Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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line (coinciding with the double dark line D) already referred to. When sunlight parses
through this arc its dark line D is strengthened, instead of being filled np by the yellow
light from the arc as we might have expected; and when one of the white-hot carbon-
points (which gives a continuous spectrum) is looked at through the yellow arc, the
double dark line D appears in its spectrum.

Stokes learning, in 1850, that experiments had been made by professor Miller of Cam-
bridge, to test with great accuracy Fraunhofer's assertion as to the exact er incidence of
the double bright line of a salted flame with the double dark line of the solar spectrum,
gave for the first time the physical explanation of the phenomenon. He compared the
salt-flame to a space full of tuning-forks or piano-forte wires all tuned to the same note.
When they arc in vibration they, of course, give out this note similarly the salt-flame
the A?v>//t lines. When, however, sounds are produced in their neighborhood, as they
naturally vibrate to one definite note, they will be set in vibration by it (i.e., will absorb
it) if it be part of the sound. Thus sound which has passed through such a spare has
had this note eliminated from it similarly the salt flame seizes these yellow rays from
white light passing through it. This ingenious and satisfactory explanation shows at
once that the line D proves the existence of salt (or sodium) in the atmosphere of the
sun. Stokes's theory was not published, except in so far as it was annually given bv sir
W. Thompson (q.v.) in his lectures in Glascow so that it was independently discov-
ered, or all but discovered, by various other philosophers some 8 or 10 years later. The
earliest of these was Balfour Stewart of the Kew observatory, who proved by reasoning
and experiment that a body's absorbing power for any ray of light or heat is 'equal to its
radiating power for the same. Angst riim all but made the rediscovery. Finally Kirch-
hoff, by reasoning similar to that of Stewart, and by actually reversing the spectra of
certain substance*, arrived at. the same results; and. 'in conjunction with Bunsen. applied
them to chemical analysis, with the immediate result of discovering two new metals.

One of the most valuable parts of Kirchhoff's investigation is his map of the solar
spectrum with its dark lines; side by side with which, is a spectrum coutainino; the briirht
lines given by various metals volatilized in an electric spark. The sunlight' is admitted
through the upper half of the slit, the light from the burning metal through tlie lower
and thus the two are subject to precisely the same deflections by the train of prisms.

The applications of the spectrum analysis are becoming more numerous every day.
Huggins has lately shown that the spectra of planetary "nebulae, and of the tails of



Speculum.
Spencer.

comets, consist of a few bright lines only indicating that these bodies or, at ail events,
those portions of them from which their light proceeds are masses of incandescent
vapors or gases.

Again, Stokes has traced, by the alteration of the absorption bands produced by the
coloring- matter of blood, the oxidation aud reduction which constantly take piace in
this substance, and its connection with the distinction between venous and arterial
blood.

1 SPECULUM METAL, an alloy of copper and tin, used for making the reflecting sur-
faces of reflecting telescopes. The best consists of 126.4 parts copper to 58.9 tin. To
obtain a perfect alloy, and to cast it successfully, is a matter of great difficulty, requir-
ing much skill and experience. See TELESCOPE.

SPEEDWELL, Veronica, a genus of plants of the natural order scropJiulariacca, dis-
tinguished by a 4 clef t wheel-shaped corolla, with the lower segment narrower, two
stamens, ami a two-celled capsule. The species are very numerous, annual and peren-
nial herbaceous plants and small shrubs, natives of temperate and cold climates in all
parts of the globe. Some of them grow in wet ditches and in marshes, some only on
the driest soils. They have generally very beautiful blue, white, or pink flowers. The
number of British species is considerable, and few r wild-flowers are more beautiful than
the germander speedwell (V. chamaidrys), or the alpine species, V. alpina and F. saxatilis.
A number of species are very generally cultivated in flower-gardens. The bitter and
astringent leaves of the COMMON SPEEDWELL (F. offici-nalis), one of the most abundant
British species, found also in almost all the northern parts of the world, are in some
Countries used as a tonic, sudorific, diuretic, and expectorant medicine. They are also
employed, particularly in Sweden, as a substitute for tea; as are those of the germander
speedwell. F. viryinica is called Gainer's physic in North America; it is said to be
actively diuretic, and a decoction of the fresh root is violently cathartic and emetic.
Brooklime (q.v.) belongs to this genus.

