Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 163 of 203)
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several years, becoming bachelor of arts in 1572, and master in 1576. After leaving
college, he went to live with friends in the n. of England. Of the detail of his life
at this period, nothing is known further than that he busied himself with poetry, his
first volume of which, The Shepftearde'sCitlt'/tdnr, was published in 1579. Its dedication
to sir Philip Sidney was the means of introducing him to that noble and kindly gentle-
man, who not only extended to him a generous patronage, but honored him with hii

Spenserian. T04-


warm friendship. He seems for some time to have been domesticated with sir Philip at
Leicester house, from which he dates his moiety of the Foure Epistles, exchanged be-
tween him and Gabriel Harvey, and printed in 1580. Toward the end of this year,
through the influence of Sidney's uncle, the earl of Leicester, an appointment was pro-
cured for him as secretary to lord Grey of Wilton, the queen's deputy in Ireland, whither
he at once proceeded. About this time it was that he commenced his great work, The
Faery Queen. His official duties must have been punctually and ably performed, as in
1588 we find his services rewarded by a grant from the crown of Kilcoirnan in the county
of Cork, an estate of upward of 3,000 acres, on which he now went to reside. Alonsj
with this piece of good fortune came the evil news to him of the death of his friend
Sidney at Zutphen, an event which he musically bewails in the elegy entitled Astrophel.
Subsequently the place of Sidney, as at once his patron and friend, was in a measure
supplied by sir Walter Raleigh, who visited him in Ireland in 1590, took him along
with him to England, and introduced him to the notice of queen Elizabeth. His expe-
riences as a suitor for court-favor seem not to have been specially of a pleasant kind, if
we may judge from a passage in one of his works, in which a keen personal feeling of
wrong and weary humiliation speaks out unmistakably. Documentary evidence exists,
however, that a pension of 50 per annum was granted him by queen Elizabeth; that it
was ever paid, or paid with due punctuality, there seems considerable reason to doubt.
That Elizabeth, along with her greater qualities, could exhibit on occasion an extreme
meanness and stinginess, there is no reason to doubt whatever. What portion of Spen-
ser's after-life was passed in England, what in Ireland, we do not distinctly know.
Nearly all we distinctly know of him henceforth is the date of his several publications.
The first three books of The Faery Queen, issued on his arrival in England in 1590, were
followed the year after by three more, and a collection of lesser pieces entitled Complaints,
including- Mother HubbarcTs Tale, the Team of the Muses, etc. ; and iu 1596 by four
Hymn.*, so called, in which the Platonic doctrine of beauty is elaborated in noble music.
In 1596 he wrote his View of Ireland, a treatise full of sagacious observation and re-
mark, which was only published long after in Dublin in 1633. Further than this, all
record which survives to us of Spenser is summed in the facts that in 1594 he was mar-
ried to a woman whose very name has perished; that in 1598 he was made sheriff of
Cork by the queen; and that in the course of the same year the deplorable calamity befell
him which shortly preceded and in part may have caused his death. Tyrone's rebellion
having broken out, his house at Kilcolman was sacked and burned by the rebels, ha
and his wife with difficulty escaping, while their youngest child perished in the flames.
On Jan. 15, 1599, his death took place in London. According to the account given by
Hen Jonson to Drummond, he " died for lake of bread." This is not likely to have b?eii
in the literal sense true, but it is scarce possible to evade the inference from it, as coming
from one so likely to be well informed as Jonson, of a state of great wretchedness and
destitution. He was buried by his own request near Chaucer in Westminster abbey,
at the expanse of the earl of Essex, who is said, in the account by Jouson, to have ten-
dered him succor on his death-bed, though too late to be of any avail.

Spenser takes admitted rank, as one of the very greatest of our poets; and his chief
work, the Faery Queen, written in that stateliest of English measures, since known by the
name of its inventor, tedious as it is in its allegory, and in much of its diction obsolete
even when written, is a masterpiece of opulent genius. In the poetry of Spenser, an ever-
present seeking for and sense of beauty finds its fit expression and reflex in a fluent
succession of sweet and various cadences; in breadth and splendor of pictorial effect, it
has never, perhaps, been surpassed; such a lavish exuberance in detail as we find in it,
has seldom been so combined with a total impression of chastened and majestic sobriety;
and throughout it is pervaded by that atmosphere of moral wisdom and serenity which
Milton reverently recognizes in "the sage and serious Spenser." See Denser and his
Poetry, by prof. G. L. Craik (3vols. 1845). The most complete edition of the poet's
works is that by Todd (Lond. 8 vols. 1806); but a new edition, with glossary, notes, and
life, by J. P. Collier, was published in 1862.


SPERMACE TI is a waxy matter obtained from a cavity in the head of the whale,
physeter macroccphalus . See CACHOLOT. It is separated from the oil, in which it is
originally dissolved, by boiling w r ater, from which the spermaceti crystallizes as it. cools.
It is then purified by being remelled in a weak solution of potash, and the impurities
skimmed off, and it is finally melted again by the action of steam, and cooled slowly in
molds. Its specific gravity is 0.943 ; k it is scarcely unctuous to the touch; does not melt
under 100, has little taste or odor, and occurs in pearly-white, glistening, translucent
crystals. It was generally regarded by chemists as a palmitate or cetylatc of oxide of
cetyl; but according to Heintz, who has studied the fats and their allies more, perhaps,
than any other living chemist, it contains four alcohols (which act as bases), united with
lauric, myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids.

Spermaceti is an emollient and demulcent, and is hence a useful ingredient in cough
mixtures. It is, however, chiefly used externally as an ingredient in various ointments.
The unguentum cetacei or spermaceti ointment, of the pharmacopoeia consists of a mixture
of spermaceti, white wax, and almond-oil.

h (\Z Spenserian.

< VU Spezia.

SFERMATOZO'A is the term given to the true fertilizing agents occurring in the male
gcncuujifc organs. They appear to be formed from the epithelial Jining of the tortuous
seminaf&bes, of which the organ known us the testis is essentially composed. At the
period of puberty in mun, and at certain periods annually in other animals, the seminal
tubes are seen to be filled with cells, from which the spermatozoa are developed. With-
out describing the various changes that ensue, we may observe, that the spermatozoa are
finally set free by the bursting of the cell-walls, and arrange themselves in p.- 1 reels sym-
metrically placed, with the so-called heads in one direction, and the tails in the opposite^
direction. In the human subject, the spermatozoa n;ay be described as clear, hyaloid
bodies, each of which consists of a dilated portion, the head or body, from which along
tail, or filament, issues. The head is flattened from side to side, and of a conical form,
the pointed extremity being anterior. The length of the spermatozoa is about 5 J ff of aa
inch. The spermatozoa of different animals vary extremely in size and form; and for a
detailed account of these bodies, in different classes of animals, we must refer to the
article "semen," in the Cyclopedia of Anatomy and Physiology. It was formerly sup-
posed that spermatozoa were independent organisms (like the infusoria for example), but
it is now known that they must be regarded as epithelial cells (or perhaps nuclei), modi-
fied in structure, and endowed with special properties. That the integrity of the sper-
matozoa is essential for the process of impregnation, is a fact that cannot be called in
question; but of the nature of the force which they communicate to the ova, we know

SPERANSKI, MIKHAIL, Count, 1772-1839; b. Russia; prof, of mathematics at St.
Petersburg in 1797, and sec. to the council of the empire in 1801. He became a^t.
minister of justice in 1808. During his administration he remodeled the system of tax-
ation, introduced a new penal code, and a system of national education. He was ban-
ished in 1812, but recalled in 1816. He became president of chancery under Nicholas.

SPEY, a river of Scotland, rises in the s. of Inverness-shire, 6m. n.w. of loch Laggan,
and 10 in. e. of loch Lochy, follows a north-eastern direction through the counties of
Inverness and Elgin, and, after a course of about 110 m., falls into the Morey firth, 3 in.
w. of Port-Gordon. During a portion of its lower course, it forms the boundary between
the counties of Elgin and Banff. In point of length, the Spey is the second river of
Scotland; but except for its salmon-fisheries, it is almost without value, nor can it be
-called a picturesque stream. It has the swiftest current of all the large rivers in Britain,
and is subject to sudden and violent freshets, resulting at times in disastrous inundations.
Its salmon-fisheries are very valuable.

