Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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The General Stuff of an army comprises the general in actual command, with the
subordinate generals commanding the several divisions ana brigades: as :>.s - is!ants to
these, the officers of the adjt.general's department i.e., the adjut. general, his
deputy, assistants, and deputy-assistants, if the army be large enough to require a!!.
Similarly, the officers of the quartermaster-general's department : the brigade-major; the
provost -marshal; and the judge advocate; and the controller (at the head of the civil de-
partments); the functions of all of whom arc described under their respective heads.
The head of the general staff of the British army is at present a field-marshal command-
ing in-chief, whose head-quarters are at the war ollice, of which department he i< an
e.c ojjicl'i member. He is responsible for the discipline of the army, and is assisted by the
general officers m command of the military districts in England and Scotland, the semi-
independent comniaader-in-chief in Ireland, and the com manders-in -chief in the various
foreign possessions and colonies. India forms a nearly independent command, under a
commaiuler-in-chief, whose head-quarters are in Bengal. There are subordinate com-
nmnders-in chief in Bombay and Madra-; and in each prcsidenev there are several mili-
tary divisions. A certain period of military service, and certain qualifications, are re-
quired in an officer before he can be appointed to the general stall', and a proportion of
the posts is given to officers who have passed the staff college. The fact of having
passed through it, however, is not held to constitute any claim to a staff appointment.

The Personal Staff consists of the aids-tic -camp and military secretaries to the re-
spective general officers. These officers are appointed, within certain iimits, by the gen-
erals whom they serve.

The Garrison Staff consists of the officers governing in fortresses and garrisons; as


commandants (q.v.), fort-majors (q.v.), town-majors (q.v.), fort-adjutants (q.v.), and

The Oivil or Departmental Staff includes those non-combatants officers who have to
provide for the daily requirements of the troops. These are the commissaries for sup-
plies and stores, chaplains, medical and veterinary departments. These departments are
described under their several names.

The Recruiting Staff consists of an inspector-general (at the war office), and of the
officers of the several brigade depots. The Pensioner Staff includes only the Maff officer*
of the enrolled force. The Regimental Staff includes the col., lieut.eol., adjui;.nt pay-
master, quartermaster, inspector of musketry, and medical officers. Bee LECHUITIXO,

In the French and most continental armies, the staff is divided into the etiit-majnr, or
general stalf and the intendaiice, under an intendant-yeuer<d. which comprises all the
civil departments. There is a regimental staff in addition. The want of concentration
of the civil departments often felt in the British service, led to the creation, in 1869, of
the control department, subsequently split into two branches, the commissariat (q.v.)
and the ordnance store departments. See INTENDANT.

In the navy, the staff of a fleet consists of the Hag-officers (q.v.), the flag lieutenants
(q.v.), and secretaries (q.v.fy also of the inspector-general of hospitals (see MEDICAL DE-
PARTMENT, NAVY),aud an inspector of machinery.

STAFFA, a celebrated islet on the west of Scotland, lies about 1 m. off the w.
coast of Mull. It forms an uneven tableland, rising at its highest to 144 ft. above the
water, 1| m. in circumference, and oval in shape. In the north-east, in the lee of
the prevailing winds, is a tract of low shore, stretching put ia beaches, and forming a
landing-place. The other parts of the coast are girt with cliffs of from 84 to 112 ft.
high. Regarded in sections, the rocks show themselves to be of three kinds conglom-
erated tufa forming the basement; columnar basalt, arranged in colonnades, which form
the fapades and the walls of the chief caves; and amorphous basalt, overlying the co-
lumnar basalt, but pierced here and there by the ends of columns and by angular blocks.
The most remarkable feature of the island is Fingal's or the Great Cave, the entrance to
which is formed by columnar ranges on each side, supporting a lofty arch. The en-
trance is 33 ft. wide, and 60 ft. high, and the length of the cave is 212 feet. The
floor of this marvelous chamber is the sea, which throws up flashing and many-colored
lights against the pendant columns, whitened with calcareous stalagmite, which form
the roof, and against the pillared walls of the cave.

