Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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and the seed rows are generally made from 4 to 10 in. apart. The advantages of this
machine over the former consist in the greater regularity of deposition of the seed,
which admits of hoeing and other cleaning operations during the early period of growth;
in the uniform depth at which the seed is planted, so that none of it is lost by being
bnricd, while it is all covered; in the protection of the operation from the disturbing
influence of winds; in the saving of seed and greater yield of grain, it being often found
that if drilled seed be to broadcast, in quantity, as 2 to 3, their respective yields are
nearly as 5 to 4: in the free access of sun and air during growth; and in the less liability
of the crop to "lodge" flat at the root. But it has one disadvantage: an ordinary drill
cannot sow more than 10 to 12 acres per day, and employs more men and horses than the
broadcast-machine. From 2 to 3 bushels of seed per acre suffices with 'the drill,
whereas from 3 to 4 is necessary with the broadcast machine, and from 5 to 6 bushels
with the hand. The great saving of seed and oilier advantages thus fully atoue for the
extra work involved by the drill.

The third method of sowing by dibbling, is employed chiefly on the li-rht soils in
the s. of England, and even there not generally, at least in the case of cereals, so that
a minute description of the machines by which the operation is effected is unnecessary.
Suffice it to mention that dibbling only requires about one third of the seed which is
necessary In drilling, and presents still greater opportunities for weeding and stirring the
soil in the early stages of growth; but is attended with various important defects, and
is more expensive.

When a cereal crop is to be followed by grass, the grass seeds are sown a few days
after the other crop, by a broad-cast machine or by the hand.

Euan*. The sowing of this crop (see BEAN) is performed by means of the bean-bar-
row, a machine the same in structure as the drilling-machine for corn, but wanting the
coulters, and having only three tubes, through which the seeds fall. Peas are frequently
sown along with beans, the latter acting as a support to the former, and the two
together better preventing the growth of weeds. The hand is also sometimes adopted.

Turnips. For this crop the ground must be more thoroughly cleaned and broken
down than for any other; after which it is formed into drills from 26 to 29 in. apart,
which are then supplied with manure, and covered with the drill-plough, splitting the
original drills. Tire new ridges thus formed being directly above tiie manure, the seeds
are sown on the top of each ridge by the means of the turnip-drill. This machine,
instead of a seed-box of the ordinary form, has two tin or tinned-iron barrels, placed on
a spindle. Each cylinder has a row of holes round its middle circumference, the row
being covered by a circular sliding collar of thin metal, perforated with corresponding
holes. Eacli seed-box has its corresponding seed-tube and hollow coulter, as in the
corn-drill; but the turnip-machine has in addition a roller in front of the coulters, for
compressing the crests of the ridges, and some machines have two light rollers attached
behind, which slightly compress the earth raised by the coulters, and cover the seeds.
The quantity of seed sown is about 2 Ibs. of globe o. - yellow, and about 3 Ibs of
Swedish turnips to the acre. The proper time to sow swedes is from the 12th to 25th
of May, and yellows from Ma} 1 2t> to June 12.

SOW THISTLE, SoncJnm. a genus of plants of the natural order composite, suborder
cicJu>racc(v, having on imbricated involucre, swollen at the base, with two rowj, of
unequal scales, which at length bend inward; a naked receptacle; the fruit transversely
wrinkled and without a beak, the pappus hairy and without a stalk. The COMMOS Sow

Soy. A'Tfl

Spade. O ( U

THISTLE (.9. o'crnreii*) abounds in Britain and in most parts of Europe, as a weed in
gardens and cultivated fields. It is an annual plant, delighting in rich soils, grows to
the height of two or three ft., with somewhat branching stem, and small yellow flowers
almost iu umbels. The tender tops and leaves are much used in the north of Europe
as greens. The COKN Sow THISTLK (S. (mentis a. perennial with large yellow flowers,
frequent in corn fields in Britain, and throughout great part of Europe. Nearly allied
to tiie genus Soncliuis is Mulgedium, to which belongs the ALPINE BLUE Sow I'HISTLE
(M. ulptnuHi), the beautiful blue flowers of which adorn some of the most inaccessible
spots of the mountains of Switzerland and of Scotland.

