Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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middle; the teeth are very various, wholly wanting in a few, numerous in most of the
genera, present on the tongue in some, and not in others; smr.ll and feeble in some,
in others large and strong; in many conical and sharp, in some flat. Most of the
species feed on animal food, but a few on vegetable food alone; while so ne are omniv-
orous, eating with equal readiness worms or other soft animals and fruiis which fall into
the water. One of those feeding exclusively on vegetable substances is the paeu (myletts
pficu), a fish scarcely excelled by any as an article of food, which has teeth very like the
molar teeth of sheep, and employs them in browsing on the plants Ihat grow on rocks
covered with water near the cataracts of the rivers of Guiana, and in some of the trib-
utaries of the Amazon. In form, it is very unlike the trout or salmon, b^ing short,
thick, and clumsy. This, however, is not unfrequent in the characinidce, which exhibit
much greater variety of form than the salmonidse proper. Thus, in some of the genus
ge.rrasalmo (see PIRAYA), of which there are many species, voracious carnivorous fishes
with sharp trenchant teeth, the depth of the body is almost as great as its length. The
species of serrasalmo are sometimes called saw-bellied salmon, from their keeled and
serra:ed belly. The characinidce are all inhabitants of fresh water; some of them
African, but the greater number South American. Their iL-sh is generally much

The scopelidos differ from both the previous sections of salmonidae in the structure of
the mouth, which is formed entirely of the premaxillary bone, the maxillary lying
behind. Few of them have an air-bladder Some are sonly and some destitute of
scales. The form of the body is salmon-like in some, but deep and compressed in.
others. They are generally marine, as the argentine (q.v.), the only British species.
They abound" chiefly in the W 7 armer seas; the Mediterranean produces some; but the
greater number belong to the Chinese and East Indian seas. Some are in high repute
for their fine flavor.

Australia produces none of the salmonidse. The rivers and streams of that region,
however, as well as those of New Zealand, Patagonia, and the Falkland islands, produce
a number of species of galaxias, a genus of very trout-like form, but with no scales and
no adipose fin. They are called trouts by the colonists in Australia and New Zealand,
but are of very inferior quality for the table.

SALMON OF NORTH-WESTERN AMERICA. The rivers of north-western America
abound in salmon and trout to a degree not exceeded, and perhaps not equaled, in any
other part of the world. Since the article SALMON was written, a very interesting
account of the most important species has been given by Mr. J. K. Lord, in his work
entitled The Naturalist in Vancouver Island and Britinh Columbia (2 vols. Lond. 1866). to
which we are indebted also for accounts of the candle-fish. Vancouver island herring,
and viviparous fish, noticed in this supplement. The first place must be given to salmo
f,.innat, of which quinnat is one of the Indian names, a fish similar in quality to our
Kui'ipean salmon, end sometimes 70 Ibs. in weight. It is very thick in proportion to its
i"!'gth, the dorsal outline *H htly arched, almost forming a notch with the tail. The
back is light steel blue, shading to a lighter tint on the sides, nnd imperceptibly rhnngii g
to srray or silvery white, blushed over with pink, on the belly. The upper parts, and
often also the lower, an; thickly spotted with black stars. Salmon of this species ascend
the Columbia, the Fraser, rnd other rivers in prodigious numbers at the spawning sea-
son, and proceed hundreds of miles, and even in the Columbia 1000 miles, from the sea
into ever\ r rivulet, "filling even pools left on the prairies and fiats by the receding
floods." In what multitudes they crowd up the rivers will be even better understood
from the following statements of Mr. Lord, relating to a tributary of the Fraser: " Aiwmt
a mile from my camp was a large patch of pebbly ground, through which a shallow

/TO Salmon.


stream found its way into the larger river. Though barely of sufficient depth to cover
an ordinary-si/.ed salmon, yet I have seen^that stream so tilled, that fish pushed one

