Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 174 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 174 of 203)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

at a consiaeru hie height from the ground. Here the young are produced, three, four, or
live at a birth, in the middle of summer. They continue \\iih their parents till the
spring of next year. The winter hoards of the squirrel, containing nuts, beech-mast,
grain, and the like, are usually in holes in the ground about the roots of trees, not far
from its ordinary abode, the same pair of squirrels having ofien a number of these
hoards. The seeds of tirs form a very considerable part of the winter-food of squirrels,
and to obtain them, the scales are gnawed away from the cones. The squirrel is easily
tamed, and is an amusing pet. It is almost hi constant motion, except when asleep.
The only other European species is the ALPINE SQUIKKKI. << s '. alpinve), a native of the
Alps and Pyrenees, about the same size with the common squirrel, deep brown, speckled
with yellowish white. ]S*orth America abounds in species of squineK 'I he GKAY
Sqi IKKKJ, (X. 11,,'nrnlnriiix) occurs in the northern parts of the United Slates, and as far
north as Hudson's bay. It is much larger than the European squirrel, the whole length
with the tail being nearly two feet. It is usually light gray, with yellowish-brown head,
and longitudinal stripes of yellowish brown, but it is often found almost entirely black,
Its habits sire very similar to those of the common squirrel, but it is. more gregarfoua
Gray squirrels sometimes visit corn-fields in large numbers, ar.d make groat devastation.
In Pennsylvania an old law jrsive a reward of three) cncc a head for every squirrel
destroyed", and in the year 17-19 no smaller a sum than 8. 000 was paid out of the treasury
on this account, so that 640. COO squirrels must have been killed. Hosts of this spcci< s of
squirrels soinciiiiKs leave their native wocds, and migrate Kke the lemming (q.v.) of
northern Europe, v, hether urged by scarcity of food or through some other unknown
impulse. These migrations usually* occur in autumn, and are regarded with great hor-
ror by farmers. The squirrels advance in a straight course; mountains arc no imj rdi-
ment, and although they swim with difficulty, they cross large rivers and narrow bays
of lakes. The C'.UJOI.INA GKAY SqviUKr.i. (>'. r<'/-"'Y//r//.>.-/*) is a rather smaller species,
abundant in the south-eastern parts of the United States, where its flesh is highly < siet
A number of other species are found in different parts of North Amcricsi. and very
beautiful species occur in tropical countries, some of which live mostly in palms. Of
ground squirrels, several species are natives of Isortli America, of which the best
known is the Cmrrixu SqutiuiEL, HACKEE, or CHIPMVNK ^m, :. I.>.*-cr/\ abundant
in almost all the eastern parts of the United States, and as far a- .~,o n. iM. Its length,
with the tail, is fully ten inches; the general color gray, longitudinally striped with black
and yellowish white. It derives its name from its chipping or chatterini: cry, which is
like that of a young chicken. It seldom ascends trees: and is not troublesome to the
farmer, as it does not attack standing corn, but gleans the fields, and feeds on fallen
nuts in the woods. It burrows near the roots of trees, and several squirrels generally
inhabit one burrow, which is deep and winding, and in which store* are laid up for win-
ter use. In carrying nuts or other food to its retreat, it msikes use of its ( heck-pouches,
cramming and distending them to the utmost. A very similar species (T. ttriatut)
inhabits Siberia.

The fur of some of the American squirrels is an article of commerce. It is one of th
cheapest kinds of fur.


S RADDHA (from the Sanskrit s'raddhd, faith, belief) is the name of the funeral cere-
mony of the Hindus, in which balls of food, and water, are ofTcn-d to the deceased
ancestors of the sacrifice! 1 , or to the pitr'i* or manes collectively. It is especially per-
formed for a parent recently deceased, or for three paternal ancestors, and is sup;
necessary to secure the ascent and residence of the souls of the deceased in a world
appropriated to the manes. But this ceremony is observed also on occasions of rejoicing
as well as of mourning; and hence various S raddhas arc enumerated vi/. 1. S raddhaa
which are constant, or the daily offerings to the manes in general, and those offered on
the eighth lunation of every mouth; 2. Sraddhaa which are occasional, as those for a



relative recently deceased, or those to be performed on various domestic occurrences, es
the birth of a son, etc.; and 3. S'raddhas which are voluntary, performed for a special
object, such as the hope of religious merit, etc. The proper seasons for the worship of
the manes collectively are the dark fortnight or period of the moon's wane, the day of
new moon, the summer and winter solstices, eclipses, etc. The presentation of the ball
of food to the deceased, and to his progenitors in both lines, is the office of the nearest
male relative, and u the test and title of hu claim to the inheritance. See for furl her detail,
II. H. Wilson's Cflotssary of Judicial and Revenue Terms (Lond. 1855), under S rdddha.

