Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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family relations and his unremitting daih" round of congenial, though continuous toil.
His biography thence onward for 40 years, till the pen dropped from his fingers, might
l)i' summarized in the list of his works, which of itself would till a page or two. Ill
addition to ili.'sc formal publications, he wrote largely for various periodicals, notably for
the Q'.Htrtt'rly R<ii<tr, to which, from its establishment in 1809 having now become as
violently conservative in his views as in youth he had been revolutionary he was a
m >-t constant and valued contributor.

In 1807, in consideration of his services to literature, a pension of 160 per annum
was awarded him: and in 1813, on the death of Mr. Pye. he succeeded hi.n as poet
laureate. Through sir Robert Peel, in 1835, he received a further pension of 300, and
along with it the offer oJ i baronetcy, which, however, he decided to decline. His first
wife dying in 1837. he, two years after, was married to Miss Caroline Bowles. On March
21, 1813, be died, his few !hst years having for the most part been passed in a state of
painful mental stupor, which incapacitated him for literary exertion.

Southey's poetry except ia a few of his shorter ballad pieces can at no time be said
to have been popular, and is now nearly forgotten. His chief works are Madr, TlmltAa,
The Curse of Kfhama, and Don Rodtnck, of which the last two are reckoned the best.
In all of them are to be found noble passages, in which an ample and stately rhetoric
counterfeits with surprising success the pure instinct of music; but they rather skillfully
illustrate the art and technic of poetry than breathe its essential life. As a prose writer
he ranks high; his style is eas-y, lucid, agreeable, nicely modulated throughout, and
readily rising into eloquence on suggestions of sentiment and subject. But of all his
multifarious writings in this kind, Eli iittle Lift <>f AWw/i seems most likely to survive as
a classic. The most popular of his works when produced, it continues to be admired as,
within the assigned limits, an almost perfect model of biography. Other very excellent
biographies, however, are those of the poet Cowper, of Bunyau, and Wesley. His life
and correspondence, edited by his son, w;.s published in 6 vols. (1840); and a selectioa
from his letters, edited by his son-in-law, ia 4 vols. (1836).

SOUTH FRAMIXGIIAM, a t. in Middlesex co., Mass., the terminus of the Milford
branch of the Boston and Albany railroad, *;nd the southern terminus of the Framing.
bam and Lowell divisions of the Boston, Clii.ton and Fitchburg, and on the Framing-
ham and Mansiield railroad; 21 in. w. of Boston, 21 m. e. of Worcester; pop. '80, 0.03.").
It has important manufactories of straw goods, wheels, shoes, and rubber goods.

SOUTIIGATE. HORATIO. D.D., b. Me: graduated at Bowdoin college in 1832, and
Andover theological seminary in 1835; ordained in the Protestant Episcopal church in
1836; bishop of Constantinople. 1844-50; resigned, ui.el was elected bishop of California
in 1850, but declined: rector of St. Mark's church. Portland, Me.. 1851-52, and of tlu
church of the Advent in Boston, 1852-58. He published Tour in Armfn/n. Knniixtan,
etc., 2 vols. ; Practical Direction* for Lent; Vi*tt to ihe Syrian Church of yfennpotamia;
iJtc Wai- in the East; Parochial Sermons; and articles for religious and literary peri-

SOTJTH ISLAND, the southern of the two large islands Which, with the small Stewart's
island, form the British colony of New Zealand (q. v.).

SOTTTHMOLTON. a municipal borough in the n. of Devonshire, llm. e.s.e. of Baru-
sferple. Woolen goods are manufactured. Pop. '61. 3,830; Yl, 3,978.

SOUTH NOR WALK, a city in Fail-field co.. Conn., near Long Island sound. 42 m.
from New York on the New York. New ITaven and Hartford, and at the southern
terminus of the Danbury and Norwalk. railroad; pop. '80. 5.300. It lias a fire depart-
ment, gas and water works, street railroads, and an opera house. Steamboats run
between here and New York for passengers during the Mimmer. and for freight the year
round. A hill in the w. part of the city affords a line view of the sound anel Norwalk
harbor, and is a desirable point for residences. It contains manufactories of felt hat-.
bronzed goods, shoes, locks, paper boxes, force pun>ps. steam-engines, and portable gas
machines; there are large iron-works, ai'd considerable ship-building is done. The oyster
trade is large.

