Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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colony was reduced to the verge of bankruptcy. In 1841 the sound principles to illus-
trate which the colony was founded, were, for the first time, allowed to come into play.
Government interference with the labor-market ceased; and within three years from
this change of policy, breadstuff's and other agricultural products were exported from
South Australia in such quantities as to glut the markets which previously supplied her

(\(\~t South Bend.

South Bethlehem.

necessities. From that date the progress of the colony, notwithstanding the attractions
of llu; adjacent gold-Melds, has been remarkable. The traveler may drive for many
hundreds of miles over excellent roads, amidst corn fields and vineyards cultivated by
yeomen proprietors. South Australia has become the granary of the eastern settlements;
and the subjoined statements, compiled from statistics published by government,
exhibit a degree of prosperity probably unsurpassed in any country or in any age.

The wasi.e lands are disposed of in fee-simple by public auction at the upset price of
20s. per acre, and lands, once passed the hammer, may be purchased at that price with-
out further competition. For pastoral purposes lands are granted to the first applicant
for a lease of 14 years at an almost nominal rent. The system of free selection within
certain surveyed districts now obtains in South Australia, whereby land to the amount
of 640 acres can be purchased on credit, at the ordinary upset price, on a written appli-
cation to the land office, and on the signing of an agreement, of which the main con-
ditions are the immediate payment of 10 per cent, of the purchase-money, and its pay-
ment in full in six years, or optionally, of half, on further interest on the remaining
half, and the full payment in ten years; personal occupancy of the land; and the
executing of improvements to the value of 7s. 6d. per acre before the end of the third
year, and of 10s. before the end of the fourth. Land, open to the public for five years
without being sold, may be leased in blocks of 8,000 acres for ten years, with the right
of purchase at the upset price during the lease. Under an act known as the Torrcns
act the dirliculties, delays, and expenses attendant on the English system of convey-
ancing are removed, and land is rendered as easy of transfer, mortgage, and settlement
r.s properly in slapping. The great advantages secured by South Australia under this
act have caused ii to be adopted throughout the Australian colonies.

Government, ttc. There are two houses of parliament, both elective. The whole
colony is thrown into one electoral district for electing members to the council on a low
property franchise, and for a period of 12 years. Members of the assembly are elected
by universal suii'rage for 3 years. Voting for both houses is by ballot. The executive
governn.ent is dependent on parliamentary majorities, as in England. No pecuniary
aid is given by government to any religion, and all churches are placed on a footing of
perfect equality. The system of public education is modeled on the Irish national
system. Attendance is compulsory.

In 1876 the 'pop. of Souih Australia amounted to 213,271, exclusive of aborigines,
Who numbered in the settled districts 3,953. The imports for 1876 were of the value of
4,57<.188: and the exports, 4.816,170. The exports consisted chiefly of corn, wool,
and copper. In the same year, the total export of corn amounted in value to 1,171,529;
Avool, of which the value is not give, Aveighed 36,435,346 Ibs. ; and copper 109,269 tons,
valued at 427.403. The revenue, derived principally from the sale of crown lands and
customs dues, amounted in 1877 to 1,331,925; the expenditure, to 1,415.703; and the
public debt, spent in reproductive works, to 4.237,030. In 1876 the laud under cultiva-
tion amounted to 1,444,586 acres, of which 898,820 were wheat; 13.724 barley; 3.640
oats; 4,972 vineyards; 4.854 peas; 5,941 potatoes; 7,446 orchards. There were 10.164
horses, 219,240 'horned 'cattle, ai:d 6,179,395 sheep in the colony at the end of 1876.
Ii-.clndinu; lines approaching completion, South Australia had in 1877, 371 m.of raihvav,
whose total cost to the end of 1876 was 2,3CO.OOO; receipts for 1876, 201,110. The

colony lias an extensive system of electric telegraphs. An overland line, constructed at
e expense of the South Australian government, and opened in 1872, runs from Ade-
laide to Port-Darwin, across Central Australia, a distance of 2,000 in., and through junc-

the expense of the South
laide to Port-Darwin, aer
tion with the Anglo-Indian line, connects Anstralia Avith all the great centers of civiliza-

tion. The places of Avorship in the colony, in 1871, numbered upward of 568, Avith
accommodation for 110,067 persons. The number of schools in 1871 was given as 307;
of scholars, 15,791; the teachers numbered 298: and the average annual cost of each
scholar was i'l, 18s. See an elaborate descriptive work on the colony, Souih Australia,
by William Harcus (1876).