SPEISS, a residue found in the bottoms of crucibles in which smalts or cobalt glass
has been melted. It consists of nickel, arsenic, sulphur, with traces of cobalt, copper,
and antimony.

SPEKE, JOHN HANKING, an African traveler, was born near Bideford, Devonshire,
in May, 1827; was educated at the Barustaple grammar-school, and at the age of 17 went
to India. He entered the native Bengal infantry as a cadft, and saw much service dur-
ing the war in the Punjab. A keen sportsman, with a taste for natural history, he
employed his rifle with success in collecting for the museums specimens of the rarer
mammals and birds of India, and with this view he undertook several exploratory trips
into the Himalayas. It was while so employed that he tir?t conceived the Idea of
becoming an African traveler. The English government had resolved, in 18o4, to
dispatch an. expedition from Aden into the neighboring region of Africa, under the
command of capt. Burton (q.v.). Speke, then a lieut. in the Indian army, reached Aden
at this time, on kave of absence, and resolved to join Burton and his companions, lieuts.
Herue and Stroyan. Burton went to Harar; and Speke was detached to visit the
Dalbahantas, the most warlike of the Somauli tribes. On the return of the travelers to
their starting-point on the coast, they were attacked by 150 men. Stroyan was killed,
and Speke made a narrow escape with 11 wounds. The attention of the geographical
society of London had now been called to the subject of the great lakes of tropical
Africa; and in June, 1857, they dispatched Burton and Speke. These travelers enu red
the country from Zanguebar, as the German missionaries Krapf and Kebmanu had
done in 1847, aud discovered the great lake Tanganyika. The details of their dis-
coveries till they reached Gondokoro, in Mar., 1863, are given in the article KILE.
Speke aud Grant had passed through the very heart of what remained of the terra
inccgnita, of eastern Africa. On their return to England they met with an enthusiastic
reception, to which they were well entitled, as two of the most daring and successful of
modern explorers; although, perhaps, some of Speke's most enthusiastic friends have
gone too far in claiming for him a place above other travelers as " the discoverer" of the
sources of the Nile. On Sept. 15, 1864, Speke was killed by a gun-accident while out
shooting in the neighborhood of Bath, to which he had come to be present at a meeting
of the British association. Speke is the author of a Journal of Hie Discovery of the Source
of the Nile, and What led to the D-ixcove-ry of the Source of the Ai'fe.

SPELMAN, Sir HENRY, 1562-1641; b. England; studied at Trinity college, Cam-
bridge; studied law at Lincoln's inn; was knighted by James I.; retired to London in
1012 to devote himself to antiquarian research; published in I(i20 the first part of
Glos&nrium Archaoloyicum; next, an edition of English Councils. His Treatise Concern-
ing Tithes and History of Sacrilege, are valuable. His posthumous works were issued
at Oxford in 1698 under'the title Reliquiae 8pelmanni<tn<.

'' SPELT. See WHEAT.



m Speculum.

Spencer.

SPELTER. See ZINC.

SPENCE, JOSEPH, 1699-1 768 ;b. England; educated at Oxford ; fellow,1722; ordained,
1728; became rector of Birchanger, Essex, and professor of poetry in the college; trav-
eled. 1730-83, in France and Italy; re-elected, while absent, professor of poetry; traveled
au'ain, 1739-42; rector of Great Horwood and professor of modern history at Oxford;
prebend of Durham cathedral, 1754. His publications are Plt/iftctis; Anecdotes, Obser-
vation*, end Characteristics of Books and Men; Essay on Pope's Odyssey.