STAFF COLLEGE is a government institution founded in 1858, about two m. from
Sandhurst, for the purpose of giving higher instruction to 30 (increased in 1870 to 40)
officers aspiring to appointments on the staff. It thus took the place, though more
effectively, of the old senior class at the royal military college. To be entitled to com-
pete for entrance, an officer must have bee^i five years in active service, must have passed
the qualifying examination for a captaincy, and must have the recommendation of his
commanding officer. A very serious examination decides which among the competitors
shall be admitted to the college, one only being eligible from any battalion. AVhile at
college, the students receive their regimental pay, and the whole educational charges
(about 8000 annually) are borne by the public. The course lasts two years. At the end
of each year, there is an examination, not competitive. After passing the staff college,
the officer is attached for duty, for a short period, to each of the arms with which be
may not have already served. He then becomes eligible for appointment to the staff as
opportunity may occur.

STAFF CORPS. During the wars of Wellington, the generals and staff officers were
aided by a staff corps composed of intelligent "officers and men who performed camp
duties, made reconnaissances, and executed other necessary labors for which regimental
officers or soldiers were unsuited. This corps died out after the peace. After the Cri-
mean war, there were three staff corps the commissariat staff corps, army hospital
corps, and military store staff corps which consisted of artificers, laborers, and order-
lie?, to aid in the work of their respective departments as butchers, ward masters, ar-
ciorers, copyists, &c. The first and last were merged in 1870 into the army service
corps. S. C. is also the name given to the English officers serving on the permanent
Indian establishment.

STAFFORD, a co. in central Kansas, drained by the Arkansas river in the n. w.,
and intersected by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railroad: 900 sq. m. ; pop. '80,
4,755 4,303 of American birth. 123 colored. It consists of level plains, fertile by the
water courses. Co. seat Saint John.

STAFFORD, a co. in n.e. Virginia, having the Potomac river for its e. boundary,
the Rappahannock on the s.w., drained also by Acquia creek; 260 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 7.210
7,146 of American birth, 1651 colored. It is intersected by the Richmond, Freder-
icksburg and Potomac railroad. Its surface is hilly and well timbered, lumber being
the principal source of revenue. The soil is moderately fertile and richer near the
Potomac river. Gold is found, and granite and freestone Are quarried for building pur-


poses. Live stock is raised ; other agricultural products are grain, tobacco, and wool.
Co. seat, Stafford Court-House.

STAFFORD, an inland co. of England, bounded on the w. and n.w. by Shropshire
and Cheshire, has an area of 732,434 acres, and a pop., '71, of 858,326. The most elevated
portion of the county is the n., where wild moorlands in long ridges, separated by
deeply cut valleys, extend from n.w. to s.e., and subside as they near the valley of the
Trent. The surface is low and undulating in the midland regions, but becomes hilly
again in 4he south. New red sandstone occupies the whole of the central parts; the
Pottery coal lu Id occupies the u., and the Dudley coal-field, remarkable also for its
abundant and rich iron ores, occupies the south. The Trent, flowing first s.w. through
the county, then n.e. along its eastern border, is the chief river. The climate is cold and
humid, and though three-fourths of the area are arable, much of the soil is cold and
clayey, and agriculture is in a backward coudition. The potteries lie around Stoke (q.v.),
Burslem. and Hanley, and here most extensive manufactures of china and earthenware
are carried on. See POTTERY and WEDGWOOD. In the s. iron is very largely manu-
factured in all its branches, troin ruining to the production of articles in iron and steel.
The numerous canals (including the Grand Trunk canal) and railways which intersect
and traverse the county afford abundant and most useful means of conveyance. The
county of Stafford returns six members to the house of commons.

STAFFOBD, the co. t. of Staffordshire, stands on the Sow, 25 m. n.n.w. of Birming-
ham. The usual municipal institutions of county towns are the chief buildings, and there
are two fine and partly ancient parochial churches. Tanning, cutlery, and the manu-
facture of shoes are the chief branches of industry. Stafford sends two members to the
house of commons. Pop. '71, 15,946.

STAFFORD, HENRY, Duke of Buckingham, 1440-83; b. England; assumed the
title in 1460. He was one of the most powerful of the adherents of the duke of Glouces-
ter, afterward Richard III., while the latter, then protector, was conspiring to seize
the throne. He assisted Richard in his efforts against earl Rivers and lord Gray, which
resulted in the destruction of those noblemen; and received as a reward for his services
Hie office of chief- just ice and constable of the royal castles in Wales, and later that of
lord high constable of England. But he afterward joined the Lancastrians, and being
betrayed to Richard, was captured, attainted, and suffered death on the scaffold at Salis-
bury, Nov. 1, 1483. Concerning him occur the lines in Shakespeare's Richard 111.:

Catesby. My liege the duke of Buckingham is taken:

That is the best news: that the earl of Richmond

Is with a mighty power landed at Milford,

Is colder tidings, yet they must be told.
K. Rich. Away toward Salisbury! while we reason here,

A royal battle might be won and lost:

Some one take order Buckingham be brought

To Salisbury ; the rest march on with me.

