Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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siderable part of Aragon had been wrested from the Moors by Sancho III. (1000-35)
of Navarre, and at his death this part of his dominions passed by inheritance to his son
Ramiro, who added to it the districts of Sobrarve and Ribagorza, and a considerable
Jextent of country which he conquered from the common enemy, the Moors. This king-
dom of Aragon was the last Christian kingdom formed in Spain; and though it increased
by acquisitions from the Moors, yet being limited by Leon, Castile, find Navarre en one
side, and the Spanish March (now only the county of Calalonia or Barcelona) on the
other, its princes aimed at maritime power; and by the union, through the marriage of
the count of Barcelona with queen Petronilla, of the Spanish March with Aragon,
means were obtained of carrying out this policy, and the spread of the Arajjonese
dominion to Sicily (q.v.), Naples (q.v.), an.l other regions bordering on the Mediterra-
nean, was the consequence. These throe kingdoms Castile and Leon, Navarre, and
Aragon continued, sometimes in combination and sometimes separately, to war against
their common enemy, the Moors Castile being, from its greater power find proximity,
the most persistent assailant, and Navarre, for the opposite reason, the least so; but
whenever the arrival of fresh levies from Africa, or the accession of an energetic caliph
threatened serious danger to any one of the three, the others generally came to its aid.

The extinction of the Ommiades in Spain in 1031, nnd the disruption of the caliphate
into the minor kingdoms of Cordova, Seville, Toledo, Lisbon, Zaragozu, Tortosa. Valen-
cia, Murcia, Badajos, and seven others of less note, was an occurrence by which the
kings of Castile and Aragon did not fail to benefit, for by well-directed and unremitting
attacks they subdued some, rendered others tributary, the kings of Portugal also on their
side gallantly and successfully pursuing the same policy; and a few years more would
have certainly annihilated Moorish domination in Spain, had not Mohammed of Cordova
and Seville, hard pressed by Alfonso VI. of Leon and Castile, about the close of the
llth c., applied for aid to an Arab tribe, whose military career in n. Africa had been
of the most brilliant character. This tribe, the Almoravides i.e.. men devoted to the
service of God had made themselves masters of the provinces of Africa nnd Almagreb,
and founded the empire of Morocco. Responding to the request of Mohammed, the
Almoravides crossed over to Spain, defeated the king of Aragon and Castile, and recovered
much of New Castile. Then, turning upon their ally Mohammed, they compelled him
to yield up the province? of Cordova and Seville, and all the minor Moorish princes to
follow his example; so that, in 1094. the Almoravide sovereign was acknowledged sole
monarch of Mohammedan Spain. The power of this tribe, however, began to decline
about 1130, and was extinguished by the Almohades (q.v.); a fanatical sect of Moham-
medans, who landed in Spain in the middle of the 12th c. , nnd conquered the territories
of the Mohammedans in Spain. During the reign of the third monarch of this dynasty
took place the battle between tbe combined forces of Castile, Leon, Navarre, Aragon,
nd Portugal, with the Moors, in wh'ch the former gained the most celebrated victory



679 Spala>

.

ver obtained by the Christians over their Moslem foes, the latter losing, according to the
account transmitted to the pope. 100,000 killed and 00,000 prisoners. This sanguinary
conflict, fought on ihe plains of Tolosa ((<m nucus de Tolosa), July 16, 1212, bioke the
Almoha.de power in Spain, as that of Salamanca (July 22, 1812), almost exactly six
centuries afterward, did the more formidable strength of Napoleon. On the fall of
the Aim. (hades, M< hammed-ben-Alhamar. the Uingof Jaen, rose to the first place among
the Mohammedan princes, and founded (1288) the kingdom of Granada. r lhe king of
- Granada was speedily forced to become a vassal of Castile, and from this period all
danger 1'rom Moslem power was over. The rest of the history of the Spanish kingdom*
before their union is undeserving of a detailed account. The Castiliau court was the
scene of almost constant domestic strifes and rebellious, varied with a campaign against
Granada or in favor of the monarch of that kingdom against his rebellious vassals; the
only prominent monarchs of this kingdom being Ferdinand III , who confined the
Moorish dominion to the s. at Andalusia, Alfonso X. (q.v.), Alfonso XL, Pedro the
Cruel (q.v.). and queen Isabella, the last sovereign of Castile, who succeeded her brother
Henry IV., owing to a widespread belief in the illegitimacy of the hitter's daughter.
Aragon, on the other hand, was almost wholly free from intestine dissensions, doubtless
owing so the interest taken by the Aragonese monarchs in Italian politics; of these sov-
ereigns Jayme I. (1213-48) conquered Valencia and Majorca, and, first of all the Ara-
gouese kings, received a voluntary oath of allegiance from his subjects; Pedro III. (1248-
85). who obtained Sicily (1282), Minorca, and Ivi/.a; Jayme II., who conquered Sar-
dinia and Corsica; Alfonso V. (1416-68), who conquered Naples; and Ferdinand II.
(q.v.), the Catholic, the last sovereign of Aragon, who, by marriage with Isabella, queen
of Castile, in 1469, the conquest of Granada in 1492, and that of Navarre in 1512, united
the whole of Spain (and French Navarre) under one rule.

The year 14U2, in ihe reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, witnessed also the discovery of
America, as well as the capture of Granada. Spain had now become consolidated into
one empire, from the Pyrenees to the strait of Gibraltar, civil wars were at an end; and
a splendid continent, teeming with riches, had been opened up for Spanish adventure and
enterprise. But, as the most active spirits among the Spaniards now crowded to the
new world, the soil of Spain, and its mineral treasures, both inexhaustible sources of
wealth, were neglected lor the riches of the fancied El Dorado, where, as was every-
where believed, gold was more plentiful than iron was in the old country. Besides the
drain upon the country from emigration, the expulsion of the Jews and Moors was pro-
ductive of the direst results; and the decline of the splendid Spanish empire, upon which
the sun even then never set, may be said to have had its origin in the event which raised the
country to the height of its magnificence. Charles I. (Charles V. of Germany, q.v.)
succeeded Ferdinand, and in his reign Mexico (q v.) and Peru (q.v.) were added to the
possessions of Spain. Philip II. (q.v.), by his enormous war expenditure and mal-
administration, laid a sure foundation for the decline of the country. Industry, com-
merce, and agriculture, may be said to have been extinguished at the expulsion of the
Moriscoes (see MOORS) ; and the reigns of Philip III. and Philip IV. witnessed a fearful accel-
eration in the decline of Spain by the contests with the Dutch, and with the German
Protestants in the thirty years' war, the intermeddling of Oiivarez (q.v.) in the affairs
of northern Italy, the rebellion of the Catalans, whom the minister wished to deprive of
their liberties, the wars with France, and the rebellion of Portugal (1040), which had
been united to Spain by Philip II. That of Charles II. was still more unfortunate, and
the death of the latter was ihe occasion of the war of the Spanish succession (see SUC-
CESSION, WAK OF). Philip V. (q.v.) was the first of the Bourbon dynasty who occupied
the throne of Spain. Under Charles III. (1759-88), a wise and enlightened prince, yie sec-
ond great revival of the country commenced; and trade and commerce began to show
signs" of returning activity. During the inglorious reign of Charles IV. (1788-1808), who
left the management of affairs in the hands of the incapable Godoy (.see AI.CCDIA), a war
(1796-1802) broke out with Britain, which was productive of nothing but disaster to the
Spaniards, and by the pressure of the French another arose in 1804, and was attended with
similar ill success. Charles abdicated in favor of hiseldest son, the prince of Asturias, who
ascended the throne as Ferdinand VII. Forced by Napoleon to resign all claims to tho
Spanish crown, Ferdinand became a prisoner of the French in the year of bfa accession, and
in the same year Joseph, the brother of the French emperor, was declared king of Spain
and the Indies, and set out for Madrid, to assume the kingdom thus assigned to him.
But before this time, an armed resistance had been organized throughout the whole
country. The various provinces elected juntas or councils, consisting of the most influ-
ential inhabitants of the respective neighborhoods, and it was the business of these jun-
tas to administer the government, raise troops, appoint officers, etc. The supreme junta,
that of Seville, declared war against Napoleon and France on June 6, 1808. In
July, England, on solicitation, made peace with Spain, recognized Ferdinand VII. as
king, and sent an army to aid the Spanish insurrection. Joseph, on July 9, entered
Spain, defeated (through hislieut. Bessieres) the Spaniards at Rio Seco, and entered Mad-
rid on the 20th; but the defeat of Dupont at Baylen by the veteran Spanish gen. Cas-
tanos, somewhat altered the position of affairs, and Joseph, after a residence of 10 days
in his capital, was compelled to evacuate it, and retire n. to Vitoria. The noble defense
of Palafox of the city of Zaragoza against Lefebvre, and the return of the marquis de la



Bpalato. AQfi

gpallaiizani.

Romana with 7,000 regular troops who had been wiled from the country by Napoleon,
did much to inspirit the patriots. On July 12, 1808, sir Arthur Welleslcy , afterward duke
of Wellington (q.v.), at the head of the British auxiliary force, landed (Aug. 5) at Mon-
dego bay, and began the peninsular war by defeating the French at Rnliza and Vimiero
(q.v.); but in spite of his opposition the convention of Cintra was signed, and the French
transported to their own country. In Nov., 1808, Napoleon, who had been preceded by
Ney (q.v.) with 100.000 men, entered Spain, and at once assumed the command. For a
time his armies were completely successful; Soult utterly routed the Spanish gen. Bel-
vedere, Nov. 10, and annihilated Blake at Reynosa on the 13ih. Castanos and Palafox
very routed at Tudela by Lannes, and in the beginning of December, Napoleon entered
Madrid. At this cime, the British forces were under the command of sir Joli.i Moore (q.v.),
who, aware of his great inferiority in numbers and resources, retreated west from Sala-
manca, whither he had come to assume the command of the allied foroes, and reached
Coruna (q.v.) on Jan. 11, 1809. On April 22, gen. Wellesley arrived in Portugal, and at
6:i<;e commencing operations, drove Soult from Oporto, and took possession of Portugal;
then, favored by the disunity of action which subsisted between the three or four French
armies who held Spain, he directed his attacks upon the army of the center, retreating
when any of the others came to its aid, and by dint of masterly generalship and bold
enterprise, succeeded, after four campaigns, in driving the French from the country.
To this result, the co-operation of the Portuguese and of the Spanish guerrillas, the
revengeful hatred of the peasantry toward their tyrannical oppressors, and the drafts
from the Spanish armies so frequently made by Napoleon for his wars in central Europe,
largely contributed. See WELLINGTON, SOULT, VICTOR, etc. Napoleon, loath to lo.-e
his hold of the peninsula, sent Soult, his most trusted gen., to stop the ingress of the
British into France; but the battles of the Pyrenees- (July 24 Aug 1, 1813). and of the
Nivelle, Orthez, and Toulouse, in the beginning of 1814, brought lo a victorious conclu-
sion this long and obstinate contest.

In 1812 a constitution, on the whole liberal, had been devised for the country bv
the cortes of Cadiz. It was abrogated, however, by Ferdinand VII. (q.v.), who treated
the subjects who had shown such devoted loyalty to him with infamous ingratitude,
and obtained the aid of France to establish despotism. The reign of hi.-* daughter, Isa-
bella II. was disturbed by the Carlist rebellion in 1834-39, in which the' British aided
the queen with an -army under sir De Lacy Evans. See CAIILOS. The next event of
importance was the contest between Esportero(q.v.), the regent, and the queen-dowager
Christina, for the supreme power during the minority of the queen. Espartero waa
successful from 1840 to 1843, but was compelled to flee before O'Donnell and Narvacz,
and was not restored till 1847. The constituent cortes of H37 drew up a new consti-
tution, based on that of Cadiz. In 18 1>, another constitution was promulgated by
Narvaez (q.v.), duke of Valencia. Frequent changes of ministry, occasional revolts,
the banishment of queen Christina (1854), the formation of the O'Donnell ministry
(1858), the war with the Moors (see MOROCCO), the annexation of St. Domingo in 1861,
and the quarrels between Spain and her former colonies, Peru (1864-65) and Cliili (1865),
were the most marked events in the more recent history of Spain prior to 1868. In
1868 Isabella was driven from the throne by a general revolt; and the cortes, in Nov.
1870, elected prince Amadeo of Italy to be king. Finding the task of ruling constitu-
tionally hopeless, Amadeo abdicated early in 1873, upon which the form of government
was changed into a republic. During the remainder of 1873, and the whole of 1874,
Spain was the scene of general anarchy and much bloodshed, resulting from tha
mutual opposition of the Carlists and republicans. On Dec. 31, 1874, Alphonso, son of
the ex-queen. Isabella, was declared king of Spain at Santander.

SPA'LATO (often erroneously called SPALATRO; in Illyric, SPLIT), an important sea-
port of Dalmatia, empire of Austria, is finely situated on a promontory on th eastern
coast of the Adriatic. It originated ia the famous palace of Diocletian, built in the 3d
century. As this immense structure (which occupied 12 years in building) stood not far
from the city of Salonoe, the great bulwark of Roman power in Dalmatia, it was called
Salonce palalium, briefly written 8. palatium. When Salon* was conquered by the
Avars in the 7th c., the inhabitants fled for refuge to the fortress-palace of the emperor,
where they laid the foundations of a new town, corruptly named A&paluthum, whence
the modern Spalato. Even yet more than one-half of the town is compressed within
Hie limits of the ancient palace, a considerable portion of whose walls still remain.
The best preserved parts of the palace are the temple of Jupiter, transformed in the 7th
c. into a Christian cathedral, and the temple of .dSsculupiug, which is now a baptistery
dedicated to St. John. Modern Spalato is divided into an old and new town; the
former consisting mainly of narrow, crooked, and dirty lanes; the latter more agreeable
and open. It is the seat of a bishop, has a chamber of commerce and manufactures,
and is the principal emporium for gocds passing from Italy overland iuto Turkey.
Pop. '69, 12,000.

SPA LAX. See MOLE-RAT.

SPALDING, a co. in w. Georgia, bounded on the w. by Flint river; crossed by the
Macon and Western, and the Savannah, Griffin and Northern Alabama railroads; 190



01 Spalato.

SpulluuxanL

Brj.m. ; pop. '80, 12,585. The surface is undulating, the soil is fertile. The main pro-
ductous ure cotton, corn, wheat, cattle, and s\\me. Co. seat, Griffin.

SPALDINO, an important market t. and river-port in Lincolnshire, on the Wei-
land, y in. from its mouth in the AVash. Considerable trade is carried on by the Wei-
laud, and vessels of 100 tons are able to reach the town. An important stocft and corn
market is held every Tuesday. A newspaper is published weekly. Spalding was a
place of consequence as early as the Saxon times, and contained a benciliciinc monas-
tery. Pop. '71, 9,111.

SPALDING, HENRY H., 1810-68; b. Ky. ; studied at St. Mary's and Uai-'stown;
graduated at the Propaganda in 1837; was pastor of St. Joseph's lioman ci. nolic
church at BaixUtown in 1844; of the church iu Louisville in 1S49; and was vicar-gen-
eral.

SPALDING, JOHN FRANKLIN, D.D., b. Maine, 1828; graduated at Bowdoin col-
lege in iy.j3, and at the general theological seminary, New York, in 1857; was minister
of St. James's church, Protestant Episcopal, Oldtown, Me., 1857-59; rector of Grace
church, Providence, K. I.; rector of St. Paul's church, Erie, Peuii., 1862-74; elected
missionary bishop of Colorado; couseciated bishop iu 1873. lie published Tue 'Ihree-
f old Mm i?itry; Manuel of Prayers, etc.

SPALDING, MARTIN JOHN, D.D., 1810-72; b. Ky. ; educated at St. Joseph's, Ky.,
and Rome in iyi>4; became Roman Catholic bishop of Louisville iu 1850; succeeded Dr.
Kenrick as archbishop of Baltimore in 1864. He has published Miscellanies; Early
Catholic MmioiiK of Kentucky; Lectures on the Evidences of Catholicity; Hixtory of the
Protestant Reformation, 2 vols. He edited with an introduction and notes the Abbe
Darras's Hittiory of (he Catholic Church, 4 vols. He convened the second national coun-
cil at Baltimore; was an active member of the Vatican council, 1870-71, and favored
the docliiue of papal infallibility.

SPALDING, SOLOMON, 1761-1 810; b. Conn. ; graduated nt Dartmouth college in
1785; pastor of a Congregational church in Connecticut in 1787; relinquished the min-
istry in three or four years, and became a merchant, first in Cherry Valley, N. Y.,
then in Ohio; removed to Pittsburg in 1812, and thence to Amity, Penn.; wrote a
romance entitled 'ihe Manuscript Found, purporting to show that the American Indians
\vere the descendants of the lost tribes of Israel. In 1814 he placed this manuscript
in the of hands Sidney Rigdon (q.v.), a printer at Pittsburg. This is claimed, on what
ccems strong evidence, to be the origiu of the Book of Mormon, though the Morrnona
deny this origin.

SPALDING, WILLIAM, 1809-59, b. Aberdeen, Scotland; educated at Marischnl col-
lege; studied law and was called to the bar at Edinburgh in 1833; professor of rhetoric
in the university of Edinburgh, 1834-45, and of logic at St. Andrews, 1845-59. He
wrote many articles for Blacktoood's Magazine, the Edinburgh Review, and the Encyclo-
pedia Britannica. His article on Logic in the Britannica was published as a separate
treatise. His Hixfoi'y af English Literature has been a popular text-book.

SPALLANZANI, LAZARO. a celebrated anatomist and naturalist, wns b. at fVandir.no,
in Moden.-i. Italy. Jan. 12, 1729. After a careful education, he took clerical orders; an^l
in 1754 he was appointed to the chair of logic, metaphysics, and Greek at Reggio; but
soon after this he obtained a chair at Modena, and, refusing the tempting offers made
Jiim bv the universities of Parma and Coimbra, and the academy of St. Petersburg, gave
himself tip to the study of natural history. His attention was directed to the doctrine
of generation propounded by Needham and Buffon, which, after careful study and
experiment, he overturned. He then turned his attention to the circulation of the blood,
and was the first to follow its course through the intestinal tube, the liver, spleen, ven-
trieles, pulmonary organs, etc.; "established," according to Senebier, "the propulsive
power of the heart over the blood in the various vessels, demonstrated that the heart
never wholly empties itself, explained the various causes which retard the circulation,
and th<^ obstacles produced by the weight of the blood." On the re-establishment of the
university of Pavia. Spallanzani was appointed (1768) professor of natural history, and
keeper of the museum, which he greatly enriched with fishes, crustaeea, and testacen,
the fruits of his numerous excursions. In 1785, refusing the chair of natural history at
Padua, which had been so admirably tilled by Vallisnieri. he accepted the proposal of
the archduke Ferdinand to accompany, with doubled salary, the Austrian ambassador
to Constantinople (Aug. 22, 1785); and during a residence of 11 months in Turkey
found ample materials for study and observation. In 1788 he visited Naples whilst
Vesuvius was in eruption, the Lipari isles, and Sicily, in restless prosecution of his
scientific labors, and then retired to Pavia, where, refusing the tempting offers of the
French directory, he spent the remainder of his life, prosecuting his scientific researches
amid bodily sufferings, and died of apoplexy, Feb. 12, 1799. His works, many of the
more valuable of which have been translated into English, are too numerous to mention;
but a complete catalogue of them, along with a biography, will be found in the Bio~
graphic Medicate, vol. vii. See also, for the result of his labo'rs, the Eloge, by M. Alibert,
in the Memoir es de la Sociele Medicate d' Emulation.



Span.
Spanish.

SPAN, a natural measure of length, being the distance between the tips of the thumb
and middle finger, the haud being stretched as much as possible. This space averages
about 9 in., and the term came to denote a measure of 9 inches.

SP ANGELED, in heraldry, a term applied to a horse two of whose legs are fettered
by a log of wood.

SPANDATJ, a t. of Prussia, in the province of Brandenburg, is situated at the con-
fluence of the Haval and Spree, 9 m. w.n.w. of Berlin. Spandau is an important for-
t.x-ss; has a citadel (besides other fortifications) surrounded by water, with a garrison of
upwards of 3,000 men, and is a military depot. Spandau carries on manufactures of
anus, gunpowder, woolens, etc., and has an active transit-trade as a station on the Berlin
and Hamburg railway. Pop. '75, 26,888. It, is one of the oldest towns in the middle
mark of Brandenburg, and was long the residence of the kurfilrsts of the Hoheuzollern
house.

SPANDREL, the triangular space between the outside of an arch and a square hed
including it. This space is often tilled with sculptured foliage, figures, etc.

SPANG'ENBERG, AUGUST GOTTLIEB, PH.D., 1704-92; b. Prussia; graduated at
Jena, 1726, and lectured there; appointed adjunct professor and assistant superintendent
of the orphan house, Halle, 1731; assistant to count Zinzendorf, 1734; founded the first
Moravian settlement in America, at Savannah, Ga., 1735-39; returned to Europe ar.d
secured the settlement of Bethlehem, Penu. ; organized the first Mqraviau society in
England, at London, 1741; consecrated bishop, 1744, and went to America where for 18
years he superintended the whole Moravian work, making frequent journeys to the
Indians, and being adopted into the Oneida nation; was a member of the college of
bishops and elders to govern the whole Moravian church, 1762-90; 1764 was appointed
eupreme inspector in upper Alsace; and, in 1789, president of the general directory. His
principal works are. Life of Zinzendorf , and an exposition of Christian doctrine which is
the standard among the Moravians.

SPANGLES, small circular pieces of very thin metal, usually silvered or gilded tin,
pierced with i\ needle-hole, so that they can be sewed on to cloth. They are chiefly used
for decorating theatrical dresses.

SPANHEIM, EZECHIEL, 1529-1710; b. Switzerland; educated at the Geneva univer.
t-ity, where at the age of 20 he was appointed professor of elocution. He was tutor to
the son of the elector palatine Charles Louis, and was employed by him in political
missions, and also by the elector of Brandenburg, by whom he was made a baron. After
the peace of Ryswick he \vas sent to France and England. He wrote a number of com-
mentaries on and translations of classical authors as well as some numismatic treatises.

SPANIEL, a kind of dog of which there are many breeds, differing considerably in
size and other characters. None of the spaniels are large; some are amongst the small-
est of dogs. Some are used for sporting purposes, others are merely kept as pets and
companions. All of them are lively, playful, docile, and affectionate in a high degree.
The spaniel is ever petitioning for regard, and shows boundless joy on receiving marks
of kind attention. The' ENGLISH or SUSSEX SPANIEL is of an elegant but moderately
stout form; with veiy large pendant ears, of which the hair is very long; the muzzle
rather broad; the tail bushy; the body covered with long silky hair; the colors various,
very often liver-colored and white, or red and white. The name spaniel is said to indi-
cate the introduction of this kind of dog into England from Spain. In the days of fal-
conry spaniels were much used for starting the game. The cocker (q.v.), the springer
(q.v.), and the Blenheim dog (q.v.) are different kinds of spaniels. The KING CHAKLI s's



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 157 of 203)