Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 172 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 172 of 203)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

to increase in proportion to the depth of the bore. See ARTESIAN WEI.LS. The most
remarkable thermal springs are the Geysers of Iceland, which are fully described under

' Intermittent springs fire sometimes produced by the ebb and flow of the tide, ns at
Richmond, where tlie'rise at high water is seen in the wells which flow from the arena-
ceous strata on the banks of the Thames; and sometimes they depend on the supply of
rain-water. But there is a kind of spring the intermittences of which are believed to be
owing to the structure of the internal cavities from which the supply is obtained. A large
reservoir is fed by the rain percolating through the rock. It communicates with the sur-
face by a siphon-shaped tube. As long as the water in the nservoir is at a lower I^vcl
than the arch of the siphon, no water can escape; but as soon as it reaches its level, the
whole of the water in the cavity will be drawn off, the spring will then cease, and will
only make its appearance when sufficient water has accumulated to permit the siphon
asrain to act.

SPRING. GARDINER, D.D., 1785-1873; b. Mass.; graduated laie college, uo;
studied law with judsre Dagget, New Haven; taught school two years in Bermuda;
admitted to the bar. New Haven, 1808; practiced a year; studied theology at Andoyer
theological seminarv. receiving calls while there from the South Parish and Park street
church, Boston; was licensed to preach, 1809; ordained pastor of the Brick Pre>l>yteii,-:n
church, New York, 1810. He declined the presidency of Hamilton and Dartmouth col-
<] 'ges. Of his numerous publications, the following are the most prominent: E&ays on
the Distinguishing Tntif* of Christian Character; Fragments from the Fivdy of a Paxtw;
Obligations of the World to the Bible; The Attraction of the Cross; Thf BMe not of Man;
The Power of the Pulpit; 2 he Mercy Seat; First Things; The Glory of Christ.

SPRING, SAMUEL, D.D., 1746-1 SOD; b. Mass.; graduated at Princeton college,
1771: licensed to preach, 1774; chaplain in continental army, 1775, and accompanied
Arnold's expedition to Canada; ordained pastor of a church at Newlmryport, 1777, where
he remained till his death. He aided in forming the Massachusetts missionary society,


SPRING-BALANCE, THE, for determining the weight of bodies, consists of a spring
in the form of a cylindrical coil, through \viiich passes freely a graduated bar, having a
hook attached to us under end, and a plate to its upper. The spring is inclosed in an
oblong or cylindrical box, quite closed except at the bottom, where there is a hole just
lar-v enough to allow the free passage up and down of the graduated bar. When the
instrument is to be used, il is su>pcnded by a ring fastened to the upper part of the box;
the weight to be estimated is then bung on the hook, and pulls down the rod. the button
or plate at the top of which compresses the helical spring within against the bottom of f
the box; and the graduation corresponding to this amount of compression of the spring
is read off at that part of the rod which just s.iows itself outside. In another form of
the spring-balance, known as Sailer's balance, a brass index-plate is attached to the side
of the box, and a vertical slit through both plate and box is made from top to bottom;
the weight is in this case read off on the plate by a pointer fastened to the spring, and
protruding through the slit. In a third form, known as Martin's " index weighing-
machine," the interior rod, instead of being graduated, is furnished with a rack on one
sid ; this rack moves a toothed wheel fastened on the side of the instrument; and this
wli -el, again, has at one extremity of its axis a long index, which, on the wheel being
put in motion, traverses a circular dial-plate, on which the graduations of weight are
marked. The advantage of this last construction consists in the arrangement of the
si/.e of the toothed wheel to that of the dial plate, so that, since the toothed wiieel and
index make a complete revolution simultaneously, a small motion of the former may
pro luce a large motion of the latter, and the weight of the body be much more accu-
rately read off than can be done directly on the graduated rod. The spring-balance has
one advantage over the ordinary balance, that it does not estimate unknown weight by
that which is known, and is therefore applicable to the determination of "absolute"
weight in all latitudes, at the equator as well as at the poles; but it has the great disad-
vantage of being considerably affected by change of temperature, the force of the spring
TO resist compression being diminished as the temperature increases at the rate of 5^
for each degree of Fahrenheit, and consequently the apparent weights o! bodies must
be corrected in this proportion. Various other 'forms of springs, semi-circular, ellipti-
cal, etc., are employed, instead of the helical spiral, in several French balances, but in
other respects the instruments correspond. The spring- balance is also called a "dyna-
mometer." from its being employed to indicate the intensity of the forces exerted by uni-
mats or machines; for this purpose, it is attached between the force and its object, the
force being applied to its object solely through the medium of the dynamometer.

SPRING BOK, Aniilope eucliore, or Antidorcas eucliore, a species of antelope, nearly
allied to the ga/.elles, very abundant in south Africa. It is an extremely beautiful
creature, of graceful form and tine colors. It is larger than the roebuck, and i's neck
and limbs much longer and more delicate. The general color is fulvous brown on tint
upper parts, pure white beneath, the colors separated on the Hanks by a broad baud of
deep vinous red. The whole head is white, except a broad brown band on each side
from the eye to the mouth, and a brown spot in the center of the face. Two curious
folds of skin ascend from the root of the tail, and terminate near the middle of the back ;
they are usually closed, but open out when the animal is bounding, and disclose a large
triangular white space which is otherwise concealed. The springbok derives its name
from the prodigious leaps which it takes either when alarmed or in play, often to the
height of 7 ft., and sometimes of 13 or 13 ft. Its ordinary residence is in the J-///T.
arid sandy plains; but when all pasture there is burned up. immense herds congregate!
together. :m i migrate to more fertile regions, often devastating the fields of the colo-
nist. Mr. Pringle speaks of seeing the country near the Little Fish river specked with
them as far as the eye could reach, an 1 estimates the number in sight at once a< not less
than 30,0');) or 30,000. Capt. dimming describes a still more extraordinary scene, a vast
herd pouring through an opening among hills, in one living mass, half a mile in breadth,
and so continuing for hours together. So dense are these herds sometimes in tht-r
migrations that the lion or the leopard, which ordinarily hanu's on their skirts with a
view to prey, is taken prisoner, and compelled to march along j n the midst. The
strongest animals are generally foremost, but when satiated with food they fall behind,
and others, hungry and active', take their place. When taken young, the springbok is
easily tamed, and becomes very familiar, troublesome, and tricky.

SPRINGER. See Aucir.

SPRINGER, a kind of dog, regarded as a variety of the spaniel (q.v.). It is small,
elegant, usually white, with red spots, black nose and palate, long pendent ears, and
tmall head. Its aspect is very lively, and its manners equally so. It is used by sports-
men' for raising game in thick and thorny coverts. There are several breeds or sub-

SPRINGFIELD, the capital of Illinois, is built on avast prairie, near the middle of
the slate. I^ ; N in. s.w. of Chicago, at the intersection of four railway lines. It is regu-
larly laid out with broad streets an 1 gardens, which have given ft the name of the
"flower city." The state house, built in a emit central square, is the principal archi-
tectural ornament. It is also the seat of the Illinois state university, and has 23 churches,


6 newspapers, 4 banks, with foundries and flouring-mills, and is the entrepot of a rich
agricultural country. Pop. '70, 17.364.

SPRINGFIELD (ante), a city and co. seat of Sangamon co., 111. ; the junction of the
Springfield and North-western, the Chicago and Alton, and the Toledo, Wabash and
"Western railroads; pop. '80, 19,746. The city is laid out in regular squares by broad
streets; in the center is a public square containing the county court-house. Near by
is the state capitol, a magnificent building, costing $5,000,000.* Other public buildings
a -e the state arsenal and post-office. In the beautiful Oak Ridge cemetery the remains
f Abraham Lincoln, long a resident of Springfield, rest beneath a magnificent monu-
ment, dedicated Oct. 15, 1874, and costing over $200,000. The city charter was obtained
/.i 1840, and it has been the seat of state government since 1837. There are 5 flour mills,
4 foundries, manufactories of iron and of woolen goods, of paper, of watches, carriages,
furniture, blinds, etc. There are also large railroad repair and machioe shops. Large
quantities of bituminous coal are found near the city. The city is governed by a mayor
and a board of 18 aldermen, 3 from each ward. There are 6 banks, an insurance com-
pany, 22 churches, 2 colleges, gas and water works, 3 daily, 4 weekly, and 1 monthly
periodicals, and 5 public schools.

SPRINGFIELD, a city of Massachusetts, U.S., on the e. bank of Connecticut river, 98
m. w.-by-s. of Boston. It is the seat of many important manufacturing establish-
rneBts, which are supplied with water-power by the falls of Mill river, and among which
are the U. S. armory, employing about 700 men chiefly in the manufacture of rifles and
carbines; foundries, manufactories of machinery, cotton-presses, steam engines, fire-
engines, locomotive wheels, railway-carriages, iud'ia-rubber goods, etc. At the immense
station-house of Springfield four important lines of railway meet. There is a large city
hall, 26 churches, city library and museum, high school, 82 other schools, 5 banks, and
2 daily and 2 weekly newspapers. The town, one of the finest in New England, was
settled in 1635. Pop. '70, 26,703.