This has been altered in the acting version, after Colley Cibber, to:

My liege, the duke of Buckingham is taken
K. Rich. On with his head! so much for Buckingham.

STAFFORD, WIJ/MAM HOWARD, Viscount, 1612-80; b. England, and educated as
n Roman Catholic. In 1634 married a sister of the 13th baron Stafford, and on the
latter's death, being then sir William Stafford, assumed his title. His claim to this
through hi wife was afterward disputed, but finally decided in his favor, and a
new creation was made by the king, declaring him baron and afterward viscount Staf-
ford. The civil war found Stafford a firm adherent of the king, but he changed his
course so far after the restoration as to frequently oppose the royal will from hi- place
in the house of peers. In 1678 Stafford was one of those denounced by the infamous
Titus Oates as a conspirator in the pretended popish plot. He was accordingly arrested,
with four other noblemen similarly accused, and committed to the Tower. He was'
impeached on a charge of hisrli treason, Dec., 1678, and in the I'ollovying November the
impeachment trial began before tne house of lords under the presidency of sir Ileueage
Finch, afterward t lie earl of Nottingham. Despite a spirited defense against suborned
testimony, Stafford was found guilty. He was publicly executed on Tower hill, Dec.
29. 16!S(). to the last protesting his innocence of act or intent to conspire against his
ovrreiirn. Kim: James created his widow a countess in her own richt ; and James II.
made his eldest son earl of Stafford in 1688, a title which lapsed 51/1762. In ]*;J4 th
act of attainder was reversed by parliament, and the following year sir George William
Jerningham, hart., was recognized as baron Stafford.

STAG, a name familiarly given to a person who applies for an allocation of shares in
n joint stock concern, with a view of selling the allocation letter to another party for a
small consideration. When no such consideration or premium is obtainable, the .<(///
does not pay the deposit, which by his application he had become bound to do. and
relinquishes any further interest in the undertaking. Person* acting thus, however, are
liable to prosecution and exposure as defaulters. During the great railway mania of
1846 the stock market was thronged with slags.


STAG, or RED DEEK, Cervus elephas, a species of deer (q.v.) with rouna antlers,
which have a snag at the base in front. The female has no horus, and is called a hind.
The young male during the tirst year acquires mere knobs in place of horns. In the
second year they are longer and pointed, when the animal is called a brocket. The
branching of the horns increases every year till the sixth, when the name hart (q.v.)
begins to be applied. After this the age is no longer indicated by an increased number
of branches, but the antlers become larger and thicker, their furrows deeper, and the
burr at the base more projecting. The oldest stags have seldom more than J^O or 12
branches, although an instance has occurred of 33 on each antler. A tine slag is' 4 ft. or
more in height at the shoulder. The color is reddish brown in summer, the rump pale;
in winter it is brownish gray. The female is smaller than the male. The young is at
first spotted with while. The stag is a native of Europe and the north of Asia. It was
anciently common in all parts of Britain, but is now almost extinct except in the High-
lands of Scotland, where large herds still exist, particularly on the Grampians, and Uie
sport of deer-stalking is pursued, in which the ride is now generally used; although in
| former times the stag was hunted, hounds of a peculiar breed called staghounds (q.v.)
J being employed for the purpose. The forest laws of Englanl were extremely strict for
the preservation of this noble game, the unauthorized killing >of a stag being even a
more unpardonable offense than the killing of a man. The stag feeds oa the buds and
young shoots of trees and on grass, or in the severe weather of winter oa bark and
mosses. The speed of the stag is very great. It has also great powers of swimming,
and has been known to swim 10 miles. When bird pressed by hunters it turns to bay,
and is not approached without danger. At tiie pairing season, which is in August, even
tame stags become so excited that it is not safe to approach them. The domestication
of the stag is never very complete. In righting tlie stag uses not only its horns, but its
fore-feet, with which it gives severe blows to an adversary. The of the slag is not
so good as that of the fallow deer. Among the spjcies of deer most nearly allic.l to the
stag are the wapiti (q.v.), an American species, and several species belonging to the
warmer parts of Asia and the north of Africa. They all have round branched antlers,
with a basal snag in front, and a tuft of hair on the hind legs above the middle of the