SOUTHPORT. a fashionable bathing-place in Lancashire on the s. shore of the estuary
of the Ribble. 19 m. n. of Liverpool. It is a handsome (own. and is almost wholly of
recent erection. There are assembly-rooms, libraries, large hotels, etc.; the sands are
good, and there is an iron pier nearly a mile long. The rupidity with which Sonthport
has risen in public favor as a watering-place is the best evidence of its salubrity and
beauty. Pop. T>1. 5391; '61, 11,303; 71, 18,086.

SOUTH SEA SCHEME. THE. commonly designated the SorTir SEA BUBBLE, a term
peculiarly expressive of its hollow and ephemeral splendor and sudden collapse, was
originated by Harley (q.v.), earl of Oxford, in 1711, with the view of restoring public
credit, and providing for the extinction of the floating national debt, which at that time

South Shetland. AAfi


amounted to 10.000.000. This debt was taken up by a number of eminent merchants,
to whom the government agreed to guarantee for a certain period the annual payment of
600,000 (being 6 per cent interest), a sum which was to be obtained by rendering per-
manent a number of import duties. The monopoly of the trade to the South seas was
also secured to these merchants, who were accordingly incorporated as the "South Sea
company." and at once rose to a high position in the mercantile world. The wondrously
extravagant ideas then generally current respecting the riches of the South Ameriraa
continent were carefully fostered and encouraged by the company, who also took care
t> spread the belief that Spain was prepared, on certain liberal conditions, to admit them
fo a considerable share of its South American trade; and, as a necessity, a
general avidity to partake i:i the profits of this most lucrative speculation sprung up in
the public mind. It may be well to remark in this place that tne company's trading
projects had no other result than a single voyage of one ship in 1717, and that its promi-
nence in British history is due entirely to its'existence as a purely monetary corporation.
Notwithstanding tiie absence of any symptoms of the carrying out of i;s gi eat trading
scheme, the company had obtained a firm hold on popular favor, and its shares rose day
by day; and even when the outbreak of war with Spain in 1718 deprived the most san-
guine of the slightest hope of sharing in the treasures of the South seas, the company
continued to flourish. Far from b<:iug alarmed at the expected and impending failure of
a similar project the Mississippi scheme (q.v.) the South Sea company believed sin-
cerely in the feasibility of Law's scheme, and resolved to avoid what they considered as
his errors. Trusting to the possibility of pushing credit to its utmost extent without
danger, they proposed, in the spring of 1720, to take upon themselves the whole national
debt (at that time 30.9^1. 11*2), on being guaranteed 5 per cent per annum for 7^ yi.-ars,
at the end of which time the debt might be redeemed if the government chcse, and the
interest reduced to 4 per cent. The directors of the bank of England, jealous of the
prospective benefit and influence which would thus accrue to the South Sea eompau}',
submitted to government a counter-proposal; but the more dazzling nature of their
rival's offer secured its acceptance by parliament in the commons by 172 to 55, fnd
(April 7) in the lords by 83 to 17; sir Robert Walpole in the former, and lords North and
Grey, Ihe duke of Wharton, and earl Cowper in the latter, in vain protesting against it
as involving inevitable ruin. During the passing of their bill the company's stock rose
steadily to 330 on April 7, falling to 290 on the following day. Up till this dale the
scheme had been honestly promoted ; but now, seeing .before them the prospect of
speedily amassing abundant wealth, the directors threw aside all scruples, and made use
of every effective means at their command, honest or dishonest, for keeping up die
factitious value of the stock. Their zealous endeavors were crowned with success; the
shares we.e quoted at 550 on May 28, and 890 on June 1. A general impression having
by this time gained ground that the slock had reached its maximum, so many holders
rushed to realize that the price fell to 640 on June 3. As this decline did not suit the
personal interests of the directors, they sent agents to buy up eagerly; and on the eve-
ning of June 3 750 was the quoted price. This and similar artifices were employed as
required, and had the effect of ultimately raising the shares to ICOO in the beginning of
August, when the chairman of the company and some of the principal directors sold out.
On this becoming known, a wide-spread uneasiness seized the holders of slock, every
one was eager to part with his shares, and on Sept. 12 they fell to 400, in spile of
all the attempts of the directors to bolster up the company's credit. The conster-
nation of those who had been either unwilling or unable to part with their scrip, was
now extreme; many capitalists absconded, either to avoid ruinous bankruptcy, or to
secure their ill-gotten gains, and Ihe government became seriously alarmed at the excited
state of public feeling. Attempts were made to prevail on the bank to come to the res-
cue, by circulating some millions of company's bonds; but as the shares still declined,
and the company's chief cashiers, the Sword-blade company, now stoppvd payment, the
bank refuse;! to entertain the proposal. The country was now wound up to a most
alarming pitch of excitement; the punishment of the fraudulent directors was clamor-
ously demanded; and parliament was hastily summoned (Dec. 8) lo deliberate on the
best means of mitigating this grc.1t calamity. Both houses, however, proved to be
in as impetuous a mood as the public; and in spite of the moderate counsels of V.'alpolo,
it was resolved (Dec. 9) to punish the authors of the national distresses, though hit IK rto
no fraudulent acts had been proved against them. An examination of the proceedings
of the company was at once commenced; and on Walpole's proposal nine millions of
South Sea bonds were taken up by the bank, and a similar amount by the East India
company. The officials of the company were forbidden to leave the kingdom for twelve
months, or to dispose of any of their property or effects. Ultimately, various schemes,
involving the deepest fraud and villainy, were discovered to have* been secretly con-
cocted and carried out by the directors; and it was proved that the carl of Sunderland,
the duchess of Kendul. the counters Platen and her two nieces, Mr. Cragccs. M.P. , the
company's secretary, Mr. Charles Stanhope, a secretary of the treasury, and the Sword-*
blade company, had been bribed to promote the company's bill in parliament by a pres-
ent of 170,000 of South Sea stock. The total amount of fictitious stock created for this
and similar purposes was ,1,260,000. nearly one-half of which had been disposed of.
Equally flagrant iniquity in the allocation of shares was discovered, in which, among

