Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 176 of 203)
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STALACTITES AND STALAGMITES are found in caves and other places where water
charged with, carbonate of lime is subject to evaporation. Water impregnated with car-
bonic acid is able to dissolve lime, and as all rain and surface water contains more or less
carbonic acid, it takes up in its passