Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 158 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 158 of 203)
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SPANIEL is a beautiful black and tan breed, almost as small as the Blenheim dog, and
derives its name from Charles II., who took great delight in dogs of this kind. The
WATER SPANIEL is one of the larger breeds. It has comparatively hard hair, and is
distinguished by its readiness to pursue game by swimming. It is much used in decoy
ponds to drive ducks into the net.



SPANISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. The Spanish language is one of the
Romanic tongues, and, like the others, originated in the lingua liomana ruxtica. Sea
ROMANIC LANGUAGES. The earliest of the different Spanish dialects that assumed a lit-
erary form was the Castilian, which gradually became, and has continued to be, the
classic dialect of the nation. It finally blends a certain soft, lingering richness of cadence
with an occasional sonorous majesty of expression, and on the whole may be considered
one of the most beautiful of the European tongues. The course of Spanish conquest
has also led to its establishment in Mexico, Central America, Cuba, Porto Rico, the greater
part of South America, the Canary isles, and the Philippines. See the Grammar and
Dictionary published by the Spanish academv (1771); the grammars of Keil (Lcip. 1837);
Fuchs (Berl. 1837); Wiggers, and Schele deVere (New York, 1854). The best material
for a historical grammar is furnished by Dicz in his Grammatik der Rmnrir,i.ic7.en
Bprachen. The best Spanish dictionaries, besides that of the academy, are Cabrcru'a



(Mad. 1837); the Spanish-Gorman by Seckendorff (3 vols. Hamb. 1823), and the Span-
ish-English of Neumann and Baretti (reredlted by Velazquez, New York, 1852).

Literature. The literature of Spain may, in a superficial sense, be regarded as com-
mencing under the auspices of the Romans, for Lucan, Seneca, and other eminent Latin
authors, were at least Spanish by birth; and, if we please, we may furiher look upon the
Christian ecclesiastical writers of the Gothic period as the second link in the historical
chain. But in the proper sense of the term, the literature of these two periods is no
more Sjmuixh i.e., a national than an English book by an Anglo-Indian is to be held as
a portion of Hindu literature, or the sermons preached by a missionary to South Sea
islanders are to be quoted as specimens of the literature of the Pacific. Passing over,
then, the various developments of non-national literature in Spain pagan Latin, eccle-
siastical Lati:i. Arabic and Jewish we come down to the 12th c., and then, for the first
time after the gradual formation of a Spanish language, begin to notice the growth of
something like a Spanish literature. Epic and didactic poems appear, written in Gas-
tilian verse, and full of strong national sentiment. The oldest of these is the Poema del
Cid (see GID CAMPEADOU), of which only a single MS. exists. This MS. contains three
other poems: The Book of Apollonius, Prince of Tyre; The Life of our Lady, tit. Mary
of Egypt ; and The Adoration of the Three Holy Kings, the authorship of which (as of the
PoeiM del Cid) is unknown. Other productions of llris first period are the rhymed Lives
ef the Saints, by Gouzaio of Berceo (died about 1260); and the anonymous poem, Count
Per/tun Gonzalez, which, like the Poema del Cid, paints the earnest and picturesque
struggle between the Moors and Spaniards. In all of these we trace the influence either
of the church or of the chivalric poetry of France; but they maintain, nevertheless, a
distinctively national and independent character. A great impulse was given to the artis-
tic development of Spanish literature by Alfonso the wise of Castile (q.v.), who substi-
tuted Spanish for Latin in the courts of law, and fostered in many ways the growth of
the national language. He is regarded as the founder of Spanish prose, his chief work
in this department being the compilation of a series of codes, of which the mostmemor-
dble is L'is Side Partidas, and a translation of the Bible into Spanish. Subsequent
princes walked in his steps, and achieved an honorable reputation both as authors and
patrons of literature, conspicuous among whom was the Infante Don Juan Manuel
(died 1347), whose El Conde Lucanor (count Lucanor) is a collection of 49 tales, apo-
logues, etc., from oriental sources, and wearing an oriental aspect. The most remarkable
Spanish poet of the 14th c. is Juan Ruiz, arch- priest of Hita (died 1351). His pieces,
composed in a great variety of measures, number some 7,000 verses, and include relig-
ious and love songs, fables, pastorals, etc. The didactic tendency is particularly visible
in the D iH-.ct General de In Macrte ^dance of death).

The second period of Spanish literature embraces the later portion of the middle ages,
and is marked by the presence of lyric poetry in considerable quantity, alongside of tho
didactic. It seems to have been inspired by the strains of the provencal poets settled at
the court of the counts of Barcelona, and always continued to be more courtly than
national. The most complete collection of this lyric poetry is the Concionero general of
Fernando del Castillo (Valencia, 1511; 10th edit., 1573), which contains the names of
136 authors, among which may be mentioned those of the marquis of Villena, and the
marquis of Suntillana, the three Manriques, Macias, Sanchez de'Badajoz, Alouzo de
Cartagena, Diego de San Pedro, and Fenian Perez de Guzman. Agiinst this court-
poetry, however, a strong reaction took place, the national spirit re-asserting itself vigor-
ously in ballads, chronicles, romances of chivalry, and the drama. The best collection,
of the ballads (about 1000 in all) is to be found in the Romancero general (13 vols.. 1605-
14); of the chronicles (half-genuine, half -fabulous narratives of ancient Spanish heroes),
the best are those of Ayala, of Juan Nunez de Villaizan, the Chronicle of the Cid, and
the C/i roa icle of the Travels of Rny Gonzalez de Clavijo; of the romances of chivalry, the
most celebrated is the Amndix de Gaul, parent of innumerable others (sec AMADFS); and
of the drama, among the first specimens are the pastoral plays of Juan de la Enzina, and
the Celtntina of Fernando tic Rojas.

V The thinl period, extending from the 16th to the 18th c., is the most splendid and
productive in the annals of Spanish literature. Under Charles V., Spain became the
foremost state in Europe, and the conquest of Naples brought it into close relation with
with the literature of Italy. The great Italian masters, such as Dante and Petrarch,
began to be studied, and Italian measures and poetic forms to be imitated, although the
rich, strong. Spanish spirit is never lost. The first of this new school was Juan Boscan
Almogaver (died 1543). a brilliant sonneteer: oilier members of the same school are
Garcilaso (q.v.) de la Vega, Diego Hurtado de Mendoza (q.v.\ Francisco de Saa de
Miranda, and Jorge de Montemayor (author of the once famous pastoral novel of Diana
(see NOVF.LS), Fernando de Herrera (q.v.). and Luiz de Leon (died 1591), the last two of
whom rank as the two greatest lyric poets that Spain ever produced. Gradually, a
national drama established itself too. Conspicuous names in this department are
Villalobos, Perez de Oliva. and Naharro (about 1517), sometimes regarded as the father
of the Spanish drama. The last mentioned wrote his comedies in the favorite national
measure, the redvndillas, and divided them into three acts. Besides Ihcse, we must
mention Lope de Rueda, Juan de la Cueva, and Geronimo Bermundez, who cultivated
tragedy with success. Among the most eminent prose writers of the first section of


this third period was Geronimo Zurita, author of AnnaUs de la Corona- df Arngon
(Annals of the Crown of Aragon, 6 vols.) a somewhat critical work, showing a
decided advance on the credulous chronicles of the monks; Oliva, whose Dialogo
de la Diffnidad del HomJsre (Dialogue on the Dignity of Man) is a fine specimen
of elegant literature; and Morales, author of Dixcui-Kos (Essays), relating to practical
philosophy; etc. Cervantes (q.v.) marks, if not exactly a new era, at least a splen-
did outburst of Spanish genius. It is unnecessary here to criticise the productions
of his genius; we may only note, as it were, historically the fact, that his immoital Don
Quixote put an end to the romances of chivalry or rather to the extravagant imitations
of these that sprung up after the age of chivalry had passed away. Lope de Vega (q.v.),
a contemporary of Cervantes, and Calderon (q.v.), gavethe national drama a European
renown, and had, especially the lattar, a host of followers more or less celebrated, among
whom are Francisco de Rojas, Agustin Moreto, Fragosa, Diamante, Antonio Hurtado
de Meudoza, Juan de la Hoz, Antonio de Solis, and Agustin de Salazar y Torres. The
lyric and "epic" poets of this period, which embraces the second half of the 16ih, and
the whole of the 17th c., are innumerable, but. not great. The most notable names are
those of the brothers Argensola. and Alonso de Ercilla y Zuniga (author of Aruitcaiia, a
fine poem on the conquest of Araucania in Chili by the Spaniards). A peculiar form of
the novel also appearod, called the " rogues' novel," of which the only memorable speci-
men is the Guzman de Alfarache of Mateo Alemau; and even it derives not a liitle of its
importance from the fact that it suggested Le Sage's Gil Bias. In history, the most dis-
tinguished names are those of Mariana (q.v.) and Solis.

The fourth period of Spanish literature extends from the accession of the Bourbons
(1701) to the present time, and was long marked (like the contemporary literature of
German}') by a servile imitation of French models, and these by no means the best of
their kind. This literary ascendency of France in the first half of the 13th c. over all
civilized Europe is a very curious phenomenon, worthy of closer study than it has yet
received. The most notable of the Frenchified Spaniards was Iguaciode Luzan, whose
Poetica (1737) is a thoroughly Gallician performance. His efforts to denationalize the
literature of Spain were combated by Garcia de la Huerto and others, and at length a
sort of compromise was effected, aud the " Salamanca school" emerged into notice. lit
founder, Malendez Valdez (b. 1754), was a man of high genius who subordinated his liberal
culture to the sovereign control of a patriotic inspiration, and the same qualities are
visible in its other members Iglesias, Norona, Quiutana (q.v.), Cienfuegos, Arriaza, and
Gallego The great peninsular war, and the subsequent political movements in Spain,
had a powerful effect in stirring up anew the elements of nationality, and the present
century can show a lengthened list of names both in prose and poetry. We can only
afford space for a few: Tapia, Maury, Junn Bautista Alonso, Jacinto de Salas y Quiroga,
Espronceda, Serafin Calderon, Zorrilla, Hartzenbusch, R. de Campoamer, Santos Lopez
Pelegrin, Villergos, and G. Gomez de Avellaneda, in poetry; Saavedra, Mora, Zorilla
Gregorio Romero y Larranaga, Manuel de Santa Ana, in romantic fiction; Leandro,
Fernandez Moratin, in the drama; Ulloa, Mufioz, Capmany, Ferreras, Quintaua, Navar-
rete, Clemencin, Torreno, and Maldonado, in history; Jovellanos, Arguelles, Miflano,
Marina, Donoso Cortes, Martinez de la Rosa, etc., in political oratory.

Spain has not as yet achieved great results in any departments of scienco, either
physical, mental, or moral; but of late years she has turned her attention seriously to
scientific studies, and several admirable treatises in jurisprudence, political economy,
medicine, philosophy, philology, and geography have been produced. See Bouterwek's
and Sismondi's Histories of Spanish Literature; and above all, Ticknor's work on the
same subject (3 vols., New York; 1849-54), which has been translated into Spanish.

SPANISH MACKEREL (MACKEREL, ante) The name Spanish mackerel is applied
to different kinds of fishes; in the United States more particularly to the cybinm mact/la-
tum, a slender, compressed, fusiform fish, having many rays in the dorsal and anal fins.
Color bluish green above, a beautiful satin white below, with yellowish spots on the
back and sides. As found in the market they vary much in size, weighing usually from
one and a half to four pounds, although they are sometimes caught weighing seven or,
eight pounds. They are natives of tropical seas, but they range along the Atlantic coast
from Brazil to cape Cod. A noted locality for them is the Chesapeake bay, where they
are much larger generally than those which go farther north. They are among the very
finest of fish for the table, and are peculiarly adapted to broiling, being juicier than
almost any other fine fish, much more so than other kinds of mackerel. Along the coast
of Cornwall, England, the name of Spanish mackerel is applied to the scomber calms,
which much resembles the common mackerel, scomber stcombrus, having much fewer rays
in the dorsal and anal fins than the Spanish mackerel of the western Atlantic coast, and
being also much smaller. See MACKEREL, ante. The common mackerel is an impor-
tant article of commerce. They are split and salted in small barrels and small tubs
called kits, and assorted and numbered according to their quality, No. 1, No. 2, and No.
8, No. 1 being the largest and finest.

SPANISH MAIN (i.e., main-land), a name generally given during the 16th c. and the
earlier part of the 18th to the n.e. coast of South America, from the Orinoco to the
isthmus of Darien, as also to the contiguous southern portion of the Caribbean sea,

ft Or. Spanish.


traversed by the treasure-ships. The name occurs very frequently in connec-
tion with the biolory and exploits of buccaneers (q.v.).

SPANISH TOWN, tlie scat of government of the British possession of Jamaica ( q.v.),
on the right bank of the Cobre, and 10 in. w. of Kingston. It contains several impor-
tant public institutions, is ill-built and unhealthy, and contains about 6,000 inhabitants.

SPANISH WINES. Of all the vegetable productions of Spain the vine is the most
important, the lands being almost everywhere favorable to its culture. The excess cf
the vintage above the quantity consumed in the country forms a considerable branch c.f
the export trade. In 1877 Spain exported to Great Britain alone 6,803,794 gallons,
costing 2,017,113. The wines grown in almost all parts of the country have much tast
and bouquet, and great strength and durability, if subjected to proper treatment. In
the preparation of white dry fortified wines, such as sherries, and in the confection of
some sweet wines, such as Malagas, the Spaniards excel all other nations. Andalusia, an
extensive region in the s., contains the belt of vineyards producing the vino secco and
the abocado ; there also is Rota, famous for its red wine. From this province come the
\vines of Moguro, or Mogucr, Negio, Raucio, and Seville. Catalonia yields annually
20,000 bmts of wine, mostly red. The Catalan was formerly shipped largely to South
America, and much of it is at present exported to England "and sold as Spanish port.
Valencia produces annually 100,000 butts of wine, from which by distillation 20,000
butts of spirits are manufactured. The best qualities are grown on the hill-sides; the
greatest quantities in the plains. Aragon produces dark-colored strong-bodied -wines of
good taste 5nd flavor from the celebrated vines, the Grenache of Sabayes and the Cari-
uena, and delivers them up to the trade of Saragossa. Granada, with its famed Malaga,
produces wines and ruisins. In the mountains of Malaga the vine attains almost tropi-
cal luxuriance, and bears three harvests every year. Galicia produces some good wine
for exportation, such as Ribaclavia and Toy/but the climate of Navarra is not favorable
to viticulture, and the produce of Roncesvalles is insufficient to supply local demand.
Biscaya, the most nortaern province of Spain, produces much wine. New Castile,
with its renowned La Mancha, produces very agreeable wines, such as the muscat of
Juencaral, near Madrid. Near these are the wines of Spanish Tagus, from Argsmda del
Rey, above Madrid, to T&laverade la Reyna. Murcia produces thick rough wines, and
the island of Majorca produces a malvaisie wine, whi:;h is exported by way of Pa! ma.
Minorca produces a red dark wine around Alcyor, and the " Albaflora," a light white
wine of much bouquet. The Spanish governments have frequently encouraged the pro-
duction of wine, and have during late years given great liberty to trade, but the main
obstacle was the difficulty of transport, now, however, b^ing rapidly removed by foreign
enterprise and by railways.

SPANKER, a large quadrilateral sail, with parallel sides, set between the gaff and boom
of fi ship. Its fore-leech is attached by rings to the mast. The spanker is a fore-and-aft
sail of great importance in bringing the vessel to the wind.

SPAR (Gcr. Spatft), a term used by miners to denote any bright crystalline mineral,
and which has beer adopted by mineralogists in the names of a number of minerals, as
calcareous spar, fluor spar, etc., in which, however, it has no proper generic significance.

SPAEID.E. n family of acauthop'erous fishes, having a general resemblance to
the perch family a single dorsal fin. which is not protected by any scales, and of which
the anterior rays are spinous. the pectoral and ventral fins sharp-pointed, the tail-fin
notched; the gill-cover shining, without proper spines or denticulations; the palate
destitute of teeth; the miles large, broader than long, and generally thin. There are
several sections of the family distinguished by the teeth, which in some are all small and
card-like, while others have trenchant, conical, and round molar teeth, variously
arranged. The greater number inhabit the seas of the warm parts of the world; many
species are found in the Mediterranean; a few on the coasts of Britain. Among the
British species are the gilthead (q.v.), and several species of different genera, known by
the common name of sea bream (q.v.). The sparidae are generally good for food, and
some are highly esteemed. Among them are sargnu of the Mediteiranean (snrgns llon-
dektii), much valued by the ancient Romans, and the sheep's head (tsa-rgus oris) of the
North American seas, which commands a very high price in the New York market.

SPARKS. JARED, American historian, was b. at Willington, Conn., May 10. 1789;
graduated at Harvard university in 1M5; became tutor in mathematics and natural
philosophy, and one of the conductors of the North Amerimn Jfenew. In 1819 he was
settled as a Unitarian minister at Baltimore, when he wrote Infers on the Wniafn/,
Ritual, and Doctrine* of the Protestant Episcopal Church. In 1821 he established a periodi-
cal called the Unitarian Miscellany and ('//>/;</' Monitor, in which he first published his
Letters on the Comparative Moral Tendencies of the Trinitarian and Unitarian Doctrines.
In 1823 he edited six volumes of essays and tracts on theological subjects, and, abandon-
ing the pulpit, became for seven years sole editor of the North A^i<>n'c,irt I,\ri<ir. In
1828 lie published a Life of John Isdi/nrd. the American Traveller; and from 1834 to
1837 edited at Boston 12 octavo volumes of the Writings of George Washington. This
important national work was followed by the Diplomatic Correspondence of thf Ameri-
can Revolution (12 vols. 8vo, Bost. 1829-80), and the Life of Gvuwrneur Morris (3 vols.

Sparrow. Aft A


8vo, Bost. 1G32). At this period lie commenced the American Almanac, of Useful Knovl-
edgc, and began also his Library of American liiography, first issued in two series of 10
and 18 vols. 18mo. In 1840 was published his collection of the Works of Benjamin
Franklin (10 vols. 8vo), after which he visited Europe to collect materials for his
Correspondence of the American Revolution (4 vols. 8vo, 1854). He also wrote, in 1852,
two pamphlets, in answer to lord Mahon. on the Life of Washington. Besides these
multifarious literary labors, combining laborious research with clear arrangement, a sim-
ple style and accurate statement, he tilled, from 1839 to 1849, the McLean chair of his-
tory, and from 1849 to his departure for Europe in 1852, that of president of Harvard
university. Sparks died Mar. 15, 1866.

SPASEOW, Passer or Pyryita, a genus of birds of the family fringillidce, having a
strong conical bill, the upper mandible slightly curved, the lower mandible compressed
and shorter than the upper, the nostrils partly concealed by the short feathers at the
base of tli3 bill, the legs moderately long and stout, the claws sharp and curved, the tail
moderately long, and nearly even at the tip. The species are not very numerous, and
are exclusively found in the old world. The COMMON SPARROW, or HOUSE SPARROW
(P domesticus), plentiful everywhere in the British islands, and too well known to reqire
description, is found also throughout Europe, abounding particularly in the northern
countries, from which its range extends eastward into Siberia, and southward to the
n. of Africa and of India. Of all British birds the sparrow is the boldest in its
approaches to man. Town sparrows are not mere visitors from the neighboring
country, but constant inhabitants of the town itself, with the smoke of which their
plumage is begrimed. The sparrow in its best plumage is not a very beautiful bird, nor
has it such elegance of form as many others of the finch tribe; it has no melodious song,
but its habits are interesting, and its frequent lively chirp pleasing. Sparrows often
congregate in great flocks, particularly in autumn, when they find rich supplies of food
in the ripened grain. The sparrow is one of the most omnivorous of birds. Animal
and vegetable food seem equally acceptable to it. During summer vast numbers of
insects and their larvai are devoured by sparrows, and in this way they make amends for
their plunder of the grain in autumn, which they begin as soon as it is. sufficiently
ripened, and continue as long as there are sheaves in the field. Their depredations have
induced many fanners to use means for their destruction. They are good to eat, though
little used for this purpose in Britain. It is otherwise in France, where all the small
birds are sought after as articles of food. But the destruction of sparrows may be
carried too far; and in France it has been followed by an increase of caterpillars, vastly
more injurious to crops than the sparrows themselves. The sparrow makes a very
inartificial nest, collecting a quantity of hay, or some similar material, in a hole of a
wall, and lining it with feathers; sometimes, but more rarely, building a rude dome-
shaperl nest in the higher branches of a tree. Apart from the habitations of man, which
it so much frequents, it often builds in crevice's of rocks, or in cliffs on the sea-coast, or
under the shelter of the nests of rooks, one rook's nest sometimes covering several nesta
of sparrows. Several broods arc produced in succession, and the breeding season is pro-
longed over the whole summer, one brood succeeding another. The summer plumage
of the- sparrow is more brilliant than that of winter, and the female is of more sober
plumage than the male, exhibiting indeed almost no variety ef color. The TREE SPAR-
ROW (I 1 , montanut), the only other British species, is very similar to the common spar-
ro'.v, b it of rather smaller size. It is also a widely distributed bird, frequent over great
part of the old world. It is rarely seen in towns. In Italy the common sparrow is
rare to the s. of Piedmont; and another closely allied species (P. cisalpina). takes its place,
very similar in its habits as well as in its characters. In America there are numerous
species of fringillidce, popularly known as sparrows, of which the WHITE-THROATED
SPAIIIIDW (zonotrlclda albicollix) is most nearly allied to the true sparrows. The nostrils
fire i:i a. sm:;ll groove, and the tail is slightly forked. The hedge sparrow (q.v.) is a
bird vc-y different from the true sparrows. The name sparrow is popularly given in
different parts of the world to many different birds, chiefly frinyillidce. The bird
called :.p:irro\v in the English translation of the Bible is a species of thrush.

BPAIiRQW-nAWK, Accijnter or Nisus, a genus of fa^coni'da, ranked among the ignoble
birds of prey (see FALCONID/E and FALCONRY). The bill is curved from the base, short,
raid compressed; its upper ridge rounded and narrow; the cutting margin of the upper
mandible wLh a distinct festoon. The wings are short; the legs long, slender, and

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 158 of 203)