South Shetland.

others, Mr. Aislabie, the chancellor of the exchequer, was implicated. Of these offend-
ers, Mr. Stanhope and the earl of Sunderland were acquitted, through the unworthy
partiality of the parliament; hut Mr. Aislabie and the other directors who were mem-
bers of the house of commons, were expelled; most of the directors were impiisoncd,
and all of them suffered confiscation of their, possessions. The chairman was allowed
to retain only 5.000 out of 183.000, and others in proportion to their share in the
fraudulent transactions of the company. At the end of 1720, it bcinir found Ihat
13,300,000 of real stock belonged to the company, 8,000.000 of this w7i-> taken, and
divided among the losers, giving them a dividend of 3% per cent ; and liy oilier schemes
of adjustment, the pressure of loss was so fairly and widely distributed, tbnt the excite-
ment gradually subsided. Contemporary with this great gambling scheme were numer-
ous other " bubbles," most of them based upon the most shadowy foundations, and pro-
jected for the achievement of the most frivolous and even absurd ends; but none of
them rose to such importance as the South Sea scheme, though collectively they added
greatly to the general distress of the period, till they were suppressed by a'ct of parlia-
ment, "July 1:.', 1720.' Sec Coxe's Walpole, Bulbler's Medley, published by Can iniiton
Bowles, Mackay's Popular Delusions, and the various histories of England during this

SOUTH SHETLAND, or NKW SOUTH SHETLAND, a group of islands, and a tract of
what is supposed to be main-land in the South Atlantic, about 600 in. s. of cape Horn,
in hit. 60" 32' to 07 15' south. Of the islands, which are destitute of vegetation, with the
exception of a species of moss, the chief are Livingston, Cornwallis, king George,
Clarence, and Elephant inlands. The most recent explorers in this region are Liscoe in
1*>32, and sir J. Ross in 1842.

SOUTHWELL, a small market t. of considerable antiquity in Notts, 12 m. n.e of
Nottingham. At Southwell Charles I. surrendered himself to' the Scotch commission-
ers. Pop. '71. 2,400.

SOUTHWELL. ROBERT, 15GO-95; b. England; educated on the continent: became
prefect of the Jesuits' college at Rome in 1585; was sent in 1586 as a nnVsii nary to Eng-
land; apprehended in 1592 on a charge of conspiracy against the government of queen
Elizabeth; imprisoned in the Tower for three ytars. and though put to the torture ten
times, confessed only that he came to England for the purpose of making converts to
the Roman Catholic faith ; was tried in court of king's bench, found guilty, and hanged
at Tyburn in 1595, though there seems to have been scant proof of his crime. His
important poems are contained in St. Peter's Complaint and other Poem*, with a sketch of
his life. His chief prose works are Triumph over Death; EpMle of Comjort ; Marie
Magdalen's Funeral Teares. Complete editions of his works have been published.