another out of the water high and dry upon the pebbles With one's hands only,

or, more easily, by employing a gaff or crook-stick, tons of salmon could have been pro-
cured by the simple process of hooking them out." Mr. Lord goes on to-express his
opinion that thousands of the salmon ax-ending the small mountain-streams never can
spawn from sheer want of room. He describes them as dying by scores at the base of a
waterfall which they could not leap, where, however, "-they persisted in remaining till
they died from inanition, fresh fish coming up as the dead ones floated down. A prodi-
gious stench arises from the multitudes of dead salmon floated down the rivers. Ths
Indians say that all the salmon of this species that come up to spawn die in vhe rivers;
ami Mr. believes that few, if any, ever reach the sea again. They seem not to eat
when in the fresh water, and cannot be tempted either by fly or bail, nor is any food to
be found in their stomachs, although, in the stomachs of those taken in the tideway or
salt water, the remains of small fish and marine animals are to be found. This kind of
salmon ascends the rivers in June and July, for, unlike the salmon of Britain, it spawns
m summer. At the same time with saliito quinnat, a smaller species, called by the
Indians, at the Keltic, falls, cha-la-lool (sal/no Gairdnei'i). ascends the rivers. Its average
weight is only from tight to eleven pounds, but when it first arrives in the fresh water
its flesh is fat, pink, linn, and most delicious. A little later in the season comes the
WEAK-TOOTHED SALMON (xalmo puucidvi,*). The autumn, also, has its supply of salmon,
quite equal to that of spring in point of numbers, but inferior in quality. They ascend
the rivers in September and October. The autumnal salmon (sahuo lycaodvn of .Pallas),
a species known also in northern Asia, is a dingy hook-nosed fish, called Ixwked uncut by
the fur-traders. The hooked snout, however, is peculiar to the males. Salmon of this
species are to be found " in every stream and rill where they can by any possibility work
a passage," and they often remain in fresh water, far from the sea, for four or six
months, all of them becoming emaciated, and many of them dying, while the snout of
the male becomes prodigiously elongated, and the teeth also increase into tusks. As to
the multitudes of the full-grown fish of this species to be found at the proper season iu
the rivers of north-western America, the following: extract from Mr. Lord's book is con-
clusive: "At fort Hope, on the Eraser river, in the month of September, I was going
trout-fishing in a beautiful stream, the Qua-que-alla, that comes thundering and dancing
down the Cascade mountains, cold and clear as crystal; these salmon were then toiling
up iu thousands, and were so thick in the fork that I had great trouble to ride my horse
through: the salmon were in such numbers about his legs as to impede his progress, and i
frightened him so that he plunged viciously, and very nearly had me off." The RED-
SPOTTED SALMON TROUT (salmo si>ectabili>s), is another valuable fish of the same regions.
It seldom exceeds three pounds in weight. It ascends the rivers in October, when a
great Indian fish-harvest takes place. This fish is readily taken by hooks baited with
dried salmon-roe, or by a small shining str,p from the belly of a trout. The OREGON
BROOK TROUT (salmo orfario stdlatus) abounds in the rivers and streams of north-west-
ern America, even to a height of 7,000 ft. in the Rocky mountains. It attains a weight
of three pounds, and is a delicious fish. This trout is readily taken with fly or bait.

The Indians of these regions take the salmon, as they ascend the rivers, by various
contrivances. They construct weirs reaching from one side of a stream to the other,
with openings, through which the fish pass into large lateral prisons of closely woven
wicker. They use nets in the b?y3 and harbors, when the salmon, pursuing anchovies
and herrings, run into the net, and are caught, and thus immense numbers are taken.
They construct rude scaffolds or stages of wood among the holders on the sides of large
rivers, on each of which many Indian fishers await the salmon, with small nets fastened
to handles, 40 or 50 ft. in length. Thirty salmon an hour is not an unusual take for two
Indians to land on a stage. Another and more curious method, practiced at falls, is by
means of great wicker hampers, about 30 ft. in circumference, and 12 ft. in depth. To
make these available, huge trees are cut down, lopped clear of their branches, and
brought to tlu> edge of the river, where they are fastened eo that the smaller ends over-
hang the foaming water. To these the wicker baskets are suspended, where the salmor
generally leap in their attempt to clear the falls; and in each basket two naked Indians
are stationed all day, frequent relays being necessary, as they are under a heavy fall of
water. As the salmon fall into the basket, the Indians catch them under the gills, kill
tiiem with a club, and fling them on the rocks. Mr. j.ord says: "I have known 300
salmon landed from one basket between sunrise and sumet. varying in weight from 20
to 75 Ibs." The salmon and trout of these regions have already been made in some small
measure available for the markets of the more densely peopled parts of the world.

SALM-SALM. FELTX. Prince, 1828-70; b. Austria; commanded a U. 8. regiment
during the war of the rebellion, and rose to be brig. gen. He went to Mexico at the end
of the war. wi~ <>< of M xi'iiilian'-; aids-de-eamp, and chief of his household, and was
taken prisoner with him ft Qnerctnro; but was seen released. He joined the Prussian
army, and was killed at Gravelotte.