SPENCER, a co. in s.w. Indiana, bounded on the s.e. and s.w. by the Ohio rive-;
crossed by the Cincinnati, Rockport and Southwestern railroad: about 390 sq.m. :
'80, 22,12320,355 of American birth. The surface is irregular and heavily timbered.
Tiie soil is fertile. The principal productions are corn, tobacco, and wheat. Co. seat,
Rockport.

SPENCER, a co. in n. Kentucky, drained by the Salt fork of the Ohio river and
Clear creek, the former bounding it on then.e. ; 250 sq.m.; pop. '80, 7,0406,940 of
American birth, 1(526 colored. The surface is hilly and the soil productive, yielding
grain, tobacco, wool, dairy products, and sorghum. Live stock is raised, there is a
good supply of timber, and limestone is quarried, It has flour mills and manufactories
of distilled liquors. Co. seat, Taylorsville.

SPENCER, AMBROSE, LL.D., 1765-1848; b. Conn.; educated at Yale and Harvard,
and called to the bar. He settled in the state of New York, and was a member of both
branches of its legislature. He was attorney-general of the state, 1802-4; associate jus-
tice of the state supreme court, of which he was chief-justice, 1819-23. He was subse-
quently member of congress and mayor of Albany.

SPENCER, GEORGE JOHN, D.C.I,., 2d Earl of, 1758-1834; b. England; succeeded to
the title in 1821. He was 1st lord of the admiralty, 1794-1801, and afterward home sec-
retary. His private library was one of the best in Europe. His son JOHN CHARLKS,
1782-1845, served in the house of commons, was junior lord of the treasury, 1806-7, led
the whig opposition til! they came into power in 1830, when he became chancellor of
the exchequer :uul leader of the whig* in the commons, where he helped the passage of
the reform bill and the poor law amendment bill.

SPENCE&, HERBERT, an English author, b. in Derby in 1820. He was educated \:.v
his father. W. G. Spencer, a teacher, chiefly of mathematics, and his uncle, the rev.
Thomas Speuoer, a clergyman of the established church, well known for his lib-rat
opinions on political and ecclesiastical questions. At the age of 17 hs became a civil
engineer; but after about 8 years abandoned the profession, in consequence of the large
influx of young men brought into it during the railway mania, and the consequent
undue competition. During the 8 years of his engineering life he contributed various
papers to the Civil Engineers and Architect's Journal. His first productions in gem vai
literature were in the shape of a series of letters on the " Proper Sphere of Government,"
published in the Nonconformist newspaper in 1842, which were some time after reprinted
as a pamphlet. From the close of 184S to the middle of 1853 he was engaged 0:1 the
./-,'<. >,!->in!4, tlrjn edited by the late Jumes \Vilson, M. P. ; and during this time he pub
lished his h'rst considerable work, Social titiitiett. Shortly afterward he began to write
for the quarterly reviews, most of his articles appearing in the Westminster, and other:!
in the North JJrifiyfi, British Quarterly, Edinburgh, Medico-chirurgisal, etc. In 1855
appeared his Principles of Psychology. In 1860 he commenced a connected series of
philosophical works, designed to unfold in their natural order the principles of biol-
ogy, psychology, sociology, and morality. To this series belong, besides the Pxi/f.holofjy
(2 vok, new ed. 1871-72), First Principles (1862, 2d. ed. 1867); Principles of Biology
(1864); Priiif/, ;(,.-< f Xodolocnj (parts 1 to 4, 1876-80); and The Data of Ethics (part of
Principles of Ethics, 1879). Education was published in 1861; The Study of Sociology iu
1872: and Ucscriptice Sociology in 1873-78. Spencer has developed and applied uni-
versally the theory of evolution.