S BAVAXA (from the Sanskrit s'rv, to hear) is the name of the disciples of Buddha,
who, through the "hearing" of his doctrine, and by practicing the four great Buddhistic
truths, attain to the qualilication of an arhat, or Buddhist saint. From among the
number of the disciples of Buddha, 80 are called the mahds'rdvakcut, or the great
s'ravakas. The s'ravakas are entitled to the predicate dyushmat, or " one possessed of
(long) life."

S'KTJTI (from the Sanskrit s'ru, hear, hence, literally, the hearing, or that which is
heard) is, in Sanskrit literature, the technical term for all those works which are con-
sidered to have been revealed by a deity. It applies, therefore, properly speaking, only
to the Mantra and Bralimana portion of the Vedas; but at a later period, it is applied
likewise, if not especially, to the Upanishads. See VEDA.

SS, COLLAR OF, a collar composed of a series of the letter S in gold, either linked
together or set in close order, on a blue and white ribbon, with the ends connected by
two buckles and a trefoil-shaped link, from which hangs a jewel. Such collars have
been much worn in England by persons holding great offices in the state, as well as by
the gentry of various ranks, from esquires upward. They are of frequent occurrence on
sculptured monuments; but the origin of the device has not been satisfactorily explained.
Among the numerous conjectures which have been formed regarding its meaning, one
is, that tlie letter S stands for " souveraigne," the favorite motto of Henry IV. ; others
have suggested "seneschal;" and M. Planche hints that it may, with equal probability,
owe its origin to the swan of the De Bohuns, that badge being found in one of the
earliest examples of this collar (1402), pendent round the neck of the poet Gower, in St.
Saviour's cliurch, Southwark. The collar had, without doubt, originally a Lancastrian
character. Collars of SS are still worn, with certain recognized distinctions, by the lords
chief justices, the lord chief baron of the exchequer, tiie lord mayor of London, the
heralds, and the sergeants- at-arms.

Paris; lady in waiting to the duchess of Maine, with whom she took part in a conspiracy
against the duke of Orleans. She was imprisoned in the Bastille, 1718-20. She married
baron de Staal in 1735. Her Memoirs are well known.

STA'BAT M'ATEB, a celebrated Latin hymn on the crucifixion, beginning

Stabat mater dolorosa
Juxta crucem lacrimosa
Dum pendebat films.

The Stabat Mater forms part of the service of the Roman Catholic church during passion-
week. Its authorship has been assigned to Jacopone, a Franciscan, who nourished in
the 13th century. It has been set to music by many composers of eminence. Pergo-
lese's Stabat Mater, written by that eminent musician on his death-bed, is justly celebrated
for its pathos and expression. Rossini's more secular Stabat Mater is also well known
to all lovers of music.

STABILITY AND T NSTABILITY. When a body rests upon a surface in such a man-
ner that a vertical fi'om its center of gravity falls within the largest polygon which can
be formed by joining the various points of contact of base and surface", it will stand;
but if the contrary is the case, it will fall, unless extraneously supported. If the base

of the body be a plane, and the supporting surface
convex, or vice vernd, or if both base and surface be
convex, there will be only one point of support, and if
the body be at rest, its center of gravity must be verti-
cally over the point of contact. Should a body so
placed receive a slight impulse, it will either oscillate
to and fro, ultimately returning to its original position,
or remove further and further from its original posi-
tion, showing a tendency not to return, or appear indif-
ferent to any one position. In the first case, the body
is said to be in stable, in the second case, in unstable,
and in the third, in neutral equilibrium. Fig. 1 shows
various illustrations of these three species. It will
appear at once that the predetermining cause of equi-
librium being of one rather than of another of these
species, is the tendency of the center of gravity of
every body to seek a lower position. In stable equili-
brium the center of gravity of the body may, and in
unstable equilibrium may not, attain a lower position, while in neutral equilibrium its


FIG. 1.