SOUTHWORTH, CONSTANT, 1614-85; b. Leyden, Holland; came to New England
in 1621 with his mother; was one of the colonists of Duxbury; often a member of the
legislature; assistant-governor of Plymouth, and governor of the Keimebec plantation.
SOUTHWORTH, EMMA D. E. (NEVITT), b. Washington, D. C.. in 1818; com-
menced writinir tales and sketches for the National Era, Washington. She has published
JM/;7>>it i,i, The Deserted Wife; Shannandalc; The Came of Clifton; The Loxt lhirr*s;
The Ditrnnlcd Daughter; Cruel an tlte Grate; Tried for her Life; A Beinttffiul Fie i, if; and
many others. Her novels show strong dramatic power, are high in color, and have
been popular. Siie has been a frequent contributor to the New York Le dyer. Her com-
plete works were' published in Philadelphia in 35 vols.

SOUTHWORTH, NATHANIEL. 1806-58: b. Mass.; began the study of drawing in
Bos on and became a miniature painter of high rank in the profession. He went to
Europe in 1848, and on his return resided in New York and Philadelphia.

SOUVAL KY, chief t of the government of the same name, in Poland, is situated on
the left bank of the river Charnagarche* a tributary of the Niemen, 538 m. s.w. of St.
Petersburg. Pop. '67, 16,896.

SOU YESTRE, EMILE, 1806-54; b. France. In 1820 he engaged himself as a publ^h-
er's clerk at Nantes; afterward earned his living as a journalist and liierateur, and in
1836 settled in Paris. After the revolution of 1848 he delivered popular lectures in the
new school of administrative science, and later in Switzerland, which were published as
CamtcrieK Hixtnrique* et Lilterairen in 1854. He wrote many didactic novels and tales, and
his Philofophe son.-.- /, toitx received an academical prize in 1851. Among his n microns
novels are Les Demurs Breton*; L'Hotnme et I' Argent; Confessions d'un Oucricr; and
Pierre et Jean.

SOUZDAL , a t. of European Russia, in the government of Vladimir, noted ns being
one of the oldest towns in Russia, having, according to certain accounts, been founded
606 iJ.o. Pop. '67, 6,861.

SOVEREIGN, the name applied in politics to the person or body of persons in whom
the legislative power of a state is vested. In limited monarchies, sovereignty is in a
qualitied sense ascribed to the king, who, though the supreme magistrate, is not the .-ole
legislator. A state in which the legislative authority is uot trammeled by any foreign


power is called a sovereign state. The states of the German empire were designated
ini-xou'ceraincs, because their sovereignty was qualified by their subordination to
the imperial authority; and the same term may be applied to the states of the American

SOVEREIGN an English gold coin of the value of twenty shillings sterling, the stand-
ard weight of which is 123.874 grains troy. The name was first applied to a gold coin
issued in the reign of Henry VIII.. otherwise called the double royal or rial, on which
the king was represented in the royal robes. The name disappeared after a few reigns,
an 1 was revived as applicable to the gold piece of George III., issued in 1817, of tiie
value of twenty shillings, which was substituted for the guinea, which had previously
been current, of the value of twenty -one shillings.


SOWER, CHRISTOPHER, b. Germany, 1753; a printer; came to this country and
published, 1739, the first quarterly in a foreign language ever issued in Pennsylvania.
He was the first to manufacture type and printer's ink in this country, and printed a
quarto Bible in German in 1743. His son CHRISTOPHER, 1721-84, who emigrated with
him, succeeded his father in the book-making business, and invented cast-iron stoves.
During the revolution he was called Das Brod- Vater, the bread-father, on account of his
liberal distribution of provisions to the destitute, but, joining the loyalists, Ids estates
were confiscated.

SOWERBY, GEORGE BRETTINGHAM, 1788-1854; b. Lambeth, England; second son
of James Sowerby, published T,ie Genera of Recent and Fossil Slietts, 1832-34, with 264
colored plates, illustrated by his father and brother. He also published a Catalogue' of
the Shells contained in the Collection of the late B irl of Tanfcercillti, which he purchased for
6,000. He was one of the founders of the Zoological Journal, 1825-35, and contributed
over 40 papers to its columns. He was a writer for numerous scientific publications.

SOWERBY, GEORGE BRETIIINCHAM, b. England, 1812; has published a number of
books on conchology and kindred subjects, illustrated by himself, of which Thesaurus
Conchi/liorum is the most extensive.

SOWERBY, JAMES, 1757-1822; b. England: began life as a teacher of drawing and
painter of miniature portraits; became a botanist, and mineralogist of distinction, and
published seven works on those sciences, illustrated by himself; among them Knqlish Bot-
any. or,C<il>red Fif/urex of all the Plant* Notices of Great Britain, and British Mineralogy.

SOWERBY BRIDGE, a small manufacturing t. in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 3 m.
s.w. of Halifax. It contains iron-works, mailing-houses, corn-mills, worsted and cotton
factories, chemical works, and dye-works; but the woolen manufacture u the principal
branch of industry. Pop '61: 5.383; '71, 7 041.