SOY is a thick and piquant sauce, made from the seeds of the SOY BEAN (Soja
). a plant of the natural order leguminosce, suborder papttionaceas, so nearly allied
to the genus dolichos (q.v.) as to be often included in it. It is a native of China,
Jiipan, and the Moluccas, and is much cultivated in China and Japan. It is also com-
mon in India, although, probably, not a native of that country. The seeds reseml-le
those of the kidney bean, and are used in the same way. The Japanese prepare from
them a substance called miso, which they use as butter.

boy is made by mixing the beans softened by boiling with an equal quantity of
wheat or barley roughly ground. The mixture is covered up, and kept for 24 hours
in a warm place to ferment. The mass is then put into a pot, and covered with salt,
the salt lived being in quantity about equal to each of the other ingredients. Water is
poured over it; and it is stirred, at least once a day, for two months, after which the
liquor is poured off and squeezed from the mass, filtered, and preserved in wooden
vessels. By long keeping, it becomes brighter and clearer. A Chinese sauce, called
kitjap (ketchup), is often sold in Britain as soy, but is very inferior to the true soy.

SPA, a t. of Felgium. and a watering-place of world-wide celebrity, stands in a
romiintic valley amid hills which form part of the Ardennes chain, 27 m. s.e. of Liege,
and 22 m. s.w. of Aix-la-Cbapelle by railway. The prettily-built town consists almost
entirely of inns and lodging-houses. The chief edifices are the Redoutt plain outside,
but h;ind.-ome within, and including under one roof a theater (open four times a week),
a ball-room, etc and the VavfJiau, a second Redoute, but now little used. Gaming,
vliith figured prominently among the amusements, was suppressed in 1872. The
mineral springs, seven in number, are all chalybeate, and contain minute quantities of
iron, so t-i.iv.bircd with alkaline salts ai;d carbonic acid gas as to be both easily digested
t;nd agreeable to the palate. They are cold, bright, and sparkling, and are efficacious in
complaints of tl e li\er, nervous diseases, etc. Spa-water is exported to all quarters of
the globe The other springs are near the town, and most of them are situated amid
picturesque f lantalious. Spa is also famed for the manufacture of wooden toys, which
are stained lirown by being steeped in the mineral waters. Pop. '70, about o.&OO. The
number of visitors d'uring the season is about 20,000. of whom half are Belgians. Spa
was frequented as a watering-place as early as the 14th c., and has gi\eu its name to
inuny ir.ineral springs.

SPACCAFOR NO, a city of Sicily, in the province of Syracuse, with 8,035 inhabitants.
Opposite Spaccaforuo, R'oger, king of Sicily, gained a signal victory over the Saracens
in 1002.

SPACE AM> TIME. Space nnd Time bring the most general conditions, forms, or
attributes of nil existing things, their discussion is linked with the highest problems of
philosophy. Space is co-extensive with, and inseparable from, the sensible, external,
or object world; lime is a property both of the object world and of the subject mind.

Of the so-coifed innate ideas maintained by one school of philosophy, Space and
Time are the foremost examples. (Other examples are number, infinity, being, sub-
stance, power, personal identity, etc ) Accordingly, it is held, on the one side, that
these notioos are underivcd, or intuitive to the mind: and, on the other side, tl:at they
arise in the course of our education or experience, like our ideas of heat, sound, color,
gravity, etc.

To begin with spnce. The supporters of the innate or intuitive origin of the idea
allow that it does not arise in the mind until actual objects, or extended things, arc pre-
sented to the senses until we see the visible, and touch the tangible things around us:
but they declare that this contact with the sensible world is only the occasion of our be-
coming conscious of what was alreadv in the mind. Thus, Mr. Mansel says: ''Space is
not properly nn i/uinfe idea, for no idea is wholly innate; but it is the innate clement of
the ideas of sense which experience calls into consciousness." It is, in short, the super-
adding of some independent activity of the mind to the passive sensation. The reasons
usually given for assuming an intui'ive element in the Idea of space are. in the main, the
reasons given for innate ideas generally; they chiefly resolve themselves into affirming
the attributes of nnirvrxnlity and nectmtily'in such ideas; and the inadequacy of mere sen-
sible experience to reveal these nidi attributes of things. Whatever is got by experience
can be thought away; space and time cannot. Thus, it is impossible for us to receive
any sensible impression of an outward object the sun, for example without conceiving



that tiling as existing in space. To use the language of Kant, space is a form of our
sensibility, or sensible perception; and as the perception itself cannot, he thinks, give
this universal and inseparable form it must be contributed by the mind. Sir W. Ham-
ilton supposes that we may have an " empirical" notion of space i.e., a notion from
experience; hut that space as a "form" is not obtained from experience, but from
intuition. He does not, however, explain clearly wherein consists the difference between
these two notions.