position continues unaltered. In illustration of the mode in which the species of equili-
brium possessed by a body which has received a slight impulse is determined, let us take
the case of a body with a spherical base resting upon a spherical surface (fig. 1); let 8
and O be the centers of the spherical surfaces respectively, and let A be their point of
contact (the center of gravity being consequently in the line SA, or in it produced
toward S, and after displacement, in the line S'A', produced if necessary), let the new-
position of S, after the body has been slightly displaced, be S', and the new point of
contact B; join OS, OS', S'A', and draw BD vertically, that is, parallel to OC. Then

A'D : A'S' :: OB : OS', or A'D= -^^ , that is, A'D=the product of the radii of the

two surfaces divided by their sum. Now should the center of gravity of the displaced
body fall between D and A', it will have a moment round B tending to restore the body
to its former position (tstabla equilibrium); should the center of gravity be beyond D from
A', its moment round B will tend to increase the displacement (unstable equilibrium);
while, if it fall in the line BD, it will still be above the point of contact, as it was at first,
and there will be no tendency either to return to, or to move further from, the original
position (neutral equilibrium). These conditions may be briefly expressed by the follow-
ing formulae, in which R is the radius of the supporting surface, ? of the spherical base
of the body, and X the distance of the center of gravity from the point A; when equilib-
rium is stable, X is less than ?- ; when unstable, X is greater than ~ ; and when

R-r-r R-f-r

neutral, X = - . From these formulae, the conditions of equilibrium of a body,


with a spherical base on a plane surface can be at once deduced by making R oo, the
three species of equilibrium being then represented in order by X less than r, X greater
than r, and X = ?; the simplest illustrations of these being respectively a segment of a
sphere, a tall cone on a spherical base, and a sphere.

STACCA'TO (Ital. detached), in music, a term implying a detached, abrupt mode of
performance. A certain amount of time is subtracted from the proper value of any
note played staccato, and a rest substituted. A dot placed over a note indicates that it

is to be played staccato: ^s~Jzr;^(l~- -^ ^ash i m pli es a greater degree of staccato:

+j *'

fa P_y.h- : r^~~L' aQ d a verv slight degree of staccato is expressed by uniting the dot

*/ L-*

with the slur: Ar *-* -i ; the slur being the sign of a legato expression, the con-

-/ " *
verse of staccato.

STA'CHYS, a genus of plants of the natural order IMatce, containing a great number
of species, mostly European, having a ten-ribbed calyx, with five nearly equal teeth, the
upper lip of the corrolla entire, and the lower lip three-lobed. Several species are natives
of Britain. S. sylratica is very common in shady places, a coarse, herbaceous
phant, sometimes called hedge nettle, with stem 2 to 3 feet high, ovate heart-shaped leaves
on long stalks, whorls of purple flowers, and unpleasant smell. S. ptiluxtris is
another very common British species growing in moist places, and sometimes proving a
very troublesome weed in 'meadows. The plant was formerly used as a vulnerary, and
has therefore the English name iron ndwort. Several species are not unfreqwntly to be
seen in flower-gardens. To this genus some botanists refer the COMMON BETONY or
WOOD BETONY (S. betonicn or belonica officinali*), plentiful in woods and thickets in
the southern parts of Britain, a plant one or two feet high, with hairy stem, oblong
heart-shaped leaves, whorls of purple or white flowers, and a fetid smell. It was for
merly much used in medicine. The roots in small doses, are emetic and aperient.

STADE, a small but very ancient t.. formerly fortified, in Prussian Hanover, near the
mouth of the Schwinge. a tributary of the Elbe. Pop., '75, 8,761.

The Stade dues were a toll or duty which used to be charged by the Hanoverian gov-
ernment on all merchandise carried up the Elbe to Hamburg. The original duties, ns
regulated by a treaty of date 1691, were comparatively lisrht. but they had been gradually
increased until they brought to Hanover a revenue of 40.000. After several modifica-
tions in 1844 and 1854, this vexatious toll was finally abolished in 1861. Hanover receiv-
ing a compensation equivalent to 30,000 annually, of which Great Britain paid one-
third, another third was contributed by Hamburg, and the remaining third divided pro-
portionally among the other countries that traded to the Elbe.

STADIUM, the course set apart for foot-races and all the other games except ing horse-
racing, which were wont to be celebrated at Olympia and other places in Greece; the
horse and chariot races being held in the hippodrome (q.v.). The stadium waa of the
U. K. XIII. 48

St a ilt holder. I- K 4

Staff. ***

same form as the hippodrome, and the arrangement of the spectators was similar. The
distance between the starting point and the goal was, in the Olympic stadium, about
600 Greek feet, and the stadia of other places adopted the dimensions of that at Olym-
pia. This distance of GOO Greek feet was adopted as the chief Greek measure of length,
and called a stadium. It was equivalent to 625 Roman feet, or 125 Roman paces; hence
the Roman mile of 1000 paces, contained exactly 8 stadia.

