Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 173 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 173 of 203)
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mented in 1829 by an appendix, with Remnrks on Charles Bell's Animadversions on Phre-
nology; Outline* of Phrenology (ISST); and Skctchofthe Natural Lairsof Man (1828). Some
of these were reprinted at Boston. His French works (besides those written jointly with
Gall) are: Obs. fun 1 la Folie (Paris, 1818); Obs. sur la Phrenologie (1818); Essm Pdiloso-
pliiqne stir hi Nature Morale et Intellcctnelle de VJIomme (1820) ;. and Manuel de Phrermlogi*
(1832). Sec Phren. Jour., vol. viii. p. 126; For. Quart. Itev., vol. ii. p. 15; Memoir of Spura-
htim, by A, Carmichael (Dublin, 1833); aud Combe's System of Phrenology.



."7 \h Spur-e.

Syuare.

SPUYTEN DUYYIL CREEK, the channel through which the TT;;. 1 : on river passes
into the Harlem river, and thence into Lout; Island sound. Its s. margin is the n. shonj
of Manhattan island, and it is included within the limits of Xew York city. Ik-ing nar-
row and subject to sudden Haws of wind, in former times it was thought to he a .-e\rro
trial of a sailing master's skill to attempt to carry a vessel through. r i'lie name is said to
be derived from an oath of an old Dutch ship-master that he would make the passage
in Kjnli' of tic <!< oil.

SPY, in Avar, is a useful hut not highly honored auxiliary, employed to ascertain the
state of an enemy's alr'airs, and of his intended operations. Spies have heen used in ail
wars from the time \vheu .Moses sent Joshua on .such a purpose to the present time. Their
employment is quite recognized hy the law of nations as interpreted by Grotius, Vattel,
and Martens; nor is it held to be any dishonor to a general to avail him>eif of their ser-
vices. On the other hand, the spy himself is looked upon as an outlaw, and one devoid
of honor. If taken by the enemy, he is put to death iguominiously and without mercy.
As, however, the calling is so dangerous, and so little redounds to honor, it is never per-
missible, for a general to compel by threats any person, whether of his own or the hostile
party, to act as spy; but he is at liberty to accept all such services when prott'ercd. A
spy is well paid, lest he betray his employer. In the British armv spies are usually con-
trolled hy the quartermaster-general. Martial law, though distinct < noiu'h in Border-
ing the death of a spy, is not Clear in defining what constitutes a spy. A man not of
the enemy within tiie enemy's lines, and in the enemy's uniform, would prc.-umably be
a spy. If in civil dress, and unable to give a good account of himself, his chance of
hanging would be considerable; but if found in one camp in the uniform of the opposite
side, he may not be treated otherwise than as a prisoner of war, or at least as a deserter
from i he enemy.

Both as regards honor and penalties, it would seem that spies ought in fairness to he
divided into two classes first, those who betray their own country to an enemy; >ec-
ondly, those who, being enemies, contrive surreptitiously to obtain infouuatiou by pene-
trating into the opposing army. The first class are traitors of a d-.-ep dye. for whom no
ignominious death is too bad; but the scond class are often bra\e men, who dare much
in the service of their country. It is unfair to accord them the same treatment as the
traitors.

SQUAD (diminutive of squadron) is any small number of men assembled for the pur-
poses of drill or inspection. A troop or company of soldiers should be divided into as
many squads as there are officers or sergeants at hand to drill them. The i<.irktc<(i'dxi/n<n/.
comprises recruits not yet fitted to take their places in the regimental line.

SQUADRON (Ifal. squailm, from Lat. quadra, a square), in military language, denotes
two troops of cavalry. It is the unit by which the force of cavalry with an army is
always computed. Three or four squadrons constitute a regiment. The actual strength
of a squadron varies of course with that of the component troops; but it ranges from
120 to 200 sabers.

In naval affairs a squadron is a section of a fleet, and constitutes the command of a
junior flag-oih'cer or commodore.

SQUALTJS AND SQUALID^. See SHARK.

SQUAMIPENNES. See CH.KTODONTIDJE.

SQUARE, in military evolutions, is the forming of a body of men into a rectangular
figure, with several ranks or rows of men facing on each side. \Vith men of ordinary
firmness a square should resist the charges of the heaviest horse. The formation is not
new, for a (ircehn syntatrma was a solid square of 16 men in every direction; but in
modern warfare the solid square, having been found cumbrous, h .s Iven ahan.lom-d for
the hollow square, with oflicers, horses, colors, etc., in the center. The front rank kneels,
and the two next stoop, which enables five ranks of men to maintain a rolling lire upon
an advancing enemy, or to pour in a murderous volley at close quarters.