SPRINGFIELD (ante), a city and co. seat of Hampden co., Mass., is the junction of
the New Haven, Hartford and Springfield, the Boston and Albany, the Connecticut
river, the New York and New England, the Springfield and New London, and the
Springfield and North-eastern railroads; 138 m. n.n.e. of New York, and 102 in. e.s.e. of
Albany; pop. '80, 33,340; gain from 1870, 6,637. Springfield was settled in 1635 by emi-
grints from Roxbury, and was at first called Agawara, changed to Springfield in 1640,
after the name of the English estate of the first magistrate, William Pynchon (q.v.).
The city charter was obtained in 1852, and the place owes its growth to the construction
of the many railroads which now center there. It is situated in the midst of the pleas-
ant Connecticut valley scenery, has a broad and handsome avenue and business street,
and large numbers of old elms, maples, and other shade trees. The armory is situated
on Arsenal hill in a park of 72 acres. In the arsenal are constantly stored 275,000 stand
of arms, of which Longfellow speaks:

This is the Arsenal. From floor to ceiling.
Like a huge organ, rise the burnished arms.

During the rebellion about $12.000,000 were expended here, and the works were run
night and day. The best view of the city may be obtained from the hill. Among the
more important manufacturing firms are: Smith & Wesson (revolvers), the Wason car
company, the Ames manufacturing company (silver, bronzes, etc.), the Power's paper
company, and the Morgan envelope company; other manufactures are of cigars, jewelry,
buttons, bricks, cloth, tools, pumps, steam engines, gas machines, etc. The Connecti-
cut is crossed here by 4 bridges, one of which is the double-tracked iron bridge of the
Boston and Albany railroad. The city is lighted by gas and supplied with water from a
reservoir containing over 2,000,000,000 gallons. It is governed by a maj'or, board of
aldermen (one from each of the 8 wards) and common council. Among the public
buildings of note are the free library (40.000 vols., costing $100,000 and containing also
a museum of natural history), the city hall, the court house (a fine granite structure), the
high school, and several costly and beautiful churches. In all there are 26 churches, 10
banks, of which 3 are savings banks, 4 weekly and 3 daily papers, one of the latter of
national reputation, two monthlies, 3 insurance companies, and 26 schools. Webster's
great dictionary for many years has been published here The hotels of this city hav
been favorites with travelers.

SPRINGFIELD, a city and co. seat of Greene co. , Mo., on Wilson creek, and the
Atlantic and Pacific railroad; 190 m. s.w. of St. Louis; pop. '70, 5,555, since greatly
increased. The city is situated on an elevated plain ; was incorporated in 1831. aml*lur-
ing the rebellion was in the possession of the federal and confederate forces, alternately.
There are 4 flouring-mills, 2 iron-foundries, 2 wagon-factories, and cotton and Avoolen
goods are manufactured. Here is Drury college, a small but well-organized Congrega-
tional institution, founded in 1873. There are 2 hotels, 2 banks, several schools, 1 daily
and 3 weekly newspapers, and 13 churches

SPRINGFIELD, a t. of Ohio, on Lagonda creek nnd Mad river. 43 m. AV. of Colum
bus. It contains 20 churcLes, the Wittenberg (Lutheran) college, 1 daily and 5 weekly


newspapers, 3 banks, flouring-mills, iron-foundries, woolen and paper mills, extensive
railway connections, and a large trade in corn, cattle, and hogs. Pop. '70, 12,652.

SPRINGFIELD (ante), a city and co. seat of Clark co., Ohio; situated on the Atlantic
and Great Western, the Cincinnati, Sandusky, and Cleveland, and other railroads; about
NO in. n.e. of Cincinnati, and 45 in. s.w. of Columbus; pop. '80, 20,7:29. Uy its railroads
Springfield has connection with id] the surrounding country, and is a great tenter for
shipping wheat, corn, and Hour; also swine and cattle. There is ample water-power,
and ihe manufacturing establishments are many and varied. There are iron-foundries,
machine shops, flourmg-mills, and paper, tools, linseed oil, plows, and many other
things are produced. The number of mowers and reapers produced yearly l.;:s been
estimated at :.->0,000. There is a free library (4,500 vols.), 6 schools, 'an academy, 4
national banks, 2 dailies, 5 weekly and 2 monthly periodicals, and 20 churches. Spring-
field is the seat of Ihe Wittenberg (Lutheran) college, founded in 1845, and now having
about 170 students and a library of 6,000 volumes.