SOUTH BEND, a rity of Indiana, on the s. bank of the St. Josephs river, near the
border of Michigan, on 'the Southern raihvav, 85 m. e. of Chicago. It contains a hand-
some court house, the Catholic university of Notre Dame, female academy and convent,
Northern Indiana colletre, bank, 2 neAvspapers, 6 churches, and large manufactories.
Pop. '70, 7.206; '80, 13,279.

SOUTH BETHLEHEM, a t. in Northampton co., Penn., on the Lehigh valley,
and the Northern Pennsylvania railroads, and the Pennsylvania rind New York canal,
12 m. s.w. of Eastern, 5 m. e. of Allentown; pop. 3.556. It is connected by a bridge
Avith Bethlehem, is lighted with gas, and lias excellent facilities for transportation. It
contains St. Luke'i hospital, St. Michael's hall, a water cure establishment, a literary
association, and the Lehigh university, a fine building situated on a hill, and Avliich was
endowed by Asa Packard. Avith scientific arid polytechnic departments, and schools for
mining, metallurgy, and civil engineering. The surrounding country contains almost
inexhaustible deposits of iron, coal, and slate, and the richest zinc deposits in the world.
It has manufactories of iron and steel rails, brass, shovels, and organs; a brick yard:
chain, machine, and zinc Avorks; an iron foundry, a planing mill, and a brewery, also
large deposits of coal and slate.

South Carolina.

SOUTH CAROLINA (fUnoMNA, SOUTH, ante) was settled by English colonists,
who founded Port Royal in 1 .70, and 10 years later removed to the present site ot
Charleston, the territory at that time being only a part of the Carolina province.
Many French Huguenots found their way thither in 1685, and Scotch, Irish, Swiss,
and German emigrants followed. In 1729 the province was divided into North and
South Carolina by Charles II., and from that time on it increased in population and
prospered, notwithstanding much molestation by the Indians and also by tae Spaniards
in Florida. During the revolution important battles occurred at Charleston, Fort
Moultrie, Camden, King's Mountain, Cowpens, and Eutaw Springs. A state con-
stitution was adopted March 26, 1776, and th constitution of the United States was
ratified in 1788. From the first the state was prominent in the south. Its wealth
increased rapidly and its political leaders gave it distinction and influence. The
most important event iu its history for seventy years was brought about by John C.
Calhoun, who in 1832, with other leading meu of the state, attempted to nullify
certain acts of congress imposing a tariff, believing that it bore unjustly on the
j intercjsts of the state. During some months this defiance of the national authority
\ threatened future trouble: bat prompt measures adopted by president Jackson restored
order. The desire to maintain extreme state-rights, however, continued to be promi-
nent in South Carolina politics; and in 1860, when indications of civil war were appar-
ent, it was the first state that seceded from tiie union. The legislature met in Charles-
ton, and Dec. 20 passed an ordinance of secession by a unanimous vote. In the follow-
ing April the bombardment of Fort Sumter, in Charleston harbor, precipitated the war,
and during the next four years the state suffered severely, its harbors either being blockaded
or captured one by one, and much of its property being destroyed by federal troops ou
the great march through the state, under gen. Sherman. After peace was declared and
reconstruction begin, a great deal of trouble ensued for several years through the con-
stant disagreement between the whites and the colored people and their leaders. A con-
vention held in Columbia, iu Sept., 1835, replied the ordinance of secession anil
declared slavery abolished. The state was put under military surveillance; a registration
of voters held, which resulted in qualifying 78,93,5 colored and 46,313 -white voters; ami
a general election followed. The new legislature was large'y compjsedof colored men,
and many of the state officer.? and some of the members of congress were also colored.
The constitution, which, after some delay, was framed and accepted, -was similar to
those required of other southern states for their re-admittance to ihe union. Altogether,
South Carolina has had more difficulty in regaining its former prosperity than any of
<the other former confederate states except Louisiana.

Of the total population in 1870, 343,902 were males and 361, 704 females; 697,532 weie
of native and 8,074 of foreign birth. There were 151,105 families, with an average of
4.67 persons to each, and 143.435 dwellings, with an average of 4.93 to e;xch. About
55,000 whites, 10 years old or more, and 235,0-30 colored persons, could neither read nor
write. Of the 263,301 persons, 10 years old and over, engaged in occupations, 163,528
were field laborers. 42,546 farmers and pi inters, 34,383 engaged in professional pur-uit.-i,
16,214 domestic servants, 10,654 laborers not specified, 8,470 in trade, and 13,794 in
manufactures and mining industries. By the last censa*, 1830, the total p >p. was 9J5,-
308, of whom 391,071 were white and 604,235 colored.