SQUARE, in geometry. See PABAXJUBLOOKAK.

SQUARE AND SQUARE ROOT are particular ca>es of inri>Jiii;,>n mnJ n;>J>it!m) (q.v.), in
which the second power and root are alone involved. The process by which the square
root of a number is obtained resembles division, differing only by the circumstance that
the divisor is changed at each successive step. The- rule adopted in arithmetic is deduced
from algebra in the following manner: The square of a -f- b is J r 2ii/> -f- /<', which may
be written 2 -f-//(2rt -f- b); and to find the square root of the latter we have merely to
gubtraet a portion (</-), taking care that it be a square number, and forming a divisor
with twice the square root of this portion (2//) increased by (,',) tin- remainder of the root
(which, in arithmetic, must be found by trial, as in division), and put'irg (.') the remain-
der of the root now found, in the quotient, proceed as in division. This mode of obtain-
ing a divisor from the part of the root already obtained (-/). ami the part ii'-xt to be
obtained (b), and employing it, must be repeated till the whole square root is found.
In the extraction of the square root in arithmetic it is assumed that the squares of the
nine digits an- known, and also that the square of a number contains cither t wice, or one
less than twice, us many digits as the number itself contains, the former being the ease
when the square number has au even number of digits, the latter when the number of



Square, P? \ Q

Squilla. < *

dibits is odd. By dividing, then, a number into periods of two figures each, we can at
once see how many digits its root coutairs. To illustrate the method of operation
adopted in arithmetic and algebra, let the square root of 128,881 be required; remem-
bering that the square of a -f- b -\- c is a 2 -f 2<ib -f- tf + 2(a -f b)c + c* :

13,88.81(300 + 50 (or 350) -f 9 = 359 a = 300 12,88,81(300 = a

(a 2 =) 300 2 - i>0000 a -f b (or a -f b) + c _300 90000 50 - b

38S81 2a + 6 = 650 tt^ssi j|.

(2a6 + 6 s =) 2X300X50 + 50 2 = 3^500 50 32500 3o'J



_

(2(a + 6)c + 1-) 6381 2(a+6)+c = r09 )<J381

X 350X9 + 0" = 6381 C381

In the common arithmetical mode the zeros are omitted, and we subtract from 12 the
square nearest to it, not recognizing the portion of the root, 3, as more than a digit of
units till the next period. 88, has been brought down for the second step, when it is evi-
dent that the 3 is at leant 3 tens, and consequently the 6 in the divisor represents 60 i
similarly, it is only at the commencement of the third step that we find the 5 to repre-
sent 50, and the 3, 300, A comparison of the above examples will show the agreement
and difference between the two modes.

SQTTABE-PIERCED, in heraldry, a term used to designate a charge perforated with a
square-opening, so as to show the field. A cross square-pierced is often improperly
confounded with a cross quarter- pie reed, where the intersecting part of the cross is not
merely perforated, but entirely removed.

SQUABES, METHOD OF LEAST, in astronomy, the best mode hitherto discovered of
obtaining the most correct result from a number of observations upon any phenomenon.
These observations are assumed to differ slightly from -each other, and to be all of equal
value, that is, taken under equally favorable conditions, and with equal instruments.
The ordinary and long-established mode of approximating to the truth in such rases is
by finding the arithmetic mean, and accepting.it as the correct result: but in all eases
where the result required does not come directly from observation, but requires to be
discovered by calculation, this simple and useful method is inapplicable, and that of
"least squares," which gives more probable corrections, is adopted. The method is
founded on a theorem which was first propounded by Legend re in 18CG, more for the
sake of insuring uniformity among calculators than from any belief in its intrinsic value;
but it was afterward thoroughly discussed and pioved, by Gauss and Laplace, that "if
the mean of a number of distinct observations be so taken that the sum of the squares
of its differences from the actual observations (generally designated eii-orx) shall be a
minimum, this mean will be, under these circumstances, ihe corrcclest obtainable value. "
The process by which the mean thus obtained is shown to be the most trustworthy
approximation is too long for insertion here; but 'it may not be undesirable to give an
example of the most common form of the method as occurring in astronomy. Let there
be a scries of equations

X = x + >/ -4- 3s,

X, = 3* -f- 2y -f- 52,

X 2 = 4z 4- y + 4z.

