of e. long an area of 914,730 sq. miles.

C'-iirnrfcr of the &>V, ft?. The northern portion of this vast territory enjoys an abun-
danf rainfall, and is watered by numerous streams and rivers, some of them, as the Vio-
ioria and the Adelaide, navigable for a considerable distance by ships of burden. The
soil is fertile, and suitable for the cultivation of tropical product ions of every description.
In connection with the construction of the overland telegraph across the center of the
Australian continent, this region has become better known as being suitable for settle-
ment, already commenced.

The great central region opened up by the explorations of Stuart and McKinlny, and
the country *o the n. of lat. 33 , may be described as suited only for pastoral purposes on
aoo;mt.of the irregularity of the rainfall and the scarcity of permanent water: and with
the exception of >i few patches along the coast the same description will apply to the
country to the westward of gulf St. Vincent, in 138 D e. long. The south eastern division
of the colony, comprised betweenJat. 33' and the Southern ocean, and between gulf St.
Vincent and the eastern boundarytof tne colony, includes every variety of soil, miming
from absolute sterility to the highJfct degree of fertility, great portion of'il being probably
unsurpassed by any region in its adaptability both in soil and climate for the growth of
wheat, the vine, and the olive. This region is moderately timbered, the principal varie-
ties being the gum, the stringy bark, and tiie pine, all extremely useful for fencing and
building purpose-.

CltifM*?. A country extending over 27 of latitude must necessarily embrace great
varieties of temperature; but the climate, owing to prevailing aridity, appears to be,
upon the whole, healthy and remarkably free from epidemic diseases. The average
annual mortality during 10 years has been found, in the settled distrieis. to be 15 jv r
1000 as compared with 22 per 1000 in England. Nearly half of the deaths arc those of



South Bend. A Aft

South IJothlchem.

children. The hottest months are December, January, February, and March. During
these months hot winds occasionally blow. But the same dryness of the air which
accounts for the great exaltation of the temperature, renders it more endurable than
might at first be supposed, and Europeans are able in the holiest weather to carry on
harvest labor without danger. Careful observations, taken in the agricultural part of
the colony (i.e., s. of lat. o3), and extending over a series of yeans, show the imau tem-
perature during the four hot months to average 73 60, and during the eight cold months
56.3, the extreme range being from 117 3 to 82. The rainfall in the u., or purely pas-
toral district, is as low as 7.947 in.; while in the s., or agricultural district, it averages
as much as 48.59 inches.

Physical Aspect. The surface of the country alternates lift ween open plains and
wooded ranges of moderate elevation, which inclose many beautiful ami fertile valleys.
The principal ranges are the Flinders range, which trends northward from the e. coast
of Spencer gulf to the neighborhood of lake Torrens, in lat. 30. where it branches out
into numerous spurs; and the Mount Lofty range, running nearly parallel wilh gulf St.
Vincent from its head-water in lat. 34 to its termination at cape Jarvis. The Mount
Lofty ranges rise to a height of about 2,600- ft., running about u.e. and s.w.. having a
breadth of over 15 miles. This district abounds in picturesque scenery, the summits
being well wooded and the slopes of great beauty and fertility, affording eligible build-
ing-sites, and producing in the highest perfection many English fruils uud vegetables,
which fail to thrive on the hotter and more arid soil of the plains.

Throughout South Australia the deficiency of running water is remarkable; in fact,
for nearly 1200 m., following the indentations of the coast from the western boundary
of the colony to the estuary of the Torrens, in gulf St. Vincent, not even a brook of
permanent fresh water finds its way into the sea. To the eastward this deficiency is to
some extent compensated, partly by the streams which take their rise iti the Mount
Lofty range, the principal of which are the Torrens, the Onkapai inga, the G;;wler, and
the Sturt, but mainly by the Great Murray. See AUSTRALIA, VICTORIA. Unfortunately
for the complete utilization of this magnificent stream, its embouchere in long. Io9 3 e. is
exposed to the full force of the southern ocean, which meeting the current, throws up a
shifting bar, rendering the entrance from seaward dangerous, and practicable only for
steamers drawing under 7 feet. To counteract this drawback, n tramway has been con-
structed from Goolwa, connecting the river with Victor harbor, a small but well-shel-
tered haven situated in Encounter bay. Another railway to connect North-West Bend,
150 m. up the river, with Port Adelaide, is contemplated, and has been completed as far
as Kapunda, 57 m. ; a northern extension runs to Burra, 100 m. inland.

Divisions, Towns, etc. The colony naturally falls into three sections South Australia
proper, Central Australia, and the Northern Territory. The 35 counties serve for
electoral purposes; the most important division is into districts, of which there were
over 100 in 1879. Besides Adelaide, the capital, with its 32,000 inhabitants, tl;ere are
six townships with over 2,000 and other seven with more than 1000. Port Adelaide, 7
m. from the capital, is the chief harbor; but there are several excellent minor ports.

Mineral Wealth, etc. The mineral wealth of South Australia is great, the principal
metals being copper, lead, and iron; the last is of the finest quality, but. in the absence
of coal, cannot be profitably worked. The principal copper-mines are the Burra-Bnrra
and the Kapunda, to the n.e. of St. Vincent gulf; the Wallaroo and Moonta, on York's
peninsula, which intervenes between St. Vincent and Spencer gulf.

> Colonization. The country, the conformation and physical conditions of which we
have above described, was selected in 183*7 as the site on which to test what was then a
new principle in colonization, known as the Wakefield theory, from the name of its
author, Edward Gibbon Wakefield. The principle may be expressed in a single sentence
thus: "The waste lands of the crown, though entirely valueless prior to the application
of labor and capital, acquire value according as these elements of wealth are applied to
them iu di.e proportions or otherwise; and the proceeds of the sale of these lands, if
properly administered, will suffice to defray the cost of transporting the labor required
for their cultivation, at the same time relieving the mother-country from the pressure of
able-bodied pauperism." A second and scarcely less important problem in economic
science was put to the test on the same occasion, viz., "The future revenues of a new
colony, supplemented, if necessary, by a lien Upon the lands, afford a basis of credit
available for raising funds adequate to defray the cost of outfit and first settlement, and
therefore the appropriation of the taxes of this country for such purpose is unnecessary
and inexpedient. Owing partly to an unfortunate day iu putting the first settlers in
possession oi ? the lands which they had paid for, but mainly to a monopoly by the
government of the labor imported by the purchase-money of those lands, production was
retarded during the first three years of the settlement; and the necessaries of life, which,
but for this mistaken policy, might have been produced on the spot in profuse abundance,
had to be imported at enormous cost, and paid for out of capital, by which means the



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 152 of 203)