SOWING AND SOWING-MACHINES. Sowing is the deposition in the ground of the
seed* of cultivated plants, and while agriculture was yet in a rude condition, was alwavs
performed bv scattering the seeds from the hand ov^r the prep tred surface of the soil.
This mode, distinguished as luind-so/ctn-ff, is still employed in the Highlands and in <r;ir-
den husbandry; but in the more extensive operations" of the farm, it has boon very much
superseded by the usj of sowing-machines of various kinds the broadcast sowing-'
machine, the" drilling-machine, and the d;b!>lhg-tn ic'.fme; the fir~t being employed
exclusively for cereals and grasses, the other two' for any kind of crop. The prepara-
tion of the soil for (he reception of the >eed consists in the thorough removal from it, or
destruction, of weeds; in its reduction to as tine a state of division an possible by meana
of the plow, grubber, harrow, and roller, and in the application of the fitting manures.
Attention must a\<o be paid to the sec-d to be sown, that it be mature, unmixed, and
each seed perfect in itself. A frequent change of seed from different soils and climates
is beneficial. Strong, vigorous seed sho:dd be urid. Imperfection of seed can be reme-
died by "steeping" the seed previous to sowing jt. The "steeps" employed ,-ire of two
sorts, acid and alkaline; the former acting directly on the fungoid sporulcs and the
bruised grains, and destroying their vitality; the 1-itter converting the oilv.maitor which
attaches the sporules lo the grains into soap, and so detaching (hem by the aid "f ;\ little
stirring. Of the acid steeps, blue vitriol or sulphate of copper (SO 3 .CuO-|- 5 HO) in the
proportion \ lit. to 1 Ib. to as much water as will cover 4 bushels of grain, is the best of
all steeps, and is the one most commonly employed; the others are irreen vitriol or sul-
phate of iron (SO s ,FeO-|-7HO). anil various arsenical preparations. The alkaline sleeps,
which are inferior to the former, being more limited and less certain in their action, ar
putrid urine, lime-water of maximum strength., and Glauber's salts or sulphate of soda.
After the seed has been steeped, it ought to be spread out on a floor in thin layers to
dry, after which it should be at once sown.

Cereal* As al>ove mentioned, cereals may be sown either broadcast, drilled, or dib-
bld. If tin; first method is to be adopted, the land receives what is called the seed-
furrow; or if rough, it gets a single stripe with the harrows, and the seed is then sown
either by hand or by the broadcast machine. This machine consists of a triangular
frame with the anex to the front, supported on three wheels, and carrying a long
wooden box of the form of a trianguhir prism, set with a fiat side the lid uppermost.
This box, which is placed at right angles to the line of draft, is furnished with a row of


email holes nt the ootfom, about 7 in. apart; and n little above this row is placed a
longitudinal spindle, carrying a set of hard circular brushes, one opposite each hole, and
deriving- a rotatory motion fro MI the axle of the hind wheels. The si/e of the apertures
can be adjusted to the desired quantity of seed per acre, by means of a movable plate
outside provided with holes corresponding to those of the box. When the box is sup
plied wiih seed, and the machine set in motion, the grain drops through the holes,
which are kept from clogging by the rapid rotation of the brushes. The box is made of
such a lenglh (10 to '20 ft.) that 30 to 35 acres may be sown in a day. The seed is then,
covered by harrowing. This machine was much used in Scotland, being rather bettei
suited to hilly and uneven surfaces, and. from its more rapid execution, to a climate
which more frequently interferes \\ iili agricultural operations. In England, where tha
climate is more favorable, and the surface more level, the drilling-machine is the favor-
ite. So it is now in Scotland, where the amount of seed deposited by drilling has
increased immensely during the last 10 years. Even in the far inland glens, drill-
machines are rather growing in popularity. The land is prepared for sowing by as
complete pulverization as possible, and its surface is made quite even by the harrow and
roller. The drill which, in the arrangement of some of its essential p.irts, corresponds
to the broadcast-machine, differs from it in being furnished with a set of coulters, which
are hollowed behind to inclose the lower ends of a corresponding set of tin tubes, who-e
upper ends are iixed opposite to the holes in the seed-box. By lids machine a series of
furrows of uniform depth are made by the couliers; into these furrows the seed is con-
veyed by means of the tin tubes. The modern drill-machine covers the seed most uni-
formly. The harrowing is generally completed before drilling begins. The spindle
inside the seed-box is provided with grooved cylinders or pinions in place of bru.-hes,

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 154 of 203)