SPRINGS, MKCHANICAI,, are very variously constructed for different purposes. The
simplest form of spring is a piece of elastic metal wire, rolled on a mandrel, so as to form
a continuous single cylindrical coil of any length needed. Clock and watch springs are
made in Hat, coils, thin bauds of steel being used. The balance-spring of v &\clie8 is,
however, made of line wire often thinner than hair. Coach-springs are formed of a series
of curved narrow plates of steel of different sizes, placed one over the other, the I;
being at the bottom, and the others in regular succession according to si/.e, the whole
being held together with nuts and screws. These are some of the commonest forms, but
very many others are in use.

SPRIT (xprid, Dutch; old English verb, sprit, to sprout or spring out) means a pole or
spar. The word occurs most frequently in the compound, bowsprit, which explains
itself. "When used alone, a sprit is a diagonal yard for sustaining a quadrilateral
(usually square 1 ) fore-and-aft sail. The sprit's heel is held on the mast in a ring of rope,
called a "snotter," and its head reaches to the after upper corner of the sail. The bail
thus extended is a spritsail, and is frequently employed in boats.

SPROAT, EUEXEZEK, 1752-1805; b. Middleboro, Mass.; called by the Indians Big
Buckeye ; entered the army wkh the rank of capt., 1775; rose through successive grades
to be lieut.col. << mmanding 2d .Mass, regiment. He led his command through the battles
of Trenton, Princeton. ;.nd Monmouth under brig. gen. Glover; was appointed by gen.
Stcuben brigade irs-pcctor. At the close of the war he took up his residence : s a sur-
veyor in Providence, R. I., where he married a daughter 'of commodore Whipple. He
was land-surveyor of Ohio in 1786; one of the founders of Marietta in 1788- col. of
militia and sheriff for 14 years.


SPRUCE, ESSENCE OF, AND SPRUCE-BEER. The essence of spruce is obtained by
boiling the green tops of the black spruce (abies nigra) in water, and then concentrating
the decoction by another boiling without the spruce tops. The young shoots of this iir,
like most others of its family, are coated with a resinous exudation, which is dissolvi d
in the water. The beer is made by adding the essence of spruce to water in which
sugar or treacle has been dissolved, in the proportion of about 4 oz. of essence of spruce
to 10 Ibs. of sugar, or 3 qts. of treacle, and 10 or 11 gals, of water, with about half a pint
of yeast. Various spices are used for flavoring. A similar beverage is made largely in
then, of Europe from the buds of the Norway spruce (>''/. .s <,'<; .-../>, and is known as
.black beer, that of Dantzic being the most famous. The anti-scorbutic beer of the Rus-
sian army pharmacopoeia is made by mixing spruce tops and fresh horse-radish root with
common beer, ginger, and calamus aromatints being added for flavoring, and after fer-
mentation a little cream of tartar, tincture of mustard, and proof spirit.

SPUILZIE, in the law of Scotland, is the taking away of the movable goods in the
possession of another against his will, and without any legal authority. Whenever a
spuilzie has been committed, an action of damages may be hroui'-ht against the wrong-
doer, not only for restoration of the goods, but for all the profits which the owner might
have made with the goods in the meantime. This action must be brought within three
years, but the action for ordinary damages may be brought within 40 years.

SPUNGING-HOUSES are, in the law of England, the private houses of the bailiffs, who
may detain there a debtor who liar, been arrested for debt for 24 hours, to admit of hie
or his friends' arranging to settle the debt; and the name is derived from the extortion
often practiced in this state on the debtor.

SPUR, an apparatus fastened to the heel of a horseman, for goading the horse. It is
much less used than formerly. All cavalry soldiers wear spurs; but their use. except in
the heat of an actual charge, is discouraged as much as possible. In the days of chivalry,
the use of the spur was .imited to knights, and it was among the emblems of knighthood.
To win his spurs, was for a man to earn knighthood by galiant conduct. The
degradation of a knight involved the hacking olt of his spurs; and the servlnr before a
knight of a pair of spurs on a dish, was a strong hint by his host that ho had outstayed
liis welcome.


SPTJEGE, Eupliorbia. a genus of plants of the natural order cvphorbiftcav. having mo-
rr.jcious naked flowers, the male flowers membranous, and surrounding a trieorc: us
stalked female flower, thc'whole placed within a cup-shaped involucre. The fruit has
three valves aud three cells, the cells one-seeded, and bursting elastic ally. The species
are very numerous, natives of warm and temperate climates, mostly herbaceous, but
some of them woody. About 12 species are natives of Britain. All contain a resinous
milky juice, which in most is very acrid.