According to the opposite view space is an abstraction from our experience of ex-
tended things, exactly as gravity is an abstraction from gravitating bodies, and justice
from just actions. We first obtain from experience a variety of impressions, in the
coucreie, of things possessing extension; and, next, from all these, by the usual process
of abstraction, we gain a notion of exteution in the abstract, or space. A few remarks
may be made on these two distinct operations, as both involve matters of controversy.

1. Before the muscular feelings were distinctly recognized as something superadded
to the proper sensations of the senses or the feelings of mere light, sound, etc., it was
not easy to show that, by sensible experience alone, we could perceive objects as ex-
tended, or as occupying space. The pure optical sensibility of the eye is for color solely;
the pure tactile sensibility is for softness and smartness, roughness and smoothness, etc.
When, however, we make full allowance for the whole range of feeling connected with
the exercise of muscular energy, there is no difficulty in accounting for the origin of such
notion* as resistance (force or power) and extended magnitude. The element supposed
by the a priori philosophers to be contributed by tiie mind itself, is according to the
other school, muscularity, or the feeling of the putting forth of inward energy. Tha
two senso-s related to our cognizance of space sigiit and touch, are compound senses;
they involve an active energy, with its peculiar consciousness, as well as a sen-
sibility; and all that is characteristic of extension or space arises througa these muscu-
lar accompaniments.

2. Having perceived a great number of things as extended, with the intervals of un-
occupied extension that separate these, we form an idea of extension in the abstract.
The distinguishing peculiarity of this abstraction is related to unoccupied extension, or
empty space, where we seem to have extension without anything extended; rendering
the idea of space unlike other abstract ideas, as gravity, or justice, which are conceiv-
able only as embodied in gravitating things, or just actions. Still, empty space is a real-
ity to us, inasmuch as it expresses cessation of resistance, and free scope for movement.
To the senses alone, without the muscular accompaniments, space would be a nonentity:
an inconceivability ; but the feeling of the sweep of the arm, or of the locomotion of the
body, in passing from one point of resistance to another is a genuine menial experience

the filling up of the interval between two tactile encounters, or between two o^iica!
pictures, with conscious activity.

The idea of TIME, continuance, or endurance, applies both to our feelings of energy
put forth, and also to our sensations, emotions, and the flow of our ideas; in other
words, it attaches both to the extended or object world, and to the unextetided or sub-
ject mind. In our muscular feelings, which represent the universe of matter and space,
\ve discriminate a dead strain, or elfort of resistance, lasting a short time from the same
strain lasting a longer time; and also a more persisting movement from a less. So in the
sensations; a sound enduring a second is different to us from a sound enduring two
seconds: a transitory odor is not confouuJe 1 with one of greater continuance. We dis-
tinguish two bursts of wonder, terror, love, or anger, if they have been uncqu d in t icir
duration Abstracting fro:n all these experiences of continuance in the concrete, we ob-
tain the idea of time; which idea, however, like other abstractions, must be conceived
by us under some individual continuingthing. If we were to imagine the whole outward
universe annihilated, we should still have, in our own consciousness, an instance of the
continuing, and upon that we could sustain the conception of time. See GENERALIZA-

Time is measured by space, and space by time. The one is often expressed by the
other, but with a certain limitation; we say "a space of time," but not "a time of
space." Movement is common to both. Of passive sensations, the best for indicating
time are those of hearing

ynonymous meaning, and denote the cultivation of farm-crops on a small scale by means
of the spade. This sy>tem has long been in operation in Belgium and Flanders', where
the holdings average little more than live, though a few are as large as fort}' acres; and
by steady industry and economy, even the smallest of them is cap-ib'e of maintaining a
family in comfort. In this country, cottage-fanning is chiefly practiced among the
miners in Cornwall, who at first received leases of their coarse unreclaimed land at is.6d.