SALNAYE, SYLVAIN, 1832-70 ;b. Hayti; entered the army fs P common soldier, rare
to the rank of capt. and was prominent iu the revolution of Geffraru, by which Soulouquo

Sr-.lomon. frA

Salt. ' *

(q.v.) was overthrown. Considering liimsclf poorly rewarded for his services in the
revolution ana in repulsing the Spanish invasion; he organized a counter-revolution,
and in 18G7 drove Geffrard from the state. In 1869 l>ominiuue and Saget headed
a third successful revolution and Salnave was put to death at Port-au-Prince, Jan. 10,

SALOMON, JOHANN PETER, an eminent musician, violin-player, and composer, h.
at Bonn in 1745. When young, he was attached to lue service of p"iuce Henry of Prus-
sia, for whom he composed several operas. In 1781 he visited Paris, and afterward
London, where he met with so warm a reception that he was induced to settle there.
His series of subscription concerts iu London, in 1790, form an era in the history of
music, iu so far as they led to the production of Haydn's twelve grandest symphonies,
known as the Salomon set. Iu 1800 Salomon retired from public life, but continued to
compose songs, glees, and violin solos and concertos. He died in 1815, and was interred
in Westminster abbey.

SALOMONS, SirDAVTD, 1797-1873; b. London; a banker of Jewish parentage, by
special act of parliament made slieriif of London and Middlesex co. 1835, high sheriff of
Kent 1839-40, elected alderman 1835-44. He refused to take the oath "on the faith of
a Christian," and was not allowed to take his seat. He became a barrister in 1849, and
was elected lord mayor of London 1855-56. He was the first English magistrate of
Jewish parentage. He was 4 times elected M.P. for Greenwich, but on account of his
peculiar ideas in relation to the oath he was ruled out until 1859, when its form received
a modification allowing an Israelite to assume it. He was deputy lieut. for Kent, Sussex,
and Middlesex, baronet of the United Kingdom, 1869. He published A Defense of the
Joint Stock Banks, and several pamphlets on religious disabilities, persecutions of the
Jews, currency, corn-laws, etc.


SALONICA, or SALONI'KI (anc. Tlwssalonica,, Turk. Selanik), a t. of European Turkov,
in the vilayet of the same name, and, next to Constantinople, the greatest emporium
of commerce iu the empire, is situated on the gulf of Saloniki, and rises from
the shore along the face of a hill. The city is inclosed by white walls, partly
ancient and partly mediseval, about five m. in circuit, and js surrounded by cypresses
and other evergreens. As seen from the sea, it presents a bright and beautiful
appearance; but its internal aspect is miserable in the extreme. The principal
buildings are mosques, most of which were previously Christian churches. The Citadel,
c.illed by the Turks Vedi-Kuleh, or " the Seven lowers," is the ancient Acropolis
within it are to be seen the ruins of a triumphal arch belonging to the time of Marcus
Auielius. Oth?r relics of antiquity are the Propylajum of the hippodrome, a magn ill-
cent Corinthian colonnade of five pillars; the triumphal arch of Augustus, erected after
the battle of Philippi (now forming the g:ite of Vardar or Vardari); the arch of Constan-
tine, etc. Salonica exports the corn, cotton, wool, tobacco, bees-wax, and silk of
Macedonia. Salonica is connected by railway with Usktib, nearly 100 m. inland. In.
1874, 1634 vessels of 584,825 tons, entered and cleared tho port. Pop. 70,000, of \vho.u
80,000 are Turks, 20,000 Greeks, and 20,000 Jews. ^.';

Salonica was at first called Therma, under which designation it is mentioned in con-
nection with the march of Xerxes through Greece. It was rebuilt by Cassander about
315 B.C., who probably named it Thessalonica in honor of his wife; and during tho
lloman-Macedonian wars, it figures as the principal station of the Macedonian fleet.
After the close of the civil wars, its prosperity rapidly increased, and for three centuries
it was the first city in Greece. It was early the seat of a Christian church. During the
barbarian invasions, it proved the great bulwark of the eastern empire. It was thrice
taken in the middle ages first, by the Saracens in 9'H; secondly, by tho Sicilian Nor-
rnaus in 1185; and thirdly, by the Turks under Ainurath II. in 1430.