SPEY ER, also SPEIER (Fr. Spires), the capital of Rhenish Bavaria (the former Paln-
tinate), and one of the oldest towns in Germany, stands at the influx of the Speyerhr.di
into the Rhine, 14 m. s.w. of HeUlelberg, and 23 n. of Carlsruhe. It is connected witli
Mannheim, and thence with the rest of Germany, by railway. The principal building
is the cathedral (founded 1030), which contains the tombs of numerous emperors of
Germany. Since 1856 it has been wholly renewed, and is the grandest specimen of
Romanesque architecture in Europe. It has a hall of Roman antiquities discovered i.i
the Palatinate, and is adorned with thirty magnificent frescos by Schrauddph.

Except the cathedral and a ruined wall, the sole relic of the imperial palace in which
twenty-nine diets were held at one of which (1529) the reformers made their famous
"protest," and got for themselves the name of Protestants (see PROTESTANT) Spevcr
does not contain a single ancient building. This is owing to the fact that in the Orleans
succession war well called by the Germans the Mardbremier Krieg during which the
whole Palatinate was savagely wasted, Speyer was taken by the French, its inhabitants
driven out, and the city blown up with gunpowder, and burned to the ground. Only the
cathedral resisted the barbarous efforts to mine it. Everything else was reduced to rub-
bish, and for long years the noble old pile overlooked nothing but a melauchcly waste
of ruins. In 1794 it was wasted by the French under Custine, and has never recovered
from these calamities. Speyer manufactures vinegar and tobacco, and has some trans-it-
trade on the Rhine. Pop. '75, 14,100, of whom about two-fifths are Catholics.

Speyer is the Novioiwigus of the Romans, and was the capital city of the Nemetes, a
German people. Speyer was probably the native name from the first, for in some of the
later Roman notices it is called Oivitas Nemetum, id estSpira. The name is derived from
the stream, or bach (Speyerbach), which here flows into the Rhine. A Christian com-
munity appears to have been established here as early as 150-200 A.D., and it was cer-
tainly the scat of a bishop about 300 A. D. The German emperors had here a pfa's
(palace, Lat. palaHum, whence the former name of the region of which it was the capi-
tal, the Pfalz or Palatinate), in which they often resided. By them the town was made
a free city of the empire; and having obtained the monopoly of the carrying-trade up
and down the Rhine, it rapidly rose in wealth and importance. The I\<'irhskamier?rrirlit.
or imperial chamber of justice, the highest court of the German empire, was held here
for 200 years, until removed to Wetzlar in 1689.

SPE'ZIA, a city of northern Italy, province of Genoa, and 60 m. s.e. of the city of
that name. Pop." '71, 15,636. It is situated near the inner point of the gulf of that
U. K. XIII. 45


name. The gulf is formed by the bifurcation of a spur of the Apennines, and is 3 m.
long, and 3 in. broad; its western shore is indented by many coves or creekjkfive of
which Porto-Venere, La Castagna, the Varignano (the Quarantine stationJ^Grazie,
and Panigaglia are so deep that large men-of-war may be moored in them. The
emperor Napoleon I. recognized the importance of this gulf, and at one time designed.
it is said, to make it the chief naval station of his empire in the Mediterranean. The
Italian government has made it the station for its ships of war, and it is now the chief
arsenal of the kindorn. Its shipping and commerce are considerable. The scenery of the
gulf is very beautiful, and the mildness of its climate was famous iu ancient times, when
it was known as the gulf of Luna. The soil produces olives, excellent wines, fruits,
etc., and the town has become within recent years a much frequented watering-place.
There are numerous foreign consulates. Steamers perform the voyage from Spezia to
Genoa in eight hours. The railway from Genoa to Spezia was completed in 1873.

SPEZZIA (the ancient Tiparenos), a small Greek island at the entrance to the Gulf of
Nauplia. Pop. 9,766. The island is unfruitful, and its people are engaged chiefly in
commercial pursuits. The town of Spezzia, on the n. coast, has little more than 3,000

SPELZERTrLA'RIA, a very remarkable nematode, or round worm, which exists as a
parasite in various species of bees. The -female is almost an inch in length, has a
nearly uniform diameter of -^ of an in. is, of a whitish color, is bluntly pointed at
each end, and is covered with numerous (about 800) small button-like projections
a peculiarity to which it owes its name. There is neither mouth, esophagus, intestine,
nor anus, and the whole animal congists-of little more than an elongated mass of fatty
tissue and reproductive organs, which in full-grown individuals contain ova in various
stages of development. Although the female was discovered in 1836 (by Leon Dufour),
it was not until Jan. 1861 that the discovery of the male was announced by Mr. Lub-
bock in his memoir on this parasite in TJie Natural History Renew. The male is more
than 28,000 times smaller than the female, which accounts for its having been previously
overlooked. It' is frequently found sexually united to the female in the same manner as
occurs in sclerostoma syngamus (q. v.), the parasite which gives vise to the gapes in vari-
ous birds.