STAG BEETLE, Lucanus, a genus of coleopterous insects, of the family lamelli-
cornes, remarkable for the large projecting mandibles of the males, which have large
denticulations, and somewhat resemble stags' horns. The antenna} terminate in a club
composed of many leaflets, disposed on an axis like the teeth of a comb. The. COMMON
STAG BEETLE (L. cervtis) is one of the largest of British insects, the males being fully
two in. long. It flies about in the evening in the middle of summer, chieliy fre-
quenting oak-woods. The larva feeds on the wood of the oak and willow, and is inju-
rious to the trunks of trees, into which it eats its way very rapidly! It is supposed to
be the comis of the ancient Romans, much esteemed by them as a delicacy. It lives
for.several years before undergoing its transformations. In its perfect state, the stag
beetle is a formidable-looking insect, and its powerful mandibles are capable of indicting
a pretty severe bite, if it is incautiously seized, but it is not venomous Some of the
tropical stag beetles are remarkable for their brilliancy of color.


STAGGERS is a popular term applied to several diseases of horses. Mad or sleepy
staggers is inflammation of the brain, a rare but fatal complaint, marked by high fever,
a staggering gait, violent convulsive struggling, usually terminating in "stupor; and
treated by bleeding, full doses of physic^ and cold applied to the head. Grass or
stomach staggers is acute indigestion, usually occasioned by overloading the stomach
and bowels with tough hard grass, vetches, or clover, a full meal of wheat, or other
indigestible food. It is most common in summer and autumn, is indicated by impaired
appetite, distended abdomen, dull aspect, unsteady gait; and is remedied by full doses
of purgative medicine, such as six drams of aloes and a dram of calomel rubbed
down together, and given in a quart of thin well-boiled gruel. Frequent clysters, with
hand-rubbing and hot water to the belly, are likewise useful. Where the dullness
increases, stimulants should be freely given.

STAGHOUND, a large and powerful kind of hound (q v.). formerly much used in
England for hunting the stag, but now almost extinct. It is supposed to be a breed of
the old English southern hound. In scent, it is almost equal to the bloodhound; in
fleetness, it is inferior to the foxhound. It has great power of endurance, and has been
known to run 50 in. after a stag. It is also courageous, and does not hesitate to attack
the stag when at bay.

STAGIRA (ancient name for Stavros), a t. in s.e. Macedonia, on the gulf of Con-
tessa, otherwise called the gulf of Orphano, the Sinus titrymonicus of the ancients.
According to Thucydides it was founded by a colony from Andros. and is situated on
the upper shore of the peninsula of mount Athos, near its junction with the main-land.
It is in the district of Chalcidice, and is celebrated as the birthplace of Aristotle. It
declined during the Peioponnesian war. The surrounding country is noted for its
fertility, producing corn, wine, oil, and fruit.


STAITEL. JULIUS, h. Hungary, 1825. H'j served in the Austrian army, but joined

the Hungarian patriots, and was an aide to Gorgei. Alter tlit' failure of the movement,
he visited Germany and England, anil finally came to >ic\v York and became a journal-
ist. He was iieut.cni. and later col. of a New York regiment; made bug. -en. of vols.,
1861, and commanded a division under Sigel. In 1S64 he was made maj gvn. of vols.

STAIIL. FtUKUKirit .In.irs. ist)2-ll; h. Munich; prof, of law at Erlangen, Wurz-
burg, and Berlin. He served successively in the Prussian chamber of deputies, the
Erfurt pai-lianiciit, and the upper house of the Prussian legislature. He w;,s a proud-
Dent member of the Lutheran party, and one of the founders of the German church
diet. In his duet' work. Philosophic dt:/> licckty, he advocates a "Christian slate," which
shall support the church by the secular arm.