SAL PA, a genus of mollusca, of the division tvnicata, in which there is no shell, but
a leiithery tunic with two apertures; the type of the family za'.pidcv, which float in the
sea, and have the tunic transparent and elongated. They are allied to ascidia (q.v.),
although not fixed like them, and have two openings, through the hinder of which the
water enters, and isexp'-lled through the anterior by a regular contraction of the mantle, so
that theanimal is impelled through the water in a backward direction, without any appa-
rent voluntary action. The stalpcB are sometimes solitary, and sometimes united in long
chains, those in chains having the contractions of the individnnls simultaneous; but the
solitary mdpiK appear to be the parents of those which are in chains, and they in turn
give birth to solitary individuals very different from themselves. The whole texture is
very delicate, so that the animal is sometimes scarcely to be discerned, except from its
iridescent hues in the sunshine, which make chains of safpa, when very numerous, a
conspicuous feature in the surface of the great deep in tropical regions. The orifices of
the alimentary canal are not near together, as in asfiidia, but at opposite extremities of
the body. The branchial chamber of aacidia is represented by a wide membranous
canal, traversed by a long vascular ribbon, which is continually exposed to the water

*7 ri Salomon,

' J Salt.

that passes through the canal. The aalpre united in chains have no organic connection,
but apparently adhere together by Utlle sucker;


SALSETTE (native uame H(*hti). an island on the w. coast of British India, in <he
presidency of Bombay, lies immediately n. of Bombay, with -which it is connecteu - , a
long peninsula, "ml by an artificial embankment called Zion's causeway. It is IN m.
long, and 11 m. in extreme breadth. Pop. about 50,000. It is beautiful, picturesque,
and densely wooded, is diversified by mountain and hill, and contains many I'enile
tracts. Sugar, indigo, cotton, flax, and hemp are grown. Thanah, the chief town,
stands on the e. coast, 20 in. n.n.w. of Bombay by the Great Indian Peninsular railway,
which, after traversing the islands of Bombay and Saisette, crosses to the continent half
a mile to the s. of this town. Pop. about 12,000. A number of remarkable caves, called
the caves of Kanhari or Kenery, are found in the middle of the island, 5 m.w. of Thanah.
They are nearly a hundred in number, are all excavated in the face of a single hill, and
contain elaborate carving. The caves are in six stories, on the ledges of the mountain,
and the stories are connected by stairs cut in the rock. The cave first approached con-
sists of three chambers, one unfinished, and dates from the 9th or 10th c. A.D. ; it con-
tains no figures or carvings. The other caves contain numerous carved representations
of Buddha, many of them of colossal size. Relics and inscriptions are also found. There
are caves in several localities' of the island besides those at Kanhari e.g., those of Mont-
pezir, Magatani, and Jageshwar. The caves are frequently the haunts of serpents and
tigers. On the n., on the coast, is the small watering-place of Ghora Bandar, which has
been designated the Montpelier of Bombay. The fort of Thauah and the island of Sai-
sette were taken by the English in 1774.

SALSIFY, or SALSAFY. Tragopogon porrifolius, a biennial plant growing in meadows
throughout Europe, not common, find perhaps not truly indigenous in Britain; cultivated
in gardens for the sake of its root, wjiich is used in the same manner as the carrot, and
is very delicate and pleasant, with a flavor resembling asparagus or scorzonera. The
root is long and tapering, and in cultivation white and fleshy, with much white milky
juice; the stem 3 to 4 ft. high, with smooth and glaucous leaves, which resemble
those of the leek; the flowers are of a dull purple color. The seed of salsify is sown in
spring, and the root is ready for use in winter. In the following spring, when the flower-
stalks are thrown up, they are used like asparagus. Owing to a peculiar mode in which
the roots are sometimes dressed, so as to have a flavor somewhat like that of oysters, sal-
sify is sometimes popularly called the oyxier plant. The genus tnifjopogoii belongs to the
natural order C'npot<it<e, sub-order cicharacece, and is distinguished by one row of eight
to ten bracts united at the base, a punctured receptacle, feathery pappus, and striated
aehenia with long beak. The PURPLK. GOAT'S BEAUD (T. prafenxis), a native of Britain,
was formerly cultivated in England for its roots, which are similar in quality to salsify.

GALT. See SODITTM. Common salt is either procured in the solid crystalline state
called rock-salt (q.v.), as a natural brine from wells or springs, or by the evaporation of
sea-water. In the first case, it is obtained by mining, often at great depths, as at North-
wich in Cheshire; at Salzburg, Madgeburg. 'Berchtesgaden, and Wimpfen in Germany;
Cracow in Poland; in the Punjab and other parts of the world.