The state has little waste land, and produces cotton, * ; ce, tobacco, mai^e, oats, rye,
barley, sweet and Irish potatoes, peas, beans, etc. The roil comprises six v>%ietici
the tide swamp, adapted to the culture of rice; inland swaivp, to rice, cotton, corn, and
peas; salt marsh, to long cotton; o:ik and pine, to long cotinn, corn, and potulois: oalc
and hickory, to short cotton and corn; and pine barren, used for fruits and vegetables.
The climate in most parts of the state is mild and even. At v^l-arleston the mean tem-
perature in spring is 65; summer, 80; autumn, 68; winter, 51. The yearly rainfall
is about 48 inches. In 1870 there were 12.105,280 acres of ]fiA in farms, 3.010.539
acres of which were under cultivation and 6.443.^51 in woodland The products were
317.700 bush, of spring and 465,910 of winter wheat, 36,165 of ryt. 7,614.207 of Indian
corn, 613,593 of oats, 4,752 of barley, 460,378 of peas and beans, 1.4?5,417 of potatoes,
5,830 of clover seed, 10,685 tons of hay, 224.500 bales of cotton. 3,<?0*,825 Ihs. of rice,
34,805 of tobacco, 1.401,980 of butter, 194,253 of honey, 11.404 of wax, 1055 hhds. of
cane sugar, 13,179 galls, of wine, and 436,882 of cane and 183.585 of sorylnim molitsscs.
During the same year the pitch-pine forests yielded 3,421,262 galls, of ic'-pentine and
343,146 bbls. of rosin, worth together about $2,490.000. Li manufactured products the
state ranks only thirty-second, but within the past few years these industries have begun
to command more attention The number of manufacturing establishments in 1870 was
1584, chiefly cotton and woolen mills, saw mills, flouring and grist mills, and manufac-
tories of cotten-seed oil, turpentine oil. rosin, tar, pitch, and phosphates for fertili/irg.
The water-power of the upper and middle counties is ample, but in the coast region
steam is generally employed. About $5,400,418 is invested in these industries, and the
annual products are valued at $9,858.987. Tlie mining industry in 1870 was reported to
consist of 5 mines or quarries, employing 148 hands and $137,000 capital, and yielding
an annual product of $19.888. The commerce of the state is carried on principally
from three ports of entry. Charleston, Georgetown, and Beaufort, the tonnage of these
ports being about 12,000, 3,500, and 2,000. Foreign commerce centers mainly at

South Carolina.

Charleston. Rice, cotton, phosphate and phoephatic rock, lumber, navnl stores, cotton-
seed and its oil, tish, and spring vegetables are the principal articles shipped. lu 1875
there wen; 14S1 in. of railroad in operation in the state. The principal linos ;:re the
Charlotte, Columbia, and Augusta, 195 in. ; Greenville and Columbia, 19? in.; North-
eastern railroad, 102 in. ; Savannah and Charleston, 104 in. ; South Carolinaand branches,
242 in. ; Spartanburg and Union, 68 in. ; Cheraw and Darlington, Atlanta and Hickinoud
air line. Port Koyal road, Blue liidge road, and Wilmington and Columbia. The
national batiks in 18T5 numbered 12. with an nggrgate capital of .*o,lTl),0'JO. Thero
were also a! that time 5 state banks, having si, 300. 000 capital, and 3 savings banks with
capital and deposits amounting to $GOO,000. The only insurance company was the
Home insurance eo. of Charleston.

The financial condition of the state since the war has been the source of much dis-
satisfaction. In 1874 the .state debt was reported to be $17,017.651. After much legis-
lation, however, by which much of it was thrown out as null and void, the debt, as
reported in 1878. amouuied to (6,537,659; and in 1879 the state finances appeared to be
in a satisfactory condition and the administration of the government to be commendably
economical. The aggregate expenditures for the legislative, executive, and judicial
departments amounted to $124,895. A general state tax of 4 mills on the dollar, with
2 mills additional tor the public schools, and a county lax of 3 nulls for ordinary purposes,
\vas proposed for the following year, which would yield about $100,000 each mill, or in
all S475.000. Of this amount 344,372 was appropriated to pay the interest on the con-
solidated debt, ami $34.000 to pay the deficiency bonds of the state. The remainder of
the state tax, together with a royalty to be collected on phosphates, were considered
sufficient to cover all the ordinary expenditures for the new year.