SPHAG'NTTM, a genus of moss, whose spore-case is an urn closed by a deciduous lid>
and its brim toothless, the calyptra irregularly torn. Several species are natives of
Britain, and are common in bogs, from which they derive their popular name, BOG
Moss. They are remarkable for the whitish color of their leaves. They are very ele-
gant plants. They often grow in considerable masses, absorbing water like a sponge,
but becoming friable when dry. They contribute much to the formation of peat. Gar-
deners employ them in preference to other mosses for covering the roots of plants and
keeping them moist, as they have in a high degree the property of absorbing moistuj-e
from the atmosphere. They have been used as food in barbarous countries, but are very
slightly nutritive. The cells of the leaves are remarkable for their spiral structure, and
for large pores in their sides.

SPHE'GIDJE, or SPHECID.E, a family of hymenopterous insects, winged in both sexes,
and much resembling bees or wasps in general appearance. They are solitary in their
habits. Many of them burrow in sand, and are known as sand-wasps. They are
extremely active and restless, and may be seen running about on sand-hills, with their
wings in constant motion. Some of them carry spiders, and others caterpillars, into
their burrows, as food for their larvae, placing them there when the ogg is laid, and sting-
ing them so as to render them torpid, without killing them. They display wonderful
energy and perseverance in dragging the spider or caterpillar to the burrow. They are
mostly tropical insects, but some species are found in Britain.

SPHENIS'CID^E, the penguin family, or a sub-family of brempennatcR, belonging
to the order natatores, or swimmers. The principal or typical genus is gpJiemscus. The
penguins occupy in the southern hemisphere the place filled by the auks in the northern.
See AUK, ante. They live gregariously in the seas of the southern hemisphere on the
coasts of south Africa and South Am'erica, especially at Terra del Fuego, and on the
solitary islands of the South Pacific. The sphenwcidce contain the genera spheniscus,
]eudyptes, pygoscdis, and aptenodytes. The aptenodytes patachonica, or the king penguin,
is the most remarkable. Mr.'G. Bennett, who saw them at Macquarric island in the
southern Pacific (see PENGUIN, ante), says: " They are arranged when on shore in as
compact a manner and in regular ranks as a regiment of soldiers; and_arc classed with
the greatest order, the young birds being in one situation, the molting birds ;in another,
the sitting hens in a third, the clean birds in a fourth, etc. ; and FO strictly do birds in
similar condition congregate that, should a bird that is molting intrude itself among
those which are clean, it is immediately ejected from them. The females hatch the ergs
by keeping them close between their thighs; and if approached during the time of incu-
bation, move away, carrying their eggs with them. At this time the male bird goes to
sea and collects food for the female, which becomes very fat. After the young is
hatched both parents go to sea and bring home food for it. It POOH becomes so fat as.
scarcely to be able to walk, the old birds getting very thin." Cnpt. Fitzrcy ives the



following account of the manner of feeding the young of the jackass penguin, spJieniwus
demersus, at Noir island: "The old bird gets on a little eminence and mnkes a great
noise (between quacking and braying), holding its head up in the air as if it were har-
anguing the penguinery, while the young one stands close to it, but a little lower. The
old bird, having continued its clatter for about a minute, puts its head down and opens
its mouth widely, into which the young one thrusts its head, and then appears to suck
from the throat of its mother for a minute or two, after which the clatter is repeated,
and the young one is again fed; this continues for about ten minutes." Mr. Darwin
relates an encounter with one of these birds on the Falkland islands: " I was much
amused by watching its habits. It was a brave bird ; and until reaching the sea it regularly
fought and drove me backward. Nothing less than heavy blows would have stopped
him; everv inch gained he firmly kept standing close before me, erect and determined.
When thus opposed he continually rolled his head from side to side, in a very odd man-
ncr, as if the power of vision only lay in the anterior and basal part of each eye."