SPURGEOX, CHARLES HADDOX, a celebrated preacher, was b. at Kelvcdon, Essex,
in 1834. Intended by his family for the office of an Independent minister, his own sym-
pathies drew him toward the Baptists, whose connection he joined in 1850. lie became
at once an active tract-distributor and school-teacher; aud, removing to Cambridge in
1851, began to deliver cottage sermons in the neighborhood. The popularity of the
" boy-preacher" was almost immediately established; and at the age of 18 he had charge
of a small Baptist congregation in the village of Waterbeach. In 1854 he entered upon
the pastorate of the New Park street- chapel, London, where his preaching proved so
attractive, that, in two years' time, the building had to be greatly enlarged. His hear-
ers continuing to increase, the Surrey music hall was for some time engaged for his use;
and finally his followers built for him his well-known "Tabernacle," in Newington
Butts, opened in 1861. The evangelistic and philanthropic agencies in connection with
this immense chapel comprise the Stockwell orphanage, of which Spurgcon is president;
a pastor's college, where hundreds of young men are trained for the ministry under Spur-
geon's care; the Golden lane mission, etc. Spurgeon continues to preach in the taber-
nacle every Sunday to thousands of hearers. His sermons have been published weekly
since 1854, aud yearly volumes have been issued since 1856. They have bad an enor-
mous circulation, and man}' of them have been translated into various languages. He
has also written John Plntyhman's Talk; Morning by Morning, Evening by Evening; The
Treasury of David; Lectures to my Students; The Saint and the Saviour, etc. ; and since
1865 he has,edited a monthly magazine, The Sword and the Trowel.

SPURN HEAD, the name given to the extreme point of a long. low, narrow, and
shingly peninsula in the s.c. of Yorkshire, at the mouth of the Humber, 24 m. s.e. of
Hull. Two liirht-houses have been built here, one of which is in lat. 53' 84 7" u., and
long. 7' 2" east.

SPURREY, Spergula, a genus of plants which has been variously ranked by botanists
in the natural orders cnryophyllete, illecebraccce, and crassulae&s. The species are
annuals, dichotomously branched, or with whorled branches; their leaves linear-filiform,
in clustered whorls, with membranaceous stipules; the flowers in terminal divaricating
,eon'mbs. The flowers have a calyx of five sepals, five white petals, five or ten stamens,
and' five styles; the capsule is five-valved, with numerous round seeds, surrounded with
a membranous border. COMMON SPUKKEY, or YARH (S. a-r Ken-sis), is plentiful in corn-
fields, especially on light stony or sandy soils in Britain and most parts of Europe. In
some parts of Europe a larger variety is frequently sown for fodder, and is much relished
by cattle.

SPUUZHEIM, JOHA^N GASP AK. a German physician and phrenologist, was b. near
Treves, Dec. 31, 1776. While studying medicine at Vienna he was introduced to Dr. F.
J. Gall (q.v.), whose pupil, and afterward colleague, he became, in investigating the
structure and functions of the brain (see PHRENOLOGY), in lecturing on the subject, and
in writing for the press. In 1807 they settled in Paris, but parted in 1813; and next year
Spurzheim came to England, where he published The Physiognomical System of Drs. Gall
and Spurzheim (Lond. 1815), Outlines of the same (1815), and a treatise on fnsamty (1817), -
The first of these works having been severely handled by Dr. John Gordon in no. 49 of
the Edinburgh Reciew, Spurzheim proceeded to Edinburgh, and, in the lecture-room of
his critic, demonstrated the reality of the anatomical discoveries which had been denied
and ridiculed. To the same and other opponents, he replied in An Examination of the
Objections made in Britain against the Doctrines of Gall and Spursheirn (Edinburgh, 1817).
It was about this time, and under his tuition, that George Combe (q.v.) became a student
of phrenology. After lecturing in many British and Irish cities, Spurzheim returned,
in 1817, to Paris; but from 1825 till his death he resided much in England, teaching and
defending his opinions in lectures and books. In 1832 he went to America for the same
purpose, and began his labors at Boston, but was cut off by fever on Nov. 10 in that
year. Besides the English works already mentioned, he wrote: Elementary Principles
of Educa'ion (Edinburgh. 1821; 2d ed.. Lond. 1828; Freach translation, Paris, 1822);
Phrenology (Lond. 1825); Philosophical Principles of Phrenology (1825); Phrenology in,
Connection with the Study of Physiog norny (1826); Anatomy of tJie Brain (1826), supple-

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 172 of 203)