X, = - x + Sy + 82;

where the unknown quantities are x, y, and z, connected by various (Uie more the better)
equations with X, Xi, etc., quantities which must be determined by actual observation.
Suppose the values of the quantities thus found to be 3, 5, 21, and 14, then, since by
hypothesis all these four observations are erroneous, the errors are 3 X, 5 Xi,
21 - X s , 14 - X s , or, .

3 - x y - 22,

5 - 3.r - 2# - 62,

21 4x y 4z,

14 _|_ x - 3y - 82

The squares of these four errors are now added together; and. to find the values of x, y,
and z, which will render this sum (call it S) a minimum, we must differentiate S with
respect to x, y, and z in turn, and putting each of these partial differential coefficients
equal to zero, we obtain the three equations 88 -f- 27? -f- 8// -f- 302 =: 0; TG + Sr-t-
l.'i.y+gfo = 0, and 157 -f 30.r -f- 2oy-f-542 = 0; from which the most trustworthy
values of IT. y, and z can be found by common algebra. For a full view of the whole
of this subject, see a paper by Mr. Ellis in the Cambridge Transactions, vol. vhi.

SQUASH. See GOURD.

SQUASH BUG, a hetnintcroiis insect which infests squash, pumpkin, and other like
plants. It belongs to tho family corehlcp, and is about six-tenths of an inch long and
about In If as broad; rusty black above, dingy (>r':or .yellow beneath. It emits a strong
and offensive odor, which is sup'x>s"d to be due to the presence of organic foi mates in
the secretion*. It passes the winter in crevices rrul holes, in a torpid state, and when
the squash Vines p'.it f<>rih a few rough leaves i'i (he spring, it collects beneath them and
lays eggs, which it fastens in clusters to tho under side. Another kind, the striped
squash bug, is a coleopterous insect., diabrothica vittaia. It is much smaller but more
destructive.



Square.
Squilla.

SQUATTERS, the name given in the Australian colonies to the sheep-farmers who
occupy, the unsettled lauds as sheep-runs under lease from government. See NEW SOUTH
WALES, VICTORIA.

SQUID. See CALAMAKT, ante.

SQULEB, EPIIKAIM GEOUGE, LL.D., American author and archaeologist, was b. at
Bethlehem, N. Y., June 17, 1821. In his youth, he was a school-teacher and engineer.
and in 1840 was editor of The Mechanic, at Albany; in 1843, of the Hartford Journal;
and in 1844, of the Scioto Gazette, in Ohio. His attention being attracted to the antiqn
ties of the Scioto valley, he made an exploration of similar monuments through i. ;
Mississippi valley, an account of which was published in 1848, forming the first volun ;
of the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. He made similar explorations in Is'ew
York and Connecticut; and on being appointed charge d'affaires to Gautemala and other
states of Contra! America, he used his official position as a means of making extensive
geographical and archaeological explorations In those interesting regions. On visiting
Europe in 1851, he was honored with the gold medal of the French geographical society,
and made a member of other learned societies. Returning to America (1833), he sur-
veyed a railway route through Honduras, and drew up the treaty between that country
and England for the retrocession of the Bay islands. Among his works are Nicara-
gua : iti People, Scenery, Ancient Monuments, and Proposed Inter-oceanic Canal (1862);
The Serpent Symbol, or Worn/tip of the Reciprocal Principles of Nature in America (1852);
Notes on Central America (1854); Waikna, or Adventures on the Mosquito Shore (1855);
Question Anglo- America ine (1856); Tfie States of Central America (1857); the report of
the Honduras survey (1859); a work on tropical fibers (1861); Honduras 1870; Peru
(1876); articles in the Enclydopcedia Britannica; etc.