STADTHOLDEB (Ger. stadthalter. Dutch stadkouder, lieutenant or governor of a prov-
ince). In UK' German cantons of Switzerland, the name is given to the second civil
officer, who ranks next to the laudamman. In the republic ol the Seven United Prov-
inces, the chief magistrate or president of the union was called the stadhouder. In the
IGlh c. , when the tyranny of Ferdinand, duke of Alva, governor under Philip II.,
drove the principal towns into revolt, they chose William, prince of Orange, for their
governor, and with the view of letting it be understood that the revolt was not against
Philip, but against Alva, they conferred on William no higher title than that of stad-
houder. Ou the assassination of William in 1584. the provinces of Holland. Zceland, and
Utrecht agreeing to have one stadhouder appointed Maurice of Nassau to that office,
which came tacitly to be looked on as hereditary. The stadhouderate thus instituted
was considered to be at an end or in abeyance on the extinction of the line of William
I., by the death of William III. However, on the triumph of the Orange party over
the Republican in 1747, William IV., descended from a collateral branch "of the house
of Nassau, was proclaimed stadhouder, captain -general, and admiral-iii-chicf of the
Seven United Provinces, those dignities being made hereditary in his family. His son,
William V., the seventh stadhouder, was driven from his country by the French in 1795,
and resigned his office in 1802; since which lime the sladliouderate has never beeu
revived, the Netherlands having, at the congress of Vienna, been formed into a kingdom.

April 22, 1770. Her father was the celebrated M. Necker (q.v.) finance minister of Louis
XVI , in the times immediately preceding the Revolution. Her mother was a woman of
severe character, and from her earliest years subjected her to a discipline almost puri-
tanic in its rigor. The daughter, in consequence, had no very warm attachment for
her, but for M. Necker, who softened as Lt could by his indulgent tenderness the harsh
rule of his spouse, she entertaine,d the most ardent affection, regarding him then and
always with what was almost au idolatry of fondness and admiration. Her talents were
precociously developed, and while yet the merest girl, she would listen with eager and
intelligent interest to the conversation of the Parisian gatansvr\io used to frequent the
house of her lather. In 1786, she was married to the baron de Str.Cl-Holstein, Swudish
minister at Paris, an elderly gentleman, with whom her happiness was probably not
great, inasmuch as a few years after, a separation between them took place, two sons
and a daughter having been meantime the fruit of their union. In 17>8, she issued her
first Vfork, Lettre* sur les Ecrits et le Caractere de J. J. Rousseau, which are rather, a
a passionate eulogy of a girlish idol than a just and discriminating criticism.

Her sympathy with the revolution in its earlier stage of promise was profound, but
gave place, as its later enormities were developed, to a reaction of horror, which is
vividly set forth in. her subsequent Considerations surki Revolution Frangaise. Her grief
was extreme on the failure of the attempt to escape on the part of the royal family, and
the engaged in a secret scheme for securing them a flight to England. This, however,
caire to nothing, and she then, along with her father, betook herself to Switzerland,
his native country. The news of the king's execution inexpressibly shocked her, and
she sought to save the life of the queen by publishing Reflections sur le Proces de la Reive,
par Une Femme, which, however, was too late to be effective. In 1795 she published at
Lausanne, under the title Recuiil dc Morceaitx Detaches, a collection of her juvenile writ-
ings; and the year after a treatise De I' Influence des Passions sur le Bonhcur des Indi-
ri'Wf/ ct den Nations, a work full of originality and genius. In 1797, order having been
re'cstnbli-lK-d under the directory, she was once more in Paris. From the" first she dis-
trusted the designs of Napoleon, and her salon became the headquarters of the anti-
Bonapartist faction. In vain she was offered restitution of two million livres since 1788
due 1o her father from the ro\ r al treasury; she scornfully declined the bribe; and as
neither fear nor favor could le"ad her to disguise her hostility to him, it seemed well for
Nupoleon to rid himself of her. She was forbidden to live in Paris, and subsequently
(1802) exiled from France itself. Meanwhile, she had greatly increased her reputation
by the publication of her romance of Delphi IIP, and a work, Sur la Literature Considered
dan* ftt-x Uapptirta in-i'c, I' Hint Moral ct Politiqnc de.x Nations. She now, for two years,
traveled in Italy and in Germany, making at Weimar the acquaintance of Goethe,
Schiller, Herder, Wieland, etc. The death of her father in 1804 recalled her to Coppet,
in Switzerland. Subsequently she was permitted to return to Paris, and there, in 1807,
she published her famous Cor i tine., on V Italic, the success of which was instant and im-
mense, and won for her a really European reputation. As a bitter in the sweet of fame,
however, fiesh difficulties witli Napoleon occurred, and she was banished anew to C'op-
pet. Her son, the baron Auguste. then 17 years old, sought to intercede for his mother
in a personal interview granted him by the emperor, whose inexorable deliverance on
the occasion is too characteristic and amusing to beonii'.ted: "Avec I'cxaHatiou desa tete,

