Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 171 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 171 of 203)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

or sporidium). The peculiar reproductive organ, which in some cryptogamous plants
produces the spores, is called a tsporocarp, or a sporophore. In many plants, as in mush-
rooms, the production of spores belongs exclusively to a part of the plant called the

SPORTS, BOOK OF, the name popularly given to a declaration issued by James I. of
England in 1618, to signify his pleasure that on Sundays, after divine service, "no
lawful recreation should be barred to his good people, which should not tend to the
breach of the laws of his kingdom and the canons of his church." The sports specified
were dancing, archery, leaping, vaulting, May -games, Whitsunales, morrice-dances, and
the setting up of May poles. The occasion of this proclamation was the conduct of
some Puritaiu authorities in Lancashire, who, in illegally suppressing, instead of regu-
lating, the customary recreations of the common people, had excited much discontent,
and increased the influence of the Roman Catholics by giving a repulsive aspect to the
reformed religion. Although the declaration was ordered to be read in the parish
churches of the diocese of Chester, this order was not enforced, and the king's design
was allowed to drop. Among the excepted unlawful sports were bear-baiting, bull-bait-
ing, bowling, and interludes. Non-conformists and others not attending divine service
at church were prohibited from joining in the sports, nor was any one allowed to go out
of his own parish for that purpose, or to carry offensive weapons. By republishing thia
declaration in 1633, and enforcing with great severity the reading of it by the clergy in
their churches (see SABBATH), Charles I. and Laud excited among the Puritans a degree
of indignation which contributed-not a little to the downfall of the monarchy and the
church. In 1644 the long parliament ordered all copies of it to be called in aud publicly
burned. Heylin's Hist, of the Sabbath and Life of Laud, Fuller's Church History, D'lsra-
eli's Life of James I. , Southey's Book of the Church, Hallam's Constitutional History of
England, and Cox's Literature of the Sabbath Question.

SPOTSWOOD, ALEXANDER, 1676-1740; b. Tangier, Africa; a soldier of the British
army; he served with Marlborough, was wounded at Blenheim. He was governor of
Virginia, 1710-23, postmaster, 1730, and in 1739 commander of the forces to be sent into
Florida. He was active in promoting the cause of education, and especially solicitous
for the interests of William and Mary college. He was also interested in the improve-
ment of the condition of the Indian race. It is to his efforts that the improvement in
the production of tobacco is attributable, and lie favored the act for making tobacco-
notes a circulating medium. He introduced the manufacture of iron into Virginia, and
explored the Appalachian range of mountains.


SPOTTISWOOD, JOHN, Archbishop of St. Andrews, son of John Spottiswood, super-
intendent of Lothian, was born in the year 1565. He was educated at the university of
Glasgow, and on his father's death, succeeded him as parson of Calder. In 1601, he
attended the duke of Lennox as chaplain, when that nobleman was sent as ambassador
to France by king James VI. When James succeeded to the English crown, Spottis-
wood accompanied him on his journey to London, and, soon after that event on the
death of archbishop James Beaton, was appointed to the see of Glasgow. He was
chosen moderator of the general assembly of the Scottish church, wbich met at
Glasgow in 1610, and completed the establishment of episcopal government, which
James had labored so long to accomplish. In October of that year, he was along with
the bishops of Brechiu and Galloway, consecrated at London House by the bishop of
London and other English prelates. In 1615, he took a leading part in the examination
of John Ogilvie, a Jesuit priest, who was apprehended at Glasgow, and hanged for
refusing to disown the temporal power of the pope. The share he took in this matter
was most discreditable to the archbishop. In the course of the same year, he was
translated to the see of St. Andrews. As primate of the Scottish church, Spottiswood
had now the chief management of ecclesiastical affairs, and great influence also in the
civil government, and his rule was marked by uniform ability, and, with rare exceptions,
by prudence and moderation. He presided at the assembly which met at Perth in 1618,
and sanctioned the five points of ecclesiastical discipline known as the Perth articles.
He was as much in favor with king Charles I. as he had been with king James, and at
the coronation of that sovereign at Holyrood in 1633, he placed the crown on his head



and annotated him. In 1635, Spottiswood was made chancellor of Scotland, a dignity
which no churchman had held since the Reformation; but in accepting an appointment
so invidious to the nobles, he did not act with his usual discretion. He reluctantly

entered into the king's unwise measures for the introduction of a liturgy into Scotland,