SQUILL, Scilla, a genus of bulbous-rooted plants of the natural order Liliacav, nearly
allied to hyacinths, onions, etc., and having a spreading perianth, stamens shorter than
the perianth, smooth filaments, a 3-parted ovary, and a 3-coruered capsule with three
many-ceded cells, Many of the species are plants of humble growth, with scapes like
thos3 of hyacinths, and beautiful flowers. Of these, two are natives of Britain : 8.
terna, which is common on the western and northern coasts, and particularly in Orkney
and Shetland, and has fragrant flowers of a deep blue color; and S. autumnalis, .whicli
grows chiefly on the coasts of tin s. of England, and has pinkish purple flowers. /-'.
oifdia is a very doubtful native of Britain, but adorns hill-pastures and borders of wood-i
in many parts of Europe with its blue flowers in early spring. 8. amoena is another ver/
beautiful species found in many parts of Europe. Few plants are better adapted tlua
these for the adorning of flower-borders, or for house-culture. Very different in habit
from these is the OFFICINAL SQUILL (S. maritima, or Urginea SciWi), a native of the
sandy shores of the Mediterranean, which has a scape from two to four ft. high, with a
raceme of many whitish flowers, and large leaves. The bulb is of the size of a man's
fist, or sometimes as large as a childs head, and contains a viscid jnire so acrid as to
blister the fingers if much handled, while the vapor arising from it irritates the nose
and eyes. Squill was used in medicine by the ancients, and continues to be so still.
The bulb is dug up in autumn, divided into four parts, the center being cut out as being
inert, and the remainder being cut into thin slices, which are quickly dried by a gentle
heat. It is imported from Malta and other Mediterranean ports; also from St. Peters-
burg and Copenhagen. The dried slices are white or yellowish white, slightlv translu-
cent, scentless, disagreeably bitter, brittle and easily pulverizable if very dry. The
chemical composition of Squill is not accurately known, its most active principle being
a very acrid, poisonous, resiuoid substance, soluble in alcohol, but not in ether. What-
ever its ac;ive ingredients may be, they are taken up by alcohol, vinegar, and the dilute
acids. This medicine is prescribed as a diuretic and expectorant, and occasionally as
an emetic; but it must be recollected that in moderately large doses it acts as anarcotico-
irritant poison, 24 grains having proved fatal. When given as a diuretic, it is usually
prescribed in combination with digitalis and calomel, when it seldom fails to produce ail
increased secretion of urine, while at the same time it promotes the absorption of the
effused fluid in the dropsy, which is generally present when diuretics are ordered. Its
use is counter-indicated if inflammatory symptoms are present. Its dose MS a diuretic is
from one to three grains of the powdered' bulb, or about twenty minims of the tincture.
As an expectorant, it is much employed in the subacute stages and chronic forms of
pulmonary affections, and is very serviceable in bronchitis and pneumonia of children.
From its property of promoting the secretion of mucus, it gives relief by facilitating the
expectoration in cases of asthma, etc., in which the sputa arc viscid. In these cas >. it
is usually associated with some of the more stimulating expectorants, as ^-nepi r
sesquicarbonate of ammonia. As an expectorant, the <io.e of the powdered squill
should not exceed one grain, repeated several times daily. For children, the syrup, in
doses of from 10 to 30 minims, may be given. As its action as an emetic is uncertain,
it .should not be prescribed with the view of inducing vomiting if other and more certain
remedies are at hand.



SQUILLA, a genus of crustaceans, of the order stomajwda, the type of a family,
lida, to which the name mantis crab, mantis shrimp, and tua-manti^, are popularly given,



Squinch. >-~A

Sraddha.

from the strong general resemblance to the insects of the genus mantis (q.v.). The
form is elongated ; the carapace only covers the anterior part of the thorax, the tatter
part of which is formed of rings like the abdomen; the eyes are carried on stalks: the
claws are very large, and furnished with spines, forming powerful instruments of pre-
hension; the tail is expanded into a broad h'u. The species are numerous, and mostly
inhabit tropical seas. A species about 7 in. long, S. mantis, is found in the Mediter-
ranean. The squillce are extremely active, and very bold and voracious.

SQUINCH, small arches or corbelled courses across the angles of square towers, to
bring in the form to carry an octagonal spire, lantern, etc. See PENDEXTIVE.

SQUINTING, or STRABISMUS, is a well-known and common deformity, which may be
defined as a want of parallelism in the visual axes, when the patient endeavors to direct
both eyes to an object at the same time. The squint is said to be convergent when the
eye or eyes are directed toward the nose, and divergent when they are directed toward
the temple, and is termed single or double according as only one eye or both are displaced.
The divergent form is comparatively rare, except in consequence of a prolonged loss of
sight of one eye. The causes of this affection are various. Intestinal irritation, such as
the presence of worms, will often induce it slightly in children. In other cases it may
be traced to the temporary cerebral irritation produced by teething; and it is a very com-
mon symptom in hydroct-phalus and other serious head affections. ' Among other causes
are a want of equal normal visual power in both eyes, in extreme short sight; but from
extensive observation with the ophthalmoscope, Mr. Dixon, surgeon to the royal
ophthalmic hospital, Moot-fields, has come to the conclusion, that "in the great major-
ity of instances of confirmed squint existing in children, the optic nerves themselves are
ill-developed, being usually smaller than natural, of a more or less oval form, and of a
dusky color." Holmes's System of Surgery, vol. ii. p. 890. If the squint is only tempo-
rary, and possibly arises from intestinal irritation, the bowels must be well cleared out,
and tonics subsequently given. If it is due to some peculiarity in the visual focus of
the eyes, it may be removed by the judicious use of glasses. " In every case," says Mr.
Dixou, "a careful ophthalmoscopic examination is the first duty of the surgeon; and he
should also take ever}' possible care to ascertain that no organic disease exists in the
brain or orbital nerves; and that there is no tumor in the orbit, mechanically burdening
the movements of the eye." The surgical operation for the cure of squint consists in
the division of the muscle which, by permanently drawing the eye inward or outward,
and overpowering its antagonistic muscle, induces the deformity. It is better to dispense
with the use of chloroform in this operation if the patient have sufficient nerve to bear
the operation without flinching, as in that case the doubt that sometimes arises as to
whether the muscle has been sufficiently divided can beat once solved by directing the
patient to attempt inversion of the eye; but in the great majority of cases chloroform
is found necessary.