Ill the matter of educational advantages the state has made progress. By the consti-
tution of 1863, provision was made for the compulsory attendance upon public or private
schools of all children between the ages of 6 and 16 years. The public schools are pre-
sided over by commissioners for the state and for each county, and there are boards of
county examiners and district trustees. In 1875 the school population w;.s '^:;!).C64, of
whom 85,566 were whites and 153.69S colored. The school attendance \v;.s 47.000 whites
and 63,415 colored. There were 428 school districts, 2.580 free common schools, and
2,855 teachers. About 800 of the schools were of the first grade, 1049 second made, and
940 third grade. Of the 2,347 school-houses, 1347 were built of logs, 918 were frame,
18 brick, and 1 stone. The total amount of school revenue for the year amounted to
$489,542, of which &2'0,(jOO was appropriated by the state. The colleges, ata ! inies,
and seminaries in the state are numerous, among which may be mentioned a state nor-
mal school at Columbia; the Clafiia university (Methodist Episcopal) at On'.ni cburg;
Charleston college; Furman university (Baptist) at Greenville; Newberry college
(Lutheran) at Walhalla; Wofford college (M. E. South) at Spartanburg; the Southern
Baptist tin ological seminary (Baptist) at Greenville; and the South Carolina medical
college at Charleston. The total number of libraries in 1870 was 1C'J3. which contained
540,244 volumes. Of these, 922 with 397,020 volumes were private, ;:nd 741 with 149,-
224 volumes other than private. The newspapers and periodicals published in the state
are about 84, of which 7 are daily, 62 weekly, 4 monthly, and 2 quarterly. The total
number of religious organi/ations in 1870 was 1457, with 1308 ediiices and property val-
ued at 13,276,982. Of these. 523 were Baptist; 611 Methodist; 164 Presbyterian; 83
Episcopal; 4'J Lutheran; 12 Roman Catholic; 3 Universalist; 3 Jewish; 1 Congrega-
tional; and 1 Unitarian.

The constitution gives the right of suffrage to every male citizen 21 years old w':o
has resided in tiie slate one yuar and in the county where he shall oiler to vote 60 da; s
preceding the election. Elections are by ballot, and a plurality only of the voles cast is
necessary for a choice. The legislature is composed of a senate and house of repre-en-
tatives, the two constituting the general assembly of the state of South Carolina. The
senate has 33 members and the house 124. The executive power is vested in a governor
and a lieutenant-governor, who bold office two years, and a comptroller-general, secre-
tary of state, treasurer, and an attorney-general, who hold office four years. The judi-
cial power is vested in a supreme court, circuit courts, probate courts, and courts of
just ices of the peace. By the apportionment of 1872 the slate has 5 members of con-
gress. The electoral votes have been cast as follows: 1788, Washington, 7, vice-presi-
dent divided; 1792, "Washington, 8, vice-president divided: 1796, Jefferson and Thick-
ney, 8; 1800. Jefferson and Burr. 8; 1804, Jefferson and Clinton. 10; 1808. Madison and
Clinton. 10: 1812, Madison and Gerry, 11; 1816. Monroe and Tompkins. 11; is-jn. Mon-
roe and Tompkins, 11; 1824. Jackson and Calhouu, 11; 1828, Jackson and Calhoun 11;
1832, Floyd and Lee, 11; 1836, Maugum and Tyler, 11; 1S40, Van Bureii and Tazeweil,
11; 1844, Polk and Dallas, 9; 1848, Caw and Butter, 9; 1852, Pierce and King, 8; U-o6,
Buchanan and Breckenridge. 8; 1860, Breckenridge and Lane, 8; 1868, Grant and Col-
fax, 6; 1872, Grant and Wilson, 7; 1876, Hayes and Wheeler, 7; 1880, Hancock and
English, 7.

SOUTHCOTT, JOANNA, a curious specimen of the religious visionary, was b. in Devon-
shire, England, of humble parentage, about 1750. In her youth she was a domestic
/servant, chiefly in Exeter; joined the Methodists, and becoming acquainted with a man

South Sea.