Start tholder.

la manie qu'elle a d'ecrire snr tout et d propos de nen elle pouvait se faire des proselytes;
j'ai da y veilier." And in candor it is to be admitted, despite of the shrieks which Lave
ever since been put forth about Napoleon's so-called " ungenerous perseculion," tuat he.
acted on the dictate of a sound prudential policy. A woman who would keep no terms
with him, who was uncompromising and fearless, and an influence by the weight of her
genius and reputation, was clearly in Paris, of all places, a phenomenon not to be tole-
rated by the head of a government such as his, more or less the sport of the hour, as
ahvay* in its ba.-as precarious. After this, when disgusted with Compel, where she found
h Tself subjected to a petty surveillance, Mine, de StaSl rushed restlesMy over
Europe to Vienna. Moscow, St. Petetsburg, thence through Finland to Stockholm, and
afterward to Lo.i.lon; where, in 1813, she published her great book, De C AUeiuugrm,
which had p -cviously been suppressed in Paris. As the first decisive revelation of the.
genius of Germany to the French people somewhat as the earlier writings of Mr. Car-
lyb revealed it to the reading public of Britain, this may perhaps rank as thu mo-t im-
porlant and influential of her works. Of her various experiences of travel, an in.cre.-t-
i.ig record is preserved in her Dtx Auntie d' K.rU. At the restoration she returne.i ;o her
b -loved Paris; from Louis XVIII. she met with a most gracious reception; and restitu-
tion was granted her of the two millions on her father's account before mentioned.
Soon after h'-r health failed; she sought its restoration in a visit to 1'aly i:i J8iG, but
without effect, an 1 oa July 14, 1817, she died at Paris. She was buried at C.>p;>.'t; and
by her will the fact was revealed that in 1813 siie had privately married M. de U >cca,
H French officer of hussars, ag >d 25, which may be looked upon as something of \\\\
escapad,- for a mature matron of 46. In this wedlock she gave birth to a son. M. dj
Itocca. survived h'-r only a few months. On the whole she iiad scantly been happy, a*
cursed with the " desires infinite and hopjs impossible" which make life little beiler
than a sad unfulfilled longing to many of her peculiar temperament and genius. Her
touching wail of "Jamais, jamais, je ne serai jamais aimie co.u.iu j'ainu " was a cry
out of her inmost heart. In this light there may perhaps, seem so. ne element of pathos
in tills in irriag -, which looks otherwise a little ridiculous.

Mine, de StaiM all just deduction from her claims being made must be ranked in
the first cla^s of female: genius. Without question of her real power and originality, in
the combination she presents of such a force of intellect as women have but raivly
exhibited, with depth and tenderness of sentiment seeking its nUui'al outlet in a rich,
and impassioned rhetoric, she may curtly, yet with clearness sufficient, be delined as a
sort of Rousseau in petticoats.

Her son published an edition of her works in 18 vols. in 1821, with a biographical
notice by Mine. Necker de Saussure. See Norris, Life and Times of Madame de Sia^l

STA?F, in music, the name given to the five parallel lines and four intermediate spaces
on which the characters indicating musical sounds are placed, the degrees of the staff
in !k-a;ing diiierenccs of pitch.

STAFF, in a military sense, consists of a body of skilled officers, whose duty it is to
combine and give vitality to the movements and mechanical action of the severaJ regi-
ments and drilled bodies composing the force. The distinction between an officer on
the stair of an army and a regimental officer is that the latter is concerned with his own
regiment alone, while the former deals with hi.; army, or section of an army exceeding a
regiment, and regulates the combined action of the several arms and bodies of men. A
good stalY is all-important to the success of a military enterprise.

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 174 of 203)