STAHL, GKOIHI ERNST, a celebrated German physician and chemist, was born at
Anspaeh, October 21, IGoO, studied medicine at Jena, and ufter practicing successfully
for some tini'-, was called, in 1(594, to the chair of medicine, anatomy, ami chciuisiry,
in the newly-founded university of Halle; whence he removed to Berlin ii) 1710, where
he was sirpo'.atcd | hysidan to the king of Prussia. He was a meiiuier of the Berlin
Academy, ;.nd died in that city May 14, 1?:;4. According to BlunienhaiM, Staid is to be
considered as one of the greatest and most profound physicians the world has ever seen,
though (he mysticism with which his works are imbued is to be reprehended. Slahl's
system of medicine, which was a combination of the physiology of Van Heimont (q.v.)
with the psychology of Descartes, is founded upon the supposition of the existence of
a mysterious force residing in, but independent of, and superior to matter; this force,
the finirna (or "soul "), not only forms the body, but directs it in the exercise of all its
functions, and this, too, sometimes unconsciously; though tiie way in which this influ-
ence is exercised he does not explain. Being subject to error by nature, the "anima," by
negligence or maladroit action, originates diseases in the body, which it then j.ltempt.s
to cure, through the functional action of the various parts. Stall 1 held that art ought
only to commence where nature had ended, and to be useful, it should follow a sini'lar
course of action; he was also of opinion that plethora, either local or gein ;;>!, was one
of the chief causes of disease. His system of therapeutics corresponded with his patho-
logical principles, and was confined mostly to bleeding and the use of mild laxatives.
His psychological theory of the connection between the soul and body led him into a
discussion, with Leibnitz (who had falsely charged him with propounding materialism),
from which he emerged victorious on the essential points of their respective theories;
though Leibnitz had iue advance jn matters * detail. Subsequent physiologists have
made Stahl's opinions the object of ridicule, though his doctrine of iue "i.uiiua M is,
under the name of "vital principle " and " nature." generally ndopt-d r.t 'lie pr-sent
day; but his supercilious contempt for chemistry as a medical agent has long ceased to
be genes-ally upheld. Nevertheless, Stahl was one of the ablest chemists of his time,
destroyed, in 'his usual trenchant style, numberless absurd opinions which had found
their way into the science, and propounded the first theory of combustion (see PHLO-
GISTON), which was universally accepted till the time of Lavoisier (q.v.). His works,
according to Haller, number 250. but the chief are Theoria )!<<[<<< tern (Halle, 1707,
1708. 1737). which contains his medical theory, and Zymotechnia FvndmnentaU^i tea-
Fffrmenlationu Tln'riii Genernlis (Halle, 1697), in which his chemical opinions are set
forth. An account of his opinions is found in Haller's B&liittht ca- J///<V/<//' l^ra^Hr.p,
vol. iii. : Sprenirel's Ilixtotre de la Medccine; A. Lemoiue's le Vitalisme et I'Aiiimisme de
Stult! (Paris, !S<i4), and numerous other works.

STAlGG. lliCHAiti) M., b. Enirland, abt. 1820; came to this country while young and
worked as a mechanic in Newport. R. I., where he had the entree of the studios
of Jane Stuart and Allston. and beginning there the study of miniature painting, rose
rapidly to eminence in that profession. He painted the portraits of Allston, Everett,
and Webster, the latter now preserved in the rooms of the Historical society in Boston.
His genre pictures and coast scenes are especially prized; among them "News from the
War," " The Crossing Sweeper," and "The Love Letter."


STAINEIt. JOHN, Mrs Doc., b. England, 1840; studied music at Oxford, where he
was organist of -Mairdalen college, and of the university church. He b<-e:;;ne organist of
St. Paul's, London, in l!S7'2. His Theory of Harmony, 1871. has a high reputation simonj*
scientific musicians. He is a tine instrumentalist, and has composed many anthems and

STAINS FOR WOOD. A variety of stains have recently been invented for the purpi-. -
of giving to the cheaper kinds of wood, such as deal. etc.. the appearance of the more
costly kinds. These are chiefly solutions of certain metallic salts, combined with vege-
table infusions.


r STAIRCASE. This feature, now so important in all houses, wns of smnll note till
about the time of queen Elizabeth. Previously, stairs were all constructed on the circu-
lar plan, revolving round a central axis or newel, and were called turret or corkscrew
tuirs. During the 16th and 17th centuries, staircases with wide straight llights were


first introduced, and were made leading features in the mansions of the Elizabethan style.
They had usually massive oak balusters with carved pedestals, and were ornamented
with carved panels, pendants, etc. Staircases of this description are still in common
use, but are lighter in style, light cast-iron railings being substituted for the heavy oak

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 175 of 203)