5s. per acre, the lease to last for three lives. These patches of from three to five acre*
number over G 000, and have increased greatly in value. In Orkney and Shetland, some
of Suiherlandshire, and much of the Western isles of Inverness and Argylrshire, spade-
culture is quite common, nnd when properly done is a thorough means *of cultivation.
In Lincolnshire, especially on tbe isle of Axholme, the same system exists. The sue-



cess of small-farming depends on two causes the inexpensiveness of the stocking and
implements, and the superior fertility of the soil when dug. The implements required
are spades and digging- forks of different sizes, hoes, rakes, scythe, reaping-hooks,
flail, hay -fork, wheel- narrow, and a few other implements equally inexpensive; the
steading consists of the cottage, a cow-shed (for one or two cows), and a pig-sty; the
stock, of cows, pigs, and poultry, besides household furniture. The superiority of the
spade over the plow rests on its deeper cultivation ; on its not forming a hard imper-
meable crust on the suiface of the subsoil, as the plow does; on its more thorough
subdivision of the soil; .and OD its more effective burying of weeds. Besides the tread-
ing of the laud by the horses' feet is avoided. As a conclusive instance of this, may [email protected]
given a sketch of the system pursued by the rev. Mr. Smith of Lois-Weedon, North-
amptonshire, with its results. Mr. (Smith drilled wheat in the usual manner, dug the
intervals two spits deep, so as gradually, year by year, to bring up more and more of
the subsoil, and by careful keeping down of weeds, repeated stirring of the soil, and
sowing the next cropiu the intervals .between the rows of the former, he succeeded, at a
total expense of 3 14s. per acre, in obtaining a profit of 8 per acre. J\ir. Smith also
sowed wheat in strips of three rows, with twelve inches between the rows, and intervals
of three feet between the strips; and by dint of thorough digging and trenching between
the rows with the spade, he succeeded for 14 successive years in producing 36 bushels of
wheat annually, without the application of a particle of manure. Similar experiments
have been made with success at llothamstead in Herts, by Mr. Lawes, who found, how-
ever, that proper and sufficient manuring almost doubled the crop. The subject of cot-
tage-farming deserves serious attention in connection with the movement for ameliorat-
ing the condition, and preventing the decrease, of the rural population of the country.
It is receiving such; there is a growing feeling among landlords in favor of increasing
the number of crofts, and thereby inducing the best laborers to remain in. their native
country, instead, as has been too much the case, of emigrating.


SPA'HIS (the same with Sipahi or Sepoy q.v.) were the cavaliers furnished by the
holders of military fiefs to the Turkish army, and formed the elite of its cavalry. The
ppahis, along with the Janizaries (q.v.) owe "their, organization primarily to Orclian, the
second of the Ottoman sultans, finally to sultan Amu rath I.; and when 'levied en mime,
could number 140,000, but such a levy was very seldom called for. In the field, they were
divided into two classes, distinguished by the color (red and yellow) of their standards;
one class had pistols and carbine, the other a bow and arrows, and both carried a saber,
lance, nndjerid, or javelin. They were excellent irregular troops; but when European
organization was introduced into the Turkish army, they were replaced (1826) by regu-
lar horse. At the present time, the French have numerous regiments of spahis, raised
from among the native tribes of Algeria and from France in about equal proportions;
the dress, especially of the indigenous soldiers, partakes very much of the Arab char-
.acter. The natives are allowed to rise to any grade below that of capt. ; but all the
superior officers are of French descent. Sec ZOUAVES.

SPAIGIIT, RICHARD POBBS, about 1745-1802; b. Ireland: educated at Glasgow
university; emigrated to North Carolina shortly before the revolution, and fought, on
the American side. He was a member of congress, 1783-86, and 1798-1801. and of the
Constitutional convention of 1787. From 1782 to 1785 he was the governor of North
Carolina. Spaight was killed in a duel with one John Stanley.

SPAIN (Span. Expafla), a kingdom of Europe, occupying the larger portion of tlw
great peninsula which forms the s.w. corner of the Europenn continent, reaching further
8. than any other European country, and further w than any except Portugal. It
is bounded on the n. by the bay of Biscay and by France, from which it is separated
by the mountain ridge of the Pyrenees; on the e and . by the Mediterranean and
Atlantic; and on the w. by the Atlantic and Portugal. Greatest length, from Fun-
terrabia on the n. to Tarifa on the a. 560 m.: greatest breadth, from cape Finisfem
(Land's End), the extreme point on the w.. to cape Creuze, the extreme point on the e.,
about 650 miles; average breadth about 380 miles. Area, including the Balearic (q.v/
and Canary isles, 196.031 sq.m. ; pop. '70, 16,835,506. The country, including th
Balearic and Canary isles, was divided in 1834 into 49 modern provinces, though thf
former division, into 14 kingdoms, states, or provinces, is still sometimes used. Th<
following is a table of the ancient states, and of the modern provinces into which thej
have been divided, with their areas and populations, according to the most recently
published estimates those of 1870:



Ancient Provinces.