SPENCER, ICHABOD SMITH, D.D., 1798-1854; b. Vt. ; graduated at Union college,
1822; studied theology with prof. Yates; taught at Schcnectady and Canandaigua: feet-
tied, 1828, as colleague of the rev. Solomon Williams, Northampton, Mass. ; pastor of
Second Presbyterian church, Brooklyn, N. Y., 1832; was professor extraordinary of
biblical history in Union seminary, 1836-40; was invited to the presidency of the uni-
versity of Alabama, 1830, of Hamilton college, 1832. professorship of pastoral theology.
East Windsor seminary, 1853, and received calls from important churches, hut declined
all. He published Pulpit Sketches, 2 vols. , and after his death appeared Sacramental
Discourses; Sermon*; Eri deuces of Divine 7V;v Intion. lie was a man of positive charac-
ter, of clear theological views, and great pastoral fidelity and success.

SPENCER, JESSE AMES, D.D., b. N. Y.. 1816; graduated at Columbia college, 1837;
studied theology at General theological seminary; ordained. 1840; rector of St. James's
church, Gosheu, N. Y. ; traveled in Europe, 1842; visited Egypt and Palestine, 1848-49,



Spenser.

professor of Latin and oriental languages at Burlington college, N. J., 1849-50; editor
and secretary of the Episcopal Sunday-school uniou and church book society, 1851-57;
rector of St. Paul's, Flat bush, L. I., 1S63-65; professor of Greek in college of city of
New York, 1809. He has published Uitscvu rises; History of English lit formation; The
New Testament in Greek, with Rotes; Egypt and the Holy Land; History of United States,
4 vols.

SPENCER, JOHN CANFIELD, LL.D., 1788-1855; b. Hudson, N. Y. ; son of chief-jus-
tice Ambrose Spencer; graduate of Union college, 1806; private secretary to gov. Tonip-
kins, 18C7. He studied law and commenced practice in Canandaigua, but removed t
Albany, 1845; master in chancery, 1811. In 1813 he was on duty at the frontier a
brigade judge-advocate; in 1814 postmaster of Cauandaigua; in 1815 assistant attorney-
general for w. New York; member congress, 1817-19. He was for some years member
of the assembly or in the state senate. An anti-mason, he was government prosecutor
against the supposed abductors of Morgan. In 1839-41 he was secretary of state; U. 8.
secretary of war under president Tyler; secretary of the treasury, 1843; resigned 1844
and resumed private practice. He was a zealous promoter of common-school education
and all charitable objects. He edited the first American edition of De Tocqueville's
Democracy in America.