against the lawfulness of the general assembly which met at Glasgow in November of
the same year, and was deposed and excommunicated by that body for alleged offenses,
which, so far as his private character was concerned, were improbable in themsclv. >,
and supported by no evidence whatever. The archbishop did not long survive the
overthrow of the polity which it had been the work of his life to build up. -He died at
London, Nov. 26, 1639, being then in the 74th year of his age. He had expressed a wish
to be buried at Dairsie in Fife, where he had rebuilt the church after the English model,
but this was found impracticable, and he was interred in Westminster Abbey. The
writings of Spottiswood are his well known History of the Church of Scotland, first pub-
lished in 1653; a sermon preached at the meeting of the Perth assembly of 1618, which
was published by bishop Lindsay in 1621 in his account of the proceedings of that
assembly; and a Latin treatise, lufntatio Libelli de Reg inline Ecclesia Scvticaiw. written
in answer to a tract of Calderwood's, and published in 1620. The chief authorities for
the biography of the archbishop arc the life ascribed to bishop Duppa, prefixed to the
folio editions of his llixtoi-y, and the life by bishop Russel, prefixed to the Spottiswood
society edition of the same work.

SPOTTSYLVANIA, aco. in n.e. Virginia, intersected by the Richmond, Fredericks-
burg and Potomac, and the Potomac, Fredericksburg and Piedmont railroads; 400
s-q.m.; pop. 'bO, 14,29 14,640 of American birth. 6,406 colored. It has the Rapidan
river for its n. boundary, the North Anna on the s.w., the Rappahannock on the v..e.,
sind is drained ;d.-o by the Mattapony river. The surface is hilly, containing extensive
ledges of granite and freestone, which arc quarried. It is traversed by the Rapidan
canal. The soil is fertile, producing grain, tobacco, wool, and the products of the dairy.
Live stock is raised in large numbers. Co. seat, Spottsylvauia Court-House.


SPRAGUE, CHAKLES, 1791-1875; b. Mass.: leaving school at an early aire, b?r\ame
rvereh.-uil's clerk, and in 1816 a partner; teller in State bank, 1820; cashier of-Globe bank.
1825-65; received, 1821. the prize for the best prologue at the opening of Park th<
New York; afterward prize for the five best poems for the American stage; wrote
ode for the pageant in honor of Shakespeare at Boston theater, 182;>: was a menilvr of
the city council, and delivered the oration, July 4, 1825; gave an address on temperance,
1827: the Phi Beta Kappa poem, C-uriosity, at Cambridge, 1829; an ode at centennial cele-
bration of settlement of Boston, 1830. Among his best pieces an- Odi-tm >'///,< >yv ( /./r and
Winged Worshipers. An edition of his poems and prose writings appeared in

SPRAGUE, WILLIAM, 1800-51 : b. R. I. ; elected to the state assembly at an early
age. and its speaker in 1832. lie was a member of congress, 1836-38 and U. S. senator,
1842^5. He was an extcnsivcwianufacturer of cotton.

SPRAGUE, WILLIAM, b. R.I., 1830; succeeded to his father's immense business in
the manufacture of calico prints. He was governor of Rhode Island, 18C X part

in the war o,f the rebellion, and was U. S. senator from Rhode Island, 18C9-75. "lie mar-
ried a daughter of chief-justice Chase.

SPR\<a"K. WILLIAM BUELL, D.D., 1795-1876; b. Conn.; graduated at Yale college.
1815; private tutor in Virginia, 1815-16; studied at Princeton college and was settled
over the Firsl church (Congregational), West Springfield, Mas-., as colleague pastor.
1M9, and as pastor, 1821; pastor of Second Presbyterian church. Albany. l* - J9-69: resided
at Flushing, L. I., from 1869until his death. Published numerous sermons and ;iddrccs:
Letters to a Daughter; l.n'tmrx t<> Yixtnr/ P(>t>}>i< ! : Letters from },'>/ r<'/><: LtfeofJSditarclIbrr, .
Oriffen; Life of Timothy Dirif/ht; Lect>n-< * "u R< //><//*, Hints oft tfo Inttrcvuru <>f t'ltrit- \
ttttnx; Womn of the Bible; Visits to European < Annalt of the Americah 1'

9 vols., A Work 'Of great research, and contributed to the biographical department of
Apph'fans Cyctopadta,

SPRAIN. A sprain or strain is a term employed in surgery to designate a violent
stretching of tendinous or ligamentous parts with or without rupture of some of their
fibers. Srains are very frequent in all the joints of the. upper limbs, especially in the
wrist and the articulations of the thumb.* In tUedmver extremity tl '^XJ^y&S^

by far the most frequently affecttd; and thfs^is accounted for itftfti^il^WS^^yVne
small size of the articular' surfaces, the great '.weight the astragjdua^lne bone pre-
senting tiie lower articular surface) has to Mipp'ort, and the Jjrtjtielding nature of the
lateral ligaments. In slight sprm^fj^ol this joint the ligament^ are onjy stretched or
slightly lacerated, but in more severe crises they may be completely torn through.
Sprains of the ankle are sometimes mistaken for fractures, and rice rtrsa; and the two


injuries may co-exist. The pain and. dwelling sometimes make an accurate diagnosis
difficult, especially if the patient is not seen for some time after UK- accident; and if
any doubt exist?, the case should be treated as for the more severe! injury, since it is
better that the treatment should be prolonged than that the pa: lent should be maimed;
and, fortunately, that whiclr is the proper treatment of a In; UKt i- the best that can be
employed for a sprain. Sprains of the knee are not uncommon. a.,u ,-;,e characterized by
great swelling from effusion of fluid within the joint. Sprains of the back are not
un frequent accidents, and are the most serious of any, but in most cases it may bj
anticipated that after confinement in bed or on a sofa for two or three weeks, and with
proper treatment, the patient will be able to walk, although he may feel stiffness and
pain for several weeks longer. The treatment of sprains generally must be regulated by
their severity. In a severe sprain, Attended with much pain and inflammation, leeches
shpuld be applied, followed by hot-water fomentations, or the application of a hot
linseed-meal poultice. In slighter cases, rest and cold lotions constitute sufficient treat-
ment. In all cases of sprain of the extremities, thin pasteboard splints placed on the
outer and inner surfaces of the joint, over a wet bandage previously laid round it,
afford support to the part and comfort to the patient. In sprains of the back, more
decided antiphlogistic or lowering measures are required. "After an active mercurial
purge, a dose or two of Dover's powder may be given, with salines at intervals. The
diet ought to be spare. In those of vigorous constitution the abstraction of blood may
be required. Afterward, nothing will conduce more to the comfort of the patient than
well-managed fomentation of the back. Amendment will be denoted by the patient's
turning in bed more freely, and seeking to sit up. At that period stimulating liniments,
or the application of the compound tincture of iodine, will be called for. When able to
walk, he will be benefited by a warm plaster to his loins." Shaw on "Injuries of the
Back," in Holmes's System of Surgery, vol. ii. p. 202.

SPRAINS, or STRAINS, are very common among horses, owing to the severe exer-
tions required of them, often while they are young, and unprepared for such work.
Various muscles, ligaments, and tendons are liable to strain, but none more frequently tha:i
the large tendons passing down the back of the fore-limbs. In slight cases, cold water
continuously applied for several hours gives relief; but in all serious cases, diligent fomen-
tation with water about the temperature of 100 3 is preferable; or the injured part ma/
be swathed in a thick woolen rug, kept constantly moist and warm by frequent wett'n ;
with the hot water. Perfect rest is essential, and in order to insure the relaxation of the
large tendons of the horse's limbs, he may in bad cases bo kept slung for several days.
Blisters, hot oils, firing, and all such irritants, are on no account to be used until the
inflammation abates, and the part becomes cool, and free from tenderness. Such reme-
dies are then useful for causing the re-absorption of swelling, and perhaps also for invigor-
ating the weakened part.

SPEAT, Ilarengula sprattus, formerly Clupea sprattus, a fish of the family dnpeMce
very abundant on many parts of the British coast, and elsewhere in the northern parts
of the Atlantic. It is smaller than the herring, being only about six inches in length
when full grown, but much resembles it. It is, however, easily distinguished by the
serrated belly, and by the position of the fins, the ventral fins beginning immediately
beneath the first ray of the dorsal fin, and not beneath the middle of it. as in the herring
and pilchard. Another easily observed distinction is the want of axillary scales to the
ventral fins, which both the herring and pilchard have. The dentition is 'also different,
and on this account Valenciennes has constituted, for the sprat and a number of other
species, the new genus h>ii-enffu'a, characterized by having teeth on the jaws, tongue,
palatines, and pterygoids, but no teeth on the vomer. The herring has teeth on the voiner.
Valenciennes states also that the sprat has only 48 vertebrae, whilst the herring ha* ."Hi.
Notwithstanding all this, an old opinion has recently bean revived, and urged with some
pertinacity on public attention, that the sprat is the young of the herring, which, therefore,
it is injurious to a more important fishery to capture. Except that it ia.not common to find
sprats full of roe, nothing has been stated in support of this notion more to the purpose
than that the serratures of the belly may possibly be a provision for theirrowth of the fish;
a provision to which it may be remarked that nothing analogous appears in any province
of nature. Nor is it wonderful that many sprats may be examined without roe being found,
as the greater part of those taken on our coasts have not attained their full size. Sprats
(abound especially on the coasts of Norfolk, Suffolk. Essex, and Kent in November and
several following months. The net used for their capture has smaller meshes than the her-
ring-net. Drift-net fishing is practiced as for herring, and a method called stow-bont fishing
in which a large bag-net is suspended between two horizontal beams beneath the boat,
and about a fathom from the i bottom of the water; ropes from the ends of the upper
beam enabling the fishermen in the boat to keep the mouth of the bag always open and
against the tide. Vast quantities of sprats are taken in this way, so that they are used
as manure by farmers, although London is also very largely supplied with them" and being
sold at a very cheap rate, they are a favorite article of food of the poorer classes. The
firth of Forth also produces sprats in Scotland, called, garden so abundantly that they
are sold both in Edinburgh and Glasgow by measure, and cheaper than any other kind


of fish. But there are many ports of the British coast where the sprat is rare, some of
these being parts where the herring is plentiful. Notwithstanding its cheapness, the
sprat is a very fine fish, of flavor quite equal to the herring, although decidedly different.
Dried sprats are a very common article of provision, and sprats are also sometimes salted.
The kiUciei brought from Riga and other ports on the Baltic, are sprats cured with spire-;
Ind many of the boxes of sardines which are sent to market from the west coast of
France, are really filled with sprats. The value of the sprat does not seem to be as yet
fully appreciated in Britain, ^ery closely allied to the sprat is another fish (lliirciiynln
\a.tulus), the bfapquette of the French, which is caught, in great abundance on some pails
Of the west coast of France. Other species of ILirenrjn^i are found in other seas. One
of them (H. humeralis), which abounds in the West Indies, and southward as far as Kio
Janeiro, is much esteemed, but becomes dangerous at certain seasons, from some unknown

SPRAT, THOMAS, D.D., 1G36-1713; b. England; graduated at Oxford; fellow of the
Royal society, chaplain to the duke of Buckingham and to Charles II. ; canon of Windsor,
Hib'O; dean of Westminster, 1683; bishop of Rochester, 1684; dean of the chapel-royal,
1685; one of the commissioners for ecclesiastical affairs in the reign of James II. la
169:3 an attempt was made to implicate him in treason, but he was acquitted. He pub-
lished History of the R>yul Society; Life of Cowky; Answer to Sobivre; History of the Rye-
House Plot.

SPRENGER, ALOYS, b. Isassereit, Tyrol, 1813; studied medicine and oriental lan-
guages at Vienna; entered the service of the East India company; pres. of the college of
Delhi inls-15; editor of a Hindustani weekly, Kirun Alsadain, and the Bibliothcat J/u/icn;
was in 1850 government interpreter, secretary of the Asiatic society, and examiner at the
college of fort William in Calcutta. In the Bibliotheca Indica he published translations
from the Arabic and Persian; also Life of Mohammed. On his return to Europe in 1857
In- was appointed professor of oriental languages at Bonn, and published JJaa LAtn und
di: L fin it'* Mi>!iti,in'd, o vols.


SPREE, a river of Prussia, ri-es near Ebcrsbach in the e. of Saxony, on the borders
of Bohemia, and after an irregularly winding, but generally n. and n. western course of
200 m., fails into the Havel (q.v.) at Spaiulau. It has all the peculiarities of a stream
flowing through a low and marshy region abounding in fish, and frequently expanding
into lakes, the largest of which are the Schwielochsee and M uygelmiee. Its banks are flat,
sometimes sandy and wooded, and sometimes rich in meadow pastures. It becomes
navigable for small craft at Rosenblatt. The principal towns past or through which it
flows are Bautzen, Sprembcrg, Kottbus, Liibben, Beeskow, and Berlin. Its trade is
verv considerable. By the Friedrich Wilhelm's or Miillrose canal, it is connected with
the Oder.

SPRING, a stream of water issuing from the earth. The source of springs is the rain
and snow that falls from the clouds. Very little of the water precipitated in any district
finds its way immediately bv rivers to the sea; the great proportion is cither evaporated
from the surface of the earth, and, reabsorbed by the atmosphere, is employed by plants
and animals, or sinks into the earth. All loose soils and gravels greedily absorb water,
which descends until it meets with a stratum through which it cannot penetrate. A pit
du'jrinto the water charged soil would speedily fill itself by draining the water from the
soil. All rocks contain water; some retain it by capillary attraction, like a sponge.
others hold it merely mechanically, and easily part with it. Chalk will absorb and retain
one-third of its bulk of water; and sand, on the other hand, while it will absorb as much,
will part with nearly the whole amount to a well dug in it. Argillaceous deposits and
compact rocks are barriers to the passage of water, and cause the superincumbent per-
vious strata to become water-logged, where there is no outlet. Sometimes the edges of
the strata are exposed on the sides of a valley, and permit the free escape of the con-
tained water, which pours from them over the neighboring land. But rents and fissures,
as well ns inequalities on the surface of the impervious beds, give the water a circum-
scribed course, and cause it to issue in springs.

The water, as it percolates through the earth, always becomes moi-c or less charged
with foreign matter, owing to iis solvent property. Carbonate, sulphate, and muriate
of lime, muriate of soda, and iron, are the most common impurities in spring-waters;
masrnesia and silica also frequently occur. These substances, from the evaporation of
part of the water, or the escape of the carbonic acid gas, by \\hich so large a quantity is
often held in solution, are frequently deposited on the margins of the springs, or in the
courses of the streams llowinir from them. Such deposiis are found in all so-called
petrifying springs ; ai.d the hot wells of Iceland and the A/ores ;,re s \\ith

basins fornud of siliceous .-inter which has been derived from the water. V- : < n the
foreign ingredients have medicinal qualities, the springs are known as mineral waters

s are either associated with the superficial strala, or rise from a considerable



FIG. 1.

depth. Surface-springs occur where the absorbent surface-deposits rest on an impervious

bed, which prevents the further downward
progress of the water, or where the beds
through which the water flows are near the sur-
face, as shown iu rig. 1, where C and E are
impervious clay-beds, and D is a bed of sand
or gravel, which in the upper portion is exposed
on the surface, or is only overlaid by loose soil,
and after being co\ered for some distance by
the clay bed C, makes its appearance again at
B, where the valley cuts it through; here the
water collected over the area, A, is discharged. Surface-springs, depending as, they do
o directly on the rain for supplies, are very variable in the amount of water they
deliver. They frequently fail entirely in the summer, and always after great droughts.
Their temperature varies with that of the district where they exist, being warm in sum-
mer, and cold in winter, as they do not penetrate below that plane in the earth's crust
which is affected by the seasonal changes in temperature.

When the bed which forms the reservoir for the spring is at such a distance from the
surface as to be beyond the zone of season changes, and yet within that which is influ-
enced by the climate, the water has a temperature equal to the mean temperature of the
locality "where it springs. Such springs have generally a large area for the collection of
the superficial water, and are consequently regular in the quantity of water they give
out. They are brought to the surface by means of faults. The celebrated well of" St.
Winifred at Holy well, in Flintshire, rises through a fault in the coal measures. It dis-
charges at the rate of about 4,400 gallons per minute, being the most copious spring in Eng-
land, and the water, in its short course of little more than a mile to the sea, is used to
propel 11 mills.

Most deep wells have a lower origin than the zone of climate temperature, which in
Britain is between 200 and 300 feet. It is well known that a regular increase in the tem-
perature is observed after this zone is passed, equal to 1 of Fahr. for every 55 feet. As
wells have a temperature corresponding to that of the strata from which they spring, it
follows that the deeper the spring the higher will be its temperature. Local conditions
may affect the thermal state of springs, as in the case of the Geysers in the active vol-
canic district in Iceland, and the warm springs near Naples; but where no such local influ-
< nees exist, the depth of the bed from which the water comes may be to some extent ( sti-
j;;aied by its temperature. Thermal springs occur in Britain at Mullock (66 Fahr.) and
.Thixlon (82 C ) in Derbyshire, at Bath (117) in Somerset, and at Clifton (76) in Gloucester-
shire. Artificial communications have been opened with deep-lying strata, by which the
Trater they contain has been brought to the surface, and in these the temperature is found

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 171 of 203)