Modern Provinces.

f Madrid 2,997.2

N _ w O AC!TII ,, J Toledo 5,586.3

1 Guadalajara 4,869.3

L Cuenca 6,725 9

LA MAKCHA. Ciudad-Real 7,840.3

f Burgos 5.C51.0

Logrono 1,9-15.1

I Santander 2,112.7

, D r . STn I Soria 3,836.3

1 begovia 8,718.5

1 Avila 2.981.7

Palencia 3,126.5

I Valladolid 3,042.7

( Leon 6,166.9

LatON, < Zamora 4,135.6

| Salamanca 4,940.0

ASTURIAS. [Oviedo 4,01)1.3

r'Coruna 3,078.6

GALICIA J Lugo 3.7873

UALICIA. j Orense 2,738.7

[ Pontevedra 1.739.2

KKTRKMADTTBA ' B dajos 8.687.8

KSTREMADUBA. ^ Caceres 8,013.9

f j Seville 5,295.5

1 Cadiz 2,809.3

MHuelva 4,122.4

| iCordova 5,190.1

| Jaen 5,184.2

Granada 4,937.6

Almeiia 3,302.5

Malaga 2.823.7

i iMurcia 4.477.9

MDRCIA. 1 Albacete 5,971.8

( Valencia 4,352.2

VAI.ENCIA. { Alicante 2,098.3

( Castellon de la Plana 2,446.6

< ^aragossa 6,607.4

ARAOON < Huesca 5,878.5

Teruel 5,494.2

f Barcelona 2,985.3

Tarragona 2,451.4

CATALONIA. 1 Lerida 41774.8

IJGerona 2,271.9

Navarre 4,045.8

, Biscay 848.6

BASQUE PROVINCES. -{ (iuipuzcoa 727.7

Alura 1,205.3

Total 191,110.8

} Balearic ... 1,736.7

* Canaries sll83.6

General Total 1%,031.1

Area in English
Square Miles.

in 1870.

7(52, 555
330, 36o





Area in English
Square Mnes.




Port Rico .


Philippine Islands

Caroline Island and Palaos.
Marian Islands


FernSdo do Po and Annobon.








Coast-line. The entire perimeter of the country is 2,080 English m., and the coast-
line, exclusive of windings, is 1317 m. long, of which 712 m. are formed by the Mediter-
ranean, and 605 m. by the Atlantic. The n. coast, from Fuenterrabia w. to cnpe Orte-
gal, is unbroken by any considerable indentation. A wall of rocks, varying in hc-ight
from 30 to 300 ft., runs along this shore; but the water, which coqaii? co'iMJerable
depth close to the beach, is not interrupted to any unusual extent by isliuid? ot rocka.
U. K. XIII. 43



The n.w. coast, from cape Ortegal s. to the mouth of the river Minho which sepa-
rates the Spanish province of Galicia from Portusral though rock-bound, is less ele-
vated, and is much mt>re broken than the shores washed by the bay of Biscay; and the
indentations, the chief of which are Noya Arosa and Vigo bays, form secure and spa
cious harbors. From the mouth of the Guadiana, on the s., to the strait of Gibraltar,
the coast-line, though well-defined, is low, sandy, and occasionally swampy. From
Gibraltar to cape Palos the shores, which are backed in part by the mountain-range of
the Sierra Nevada, are rocky and high (though flats occur at intervals), are unbroken
by indentations, and comprise only two harbors, those of Cartagena and Malaga. A
low, and for the most part sandy, coast extends n. from cape Palos, rising into rocky
cliffs and bluffs in the vicinity of Denia, but extending in sandy flats from Denial to the
mouth of the Ebro. From the mouth of this river, n. to the frontier of France, the
coast is alternately high and low, and its principal harbors are Barcelona and Rosas.

Surface and Hydrography. The compactness and the isolation of this country, and
its position between two seas, the most famous, and commercially the most important
in the world, are not more in its favor than the character of its surface, which is more
diversified than that of any other country in Europe of equal extent. An immense pla-
teau, the loftiest in the continent, occupies the central regions of Spain, and is bounded
on the n. and w. by mountainons tracts, and on the n.e. by the valley of the Ebro; on.

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 155 of 203)