Rock-salt almost always contains impurities, and therefore is dissolved in water, nna
the insoluble matters mixed with it are deposited at the bottom. The brine is then
drawn off and evaporated by artificial heat in large iron pans.

Natural brine is obtained at Droitwich and Stoke in Worcestershire, and Nantwich
in Cheshire. At Droitwich the shaft is only sunk 175 ft., and the brine rises to the sur-
face and overflows if not. pumped. There are. however, reservoirs made for it, into
which it is pumped, tind from which it is distributed to the various works, which are
little more than large sheds, with numerous openings in their roofs to allow the steam
free egress. Flues run from end to end of the floors, and on these rest the iron
evaporating-pans, which are about 65 ft. long by 25 broad, and about 18 in. in depth
In other places very deep shafts have been sunk, and the brine requires to be pn-'iped
from a great depth. The flues heat the brine nearly to boiling-point, and as a large
surface is exposed, the evaporation is very rapid, and the crystals are small, as in the
fine table-salt. If, however, the heat is more gentle, the salt is coarser, and is fit for
curing meat, fish, etc.; and when very slow, a much coarser kind, called bny-mnlt, is pro-
duced. Salt is obtained from sea-water in many parts of the world, and this is < ffeeted
by simply evaporating it in brine-pits or shallow square pools, dug on the shore for the
purpose/ When the evaporation has proceeded to a certain extent, the liquid assumes a
reddish color; a pellicle of salt forms on its surface, which soon breaks and sinks down,
to be followed by another; and the crystallization then proceeds rapidly. When com-
plete, the salt is removed to sheds open at the sides, and then piled in'heaps, in order
that the chloride of magnesium may be removed. This is very easy, for as it is
extremely deliquescent, it liquefies by exposure to the atmosphere, and runs out. The
salt is then redissolved and crystallized, if great fineness is required.

SALT (ante), sodium chloride chemical symbol, NaCl an essential constituent of
food, the use of which dates from the earliest ages. The Romans are thought to



have ben the first to manufacture it. Many ancient philosophers treat of it scientific-
ally, but the correct Vievv or us composition as the chloride of sodium is of quite recent
origin, sir Humphrey Davy having first experimentally demonstrated it in 1810. Salt
IP present in every part of the human frame, organi/ed iu the solids and dissolved in the
fluids. Besides its use as an article of food, immense quantities are consumed in the
j -eservation of meats, etc., and for other industrial purposes. The annual rate of con-
fc.imption varies in different, countries, being estimated at 50 Ibs. for each person in the
Tailed States, while in Great Britain it is 22 Ibs., and in France only 15 Ibs. The salt of
commerce may be roughly classed under two general heads, that which is found in its
crystalline state in depositsof rock-salt, and that which is produced by the evaporation and
pur ideation of salt brines. Deposits of rock-salt are not confined to anyone series of
strata, but appear at various depths in the crust of the earth and in nearly every geologi-
cal horizon. Thus the great English deposits in Cheshire and Worcestershire, as well as
the deposits in France and Germany, occur in different members of the triassic group;
the mines of Wieliztka in Austrian Galicia, those at the base of the Carpathian moun-
tains, those in Tuscany and Sicily, belong in the tertiary; in the Austrian Alps deposits
exist in the oolitic limestone; and in other places they occur in the carboniferous and
even in the Silurian strata. The deposits in Petit Ause island, Vermilion bay, La., are
only from 16 to 18 ft. below the surface, while those in Ontario, Canada, lie at a depth
of fully 800 feet. Very little rock-salt, as such, is used either in England or in the
United State*, the large quantities mined in the former country being mostly exported.
But the deposits of rock-salt are usually turned into artificial brines by dissolution in
water while still in the mines, and the product of these brines furnishes much of the salt
that is used in England. The natural brines must, of course, include the sea-water
which is largely depended upon in South and Central America, in the West Indies, and
in southern Europe. Very little salt is made from sea-water in the United States not
more than 400,000 bush, annually. The natural brines proper are the salt springs and
wells which result from the accidental dissolution of rock-salt deposits by passing cur-
rents of water. These are found with more or less'frcquency in almost every country;
they abound in England, in northern Italy, in Prussia, and especially in Russia. Salt
Jakes also are frequent in the latter country, but in the Great Salt lake in Utah the United
States possesses the largest known inland body of salt water.

Manufacture. The coarser qualities of salt are mostly made from sea-water or from
brines by a natural process of evaporation, although they consist sometimes of rock-salt

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 17 of 203)