named Sanderson, who laid claim to the spirit of prophecy, made similar pretension!
herself. She received encouragement from some weak-minded clergymen of the church
of England. In 1792, she declared herself to be the woman driven into the wilderness,
the subject of the prophecy in Rev. xii. She gave forth predictions in prose and verse,
and although very illiterate, wrote numerous letters and pamphlets, which, as well as
her prophecies in verse, or rather in doggrel, were published, and found many pur-
chasers, and many received her pretensions as genuine. One of her productions was the
Book of Wonders. She also issued sealed papers to her followers, which she termed her
teals, and which, she assured them, would protect them from the judgments of God botli in
tliis and the other world, assuring their salvation. Thousands of both sexes received
them with implicit confidence, among whom were men of good education and respect-
able position in society. At length she imagined herself to have symptoms of preg-
nancy, and announced that she was to give birth, at midnight on Oct. 9, 1814, to a
second Shiloh, or prince of peace, miraculously conceived, she being then more than 60
years of age. The infatuation of her followers was such that they received this
announcement with devout reverence, prepared an expensive cradle, and spent consider-
able sums, that all might be suitable for so great an occasion. The expected birth did
not take place, but on Dec. 27, 1814, the woman died. On a post-mortem examination,
it was found that the appearance of pregnancy which had deceived others, and perhaps
herself, was due to dropsy. She was privately buried in London. Her followers, how-
ever, were not to be undeceived, and continued to believe that she would rise again from
her "trance," and appear as the mother of the promised Shiloh. In 1851, according to
the census returns, there were still four congregations of Southcottians in England.
Unfortunately, later census returns afford us no information on such subjects. Some
passages in her absurd prophecies are of rather a practical character, as the following:

" I am the Lord thy God and Master: Tell I to pay thee five pounds for expenses

of thy coming up to London ; and he must give thee twenty pounds to relieve the per-
plexity of thy hancftnaid and thee, that your thoughts may be serve me the Lord,
in the care of my Shiloh." This was published in 1820. The Lord is alfco made to
inform his people somewhere, anxious to go to meet the Shiloh at Manchester, that
traveling by the new cut is not expensive.

The history of Joanna Southcott herself has not much in it that is marvelous; but the
influence wV.ich she exercised over others may well be deemed so, and the infatuation
of her followers is hard to be understood, particularly when it is considered that some
of them were mwn of some intelligence and of cultivated mind. Probabh' the secret of
her influence lay in the fact that the poor creature was in earnest about her own delusions.
80 few people in the world are really so, that they are always liable to be enslaved by
others who have convictions of any kind, however grotesque. On her deathbed, Joanna
faid: " If I have been misled, it has been by some spirit, good or evil." She knew
that she was not "hersel" (as the Scotch say), when she prophesied; but she was of too
mean an order of intelligence to understand that she was mad, and therefore preferred
to attribute her delusions to the deity, or, as she said at the last moment with pathetic
half-penitent vacillation, to "some spirit, good or evil." Poor Joanna never suspected
that the spirit which played such vagaries was her own.

SOUTHERN". THOMAS, 1660-1746; b. Ireland; educated at Trinity college, Dublin;
entered at the Middle Temple, but abandoned law for dramatic literature, and became a
popular w r riter of plays. His principal tragedies were the Persian 1^-incess; Isabella, or
the Fnffil Marriage; Ororniofto; and comedies, The Disappointment; The Rambling Lady;
The Wire*' EJOIUC. He is said to have been the first English writer who denounced the
slnve-trade in Oroonoko. A collection of his plays with a memoir was published in
1774 in 3 vols.


SOUTHEY, EGBERT, was b. Aug. 12, 1774, at Bristol, in which city his father was a
linen-draper. In 1788 he was sent to Westminster school by his maternal uncle, the
rev. Herbert Hill, chaplain to the English factory at Lisbon, who undertook the charge
of his education, his father's pecuniary affairs having become much embarrassed. At
Westminster, he much distinguished himself; but in 1792 a trivial insubordination led
to his expulsion; and next year he was entered at Balliol college, Oxford, with a view
to his taking orders. This, however, he ultimately declined to do, having been led by
his sympathy will) the French revolution, into a considerable departure from the ortho-
dox civil and religious standards. In 1794, he left Oxford, having published the year
before, in conjunction with his friend Robert Lovell, a small volume of poems, the first
literary venture of a life thenceforward to be almost wholly devoted to literature.
Shortly after, he received from Cottle, for his first poem of any length, Joan of Arc,
the sum of 50; and in Nov.. 1795, he was married to a Miss Fricker of Bristol; Cole-.
rid?e, with whom he had become intimate, on the same day marrying a sister. After
passing some little time with this uncle in Portugal, engaged in a diligent study of the
language and literature of that country and of Spain, he became a student of law at
Gray's Inn. Here he worked at his new poem of Madoc, and learned nothing whatever
of law, a pursuit which he speedily relinquished as hopeless. In 1801 he accepted a
situation a& secretary to Mr. Corry, chancellor of the exchequer for Ireland ; but finding

f> (* K Southern.

South Sea.

its du'les 'listastcful to him, he very soon threw it up, and finally betook himself to
lite-rat lire as his sole source of livelihood.

In 1804 ho settled himself at Greta hall, ne<ir Keswick HI Cumberland, where he
spent the remainder of his life, working with the regularity of a machine, happy in his

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 153 of 203)