SQUINTS, narrow apertures cut in the walls of churches (generally about 2ft. wide), to
*nable persons standing in the aisles to see the high altar. 'These openings are always
in the direction of an altar.

SQUIRE, an abbreviated term for esquire (q.v.). The same word is also popularly
applied in England to country gentlemen; and in the United States of America tomagis
trates and lawyers, and sometimes to judges and justices of the peace.

SQUIRREL. Scinrus, a Linnaean genus of rodent quadrupeds, now the fatnih r scvtrida.
They belong to the section of rodentia having perfect clavicles, and are further charac-
terized by a long bushy tail: the fore-paws furnished with four toes, which have curved
claws, and a tubercular thumb; the hind-legs long, their feet with five toes; two incisors
in each jaw; four molar teeth on each side in each jaw, simple, with tuberculous crowns,
and a fifth in the front of the upper jaw, which soon falls out. Most of the species
commonjy carry tlie tail curved over the body, whence the Greek name xkiouros (xkia, a
shade, and ou-ra, a tail), of which the English squirrel is a corruption. The species are
numerous, aod are found in almost all parts of the world, except Australia; some
inhabiting temperate and even cold regions, while some belong to tropical countries.
Squirrels are very active and lively creatures, at once shy and pert, very adroit in hiding
themselves on the appearance of danger, but resembling monkeys in their inquisitive
curiosity. They inhabit woods, and mostly spend their lives in trees, which they climb
with wonderful agility, running along the branches, and leaping from tree to tree.
Their running is a kind of bounding, and the wfl is then stretched out, as it is also in
their leaps from branch to branch, which are often to great distances. The flying
squirrels are already noticed. Even the true squirrels resemble them in spreading out
their limbs and tail to the utmost in leaping, particularly when they descend from a high
branch to the ground, and they thus leap from a great height without injury. Some
ptcies, however, seldom ascend trees, but burrow in the ground, and are further dis-
tinguished by having cheek-pouches, while the tail is shorter than in the tree-squirrels,
and its hair not so distinctly arranged in two lateral rows. These ground squirrels form
the genus tnmias. All the squirrels feed on fruits and seeds, the young shoots of trees,
and other such vegetable substances ; although they sometimes vary their diet by plun-
dering birds' nests, and not only sucking egg?*, but devouring young birds. They are



751

also fond of the larvae of insects. In eating they often sit erect, and hold the food
in their fore-paw.s. Tin- hardest nut presents no difficulty to their sharp strong teeth.
Jlany of the species, and probably I'll those of temperate and cold climates, lay up
- for winter. The COMMON SQUIUUEL (.S. rnltjurix) of Europe i- a beautiful littl'e
animal, about 8 A- in. in. length without the tail, winch is fully 6 in. long, besides being
apparently lengthened by its long hair. It is brownish-n d on the upper parts, and
white bene:itl:; the color changes more or less in winter to a grayi/h-lrown, and in
northern countries to gray, and even to white. The long hairs winch fringe the cars
and are drawn up in to a line point, are longer in winter thnn in summer. The common
equirrel is widely distributed over the northern parts of the old world. :;iul is plentiful
in England, and in some of the southern parts of Scotland, into which, however, it is
said to have been introduced. It is generally protected and its pnx nee dished in the
vicinity of mansions; although it often does considerable injury in plantations by gnaw-
ing oil' the top shoots of trees, particularly of firs and pines. Morning is : i ::: rally the
time of the squirrel's greatest activity, except in winter, when it p refers the warmest
hours. Although numbers are often seen together, they live mostly in pairs, which
seem to continue attached throughout life. The squirrel makes a beautiful nest uf
moss, twisrs, and dry leaves, curiously interwoven, most frequently in the fork of a tree



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 173 of 203)