SPHE NOID BONE (Gr. sphen, a wedge, and eidos, form) is situated at the anterior part of
the base of the skull, and articulated wuh
all the other cranial bones, which it wedges
firmly together. It somewhat resembles
a bat with its wings extended, and hence
was termed the os vespertilionis. It is
divisible into a body, the greater and
lesser wings, and various processes. The
greater wings present three surfaces: a
superior or cerebral surface, forming part
of the floor on which the brain rests; an
anterior surface, which assists to form
the outer part of the orbit of the eye,
and an external surface with a rough

The upper or cerebral of the sphenoid bone:

1. The olivary process ; 2, the ethmoidal spore ; 3 and
4, the lesser and greater wings on the left side ; 6, the
extremity of left ptervgoid process ; 7, the foramen
for the optic nerve; 10, the sella turcica on which the
pituitary gland rests; 12, the basilar portion of
the bone, joining with the occipital; 13, part of the

sphenoidal fissure which separates the greater from
the lesser wings, and transmits the 3d, 4th, the oph-
thalmic division of the 5th, and the 6th nerves, with
the ophthalmic vein; 14, the foramen rotundum,
transmitting the second division of the 5th nerve;
15, the foramen ovula, transmitting the third divis-
ion of the 5th nerve; 16, the foramen sponosum for
the passage of the middle meringeal artery.

ridge, giving attachment to the external
pterygoid muscle, one of the most pow-
erful muscles of mastication. The sec-
ond, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth crani-
al nerves emerge from the cranial cavity
through foramina in this bone. Although
considered in human anatomy as a sin-
gle bone, it may be regarded as com-
posed of several bones, which, after a
time, unite with one another, as the
basi-sphenoid, the pre sphenoid, the ali-
sphenoid. and theorbito-spheuoid bones.

SPHERE, a regular solid figure, every point of whose surface is equally distant from
its center; and whose outline is traced by a circle revolving round its diameter. All
sections of a sphere by a plane are necessarily circles, and all sections by planes passing
through the center, or by planes cutting the sphere at equal distances from the center,
are equal. The former sections are called great, and the latter small, circle?. Small cir-
cles may vary in size between a mere point and a great circle, approaching either limit
as nearly as we please. The surface of a sphere is equal to that of four of its great cir-
cles, or (taking x for the radius of the sphere) to 4:7tx-; and its volume to that of a cone
whose altitude is twice that of the sphere, or 4.r, and whose base is a great circle of the

4x 4

sphere, the formula for it being X fl"z 9 , or ^nx?. The most remarkable geometrical

o o

property of the sphere is the relation which its surface and volume bear to those of the
"circumscribing" cylinder, i.e., a cylinder whose length and diameter of each end are
each equal to the diameter of the sphere, and in which, therefore, the sphere will be
exactly contained. The concave surface of such a cylinder is exactly equal to the sur-
face of the sphere; and not only so, but if a section parallel to the base of the cylinder
be made through both cylinder and sphere, the curved surfaces of the portions cutoff are
equal, whether such portion be cut off from one end or be intercepted between two
parallel sections; it follows from this that the curved surface of any section of a sphere
with parallel ends is equal to the product .of the circumference of a great circle of the/
sphere by the height or thickness of the section, and that the curved surfaces of all sec-
tions of a sphere are proportional to the thickness of such sections. The volume of the
sphere, also, is equal to two-thirds of that of the circumscribing cylinder.

SPHER OGRAPH, a simple and exceedingly efficient instrument for the mechanical
solution of such problems in spherical trigonometry as navigation, geography, etc.,
present, was invented in 1856 by Mr. Stephen Martin Saxby, R.N. It consists of two
circular pieces of paper, the whole of the under and the rim of the upper being made
of stout card-board, and the interior portion of the upper one of strong transparent
tracing-paper; these two circles are attached by a pin through their common center, the
pin being made to work in an ivory collar, so as to prevent any lateral motion of either
circle. Round the pin as center, equal circles are drawn, one on each sheet; each circle



is then filled in with lines representing meridians and parallels according to the stereo-
graphic projection, and the instrument is completed. As one of the chief used of the
Bpherograph is to show the course, distance, and differences of latitude and lonsritudu in
"great circle sailing" (q.v.), we shall give a problem of this sort in illustration of the

working of the instrument.
Fig. 1- represents the ap-
pearance presented by the
spherograph when the two
poles are separated from
each other by an angular
distance of 40; the lines
drawn on the under circle
(represented by dotted lines
in the fig.) show ing through
the transparent paper which
forms the upper circle, on
which the continuous lines
are delineated. Suppose,

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 163 of 203)