SPENCER, JOHN CHARLES, Earl, English minister and statesman, son of the second
earl, was b, in 1782. The founder of the family of the Spencers was the hon. John
Spencer, youngest son of the third earl of Sunderfand, by Anne, daughter and co-heiress
of the great duke of Marlborough, and who inherited much property from his grand-
mother, Sarah, duchess of Marlborough. His only sou was made earl Spencer in 1765.
The second earl was first lord of/he admiralty under Mr. Pitt's administration 1794 to
1801 the period of the great naval victories of Camperdown, cape St. Vincent, and the
Nile. He retired when Mr. Addiugtou became premier, and became distinguished as a
munificent collector of rare books. He was also first president of the Iloxburghe club
for repriuting rare and curious tracts. The third earl, the subject of this notice better
known under the courtesy title of lord Althorp was educated at Harrow school, and
afterward at Trinity college, Cambridge. He entered parliament in 1804 as member for
Oakhampton. In 1806 his father took office as secretary of state for the home depart-
ment in the Gi'enville-Fox ministry, and Spencer became a junior lord of the treasury.
He was returned for Northamptonshire, which he represented from 1806 until the period
of the reform bill. In the reformed parliament he sat for the southern division of the
count}'. He went out with the whigs in 1807, and during the long interval of their
exclusion from office, steadily opposed the measures of the tory government. On the
dissolution of the Wellington cabinet in Nov., 1830, he was appointed chanotflor of the
exchequer and leader of the house of commons in the celebrated reform ministry of earl
Grey. The reform bill was introduced by lord J. Russell (q.v.), but the task of carrying
the bill mainly devolved upon Spencer. In 1833 he brought in and carried the minis-
terial bill for reforming the Irish church. In this memorable working session, the
curious statistician discovered that Spencer, who had, from his post of ministerial
leader, naturally been the most frequent speaker, had addressed the house 1026 times,
his speeches occupying 387 columns in the then Mirror of Parliament. In 1834 he intro-
duced and obtained the assent of the legislature to the poor-law amendment act. When
the Irish coercion bill was under consideration in the cabinet, Spencer had opposed the
clauses prohibiting public meetings, yet had given way rather than break up the min-
istry; but when the truth was elicited in debate by Mr. O'Connell, Spencer resigned.
He was considered and described by earl Grey as his "right-hand man," and without
his assistance the earl felt himself unable to carry on the government. The administra-
tion of viscount, Melbourne succeeded (Julj r , 18341, in which Spencer consented to resume
his office. In November he was called by the death of his father to the house of peers,
which had the effect of bringing the Melbourne (q.v.) administration to an end. When
the attempt of sir R. Peel to carry on the government failed. Spencer declined to take
office again. He devoted his time to agricultural pursuits, became president of the
Smithfield Cattle club, and suggested the formation of the royal agricultural society, of
which he was elected president in 1838. He died at his seat. Wiseton hall. Notts, "Oct.
1, 1845, without issue, and was succeeded by his brother. During his political career,
his simplicity of character and integrity of purpose obtained for him the appellation of
"honest lord Althorp." He was very little of an orator, but he had a clear and prac
tical intellect, and his influence over the reformed house of commons was supreme
Lord Brougham dedicated to him his work on Natural Theolor/y; and his Dinliigues on
Inxtinct are also supposed to be carried on with Spencer, to whose cultivation of phil
osophy in the midst of his political and agricultural pursuits, the author bears frieudly
testimony. See Memoir by sir Denis le Marchant, Bart. (London, 1876).

SPEXCER, JOSEPH, 1714-89; b. Conn.; was judge of probate, 1753; joined the
northern army, 1758, as maj. under col. Whiting: was a member of the council, 1766,
brig.gen. in continental army, 1775; maj. gen., 1776: was with the army in the expedi
tion against Rhode Island, 1778; assisted in Sullivan's retreat; elected to congress, 1779;
again elected to the council, 1780. He was greatly esteemed by Washington.



Speiicr.

Spenser.

SPENCER GTJLF, a very large inlet on the coast of s. Australia (q.v.), between Eyria
peninsula on the w., and Yorke peninsula on the east. It is about 209 in. in length, by
100 m. in greatest breadth.

SPEXCKR RIFLE. The principal characteristic of this arm is a magazine in the
butt of the stock which holds seven cartridges, and from which the chamber is supplied
by a movement o'f the trigger-guard. This acts us a lever, expelling the shell of the
exploded cart ridge, while it replaces it by a fresh one. The magazine when emptied is
exchanged for a full one; or, by a simple movement, it can be shut off altogether, and
the ritie made a single breech-loader. This rille, which is described as a " breech-loading
magazine gun," was generally used by the union cavalry during the war of 1861-65.

SPENER, PHIL. JAK., an illustrious German reformer, and the founder of the sect
known as Pii'Uats, was born at Rappoltsweiler (Fr. Ilibeauville) in Upper Alsace, Jan.
25, 1(>;'>5. His faiher was legal adviser to the Count von Rappoltsweiler. At an early
age Opener showed deep religious susceptibilities. After studying the classics at Colmar,
he betook himself in 1651 to Strasburg, where the professors Dannhauer and Seb. Schmidt
inspired him with a profound love of the Scriptures, not as a heap of dry theological
bones, but as a fountain of life and spiritual thought. From 1659 to 1662 he attended
the universities of Basel, Tubingen, Freiburg, Geneva, and Lyons. In the following year
he became a preacher at Strasburg, where the unction of his sermons exercised a power-
ful influence on his hearers. At the age of 31 he was transferred to Frankfort as first
pastor; and here, as elsewhere, the profound spiritualism of the man, springing out of a
free, simple, ^/-theological faith in the Bible, made itself apparent in his preaching and
life. Yet Spener was the very opposite of what is commonly called a nty*tic. The de-
votions which he sought to excite were not to show themselves in transcendental ecstasies,
amid which common sense is apt to swoon uway, but in acts of piety, humility, and
charity.. The " Sermon on the Mount'' was the medium through which he gazed upon
the "truth as it is in Jesus." He had a strong aversion to what goes by the name of
theology, which he considered a hateful caricature of the free word of life; and lie com-
menced in 'the year 1G70, at his house, meetings for the cultivation of evangelical moral-
ity. These were the famous collegia pietatis, whose influence for good on the German
character, in those days of stony and barren orthodoxy, cannot easily be overvalued.
At the same time he took pains to reorganize the method of catechising, and to improve
the religious instruction given to children. His conduct in all this was marked by such
prudence and discernment, that he long escaped the animadversions of the "high and
dry" Lutherans: but in 1679, a preface which he wrote for a new edition of the I
of Arndt. in which he censured the morals of the upper classes, made him the target for
their envenomed shafts; and after some years, he was fain to accept the invitation to
become court-preacher at Dresden, and member of the upper consistory. In this ca-
pacity he effected important ameliorations in the theological teaching of the university
of Leipsic, mid in the system of religious catechising practiced throughout Saxony; but
in 1689 lie fell into disgrace for having addressed a temperate but energetic remonstrance
to the elector Johann Georg III. on the subject of his personal vices, was attacked by
Carpzow, who coveted his place at court, and by other orthodox theologians, and in 1691
went to Berlin as provost of the church of St. Nicholas, and consistorial inspector, offices
which he retained to the end of his life. The elector of Brandenburg encouraged his
efforts after religious reform, and intrusted theological instruction in the new university
of Halle to Frake, Breithaupt, and other disciples of Spener a matter that excited great
irritation in the theological faculties of Wittenberg and Leipsic, which had formally
censured as heretical no less than 264 propositions drawn from Spener 's writings. Spener
died at Berlin, Feb. 5, 1705, leaving behind him a reputation for piety, wisdom, and
practical Christian energy, which all the excesses of the later pietists have not obscured.
His writings are numerous; the chief are Pia Dexidcria (Frankf. 1675), Das geistlifhe
Pnestertlnim (Frankf. 1677), ChriMiche Letckenpredfoten (13 vols., Frankf. 1677), Des
ihatifjc.n Cltrixtftithums Notlmendigkeit (Frankf. 1679), Klagen uber dns rerdorbene ChrixUn-
ihum (Frankf. 1684), Evangelische Glnubemlehre (Frankf . 1688), and Tlwolugitche Bedeiiken
(Halle, 5 vols., 1700-21). See Hossbach's Phil. Jak. Spener und seiner Zeit (2 vols.,
Berl. 1828); Thilo's Spener als Katecliet (Stutt. 1841); and Wildenhalm's .P/Y. Jak. Spener
(Leip. 1842-47).

SPENSER, EDMUND, one of the chief literary ornaments of the great Elizabethan
period, was born in London in the j'ear 1553. There is some ground for supposing him
to have been of good family connection; but inasmuch as of neither of his parents is
anything whatever known, the evidence of this is precarious. In 1569 he went to Pem-
broke Hall, Cambridge, in the humble capacity of sizar, in itself a sufficient proof that
whatever his family, the gifts of fortune were deficient. At Cambridge he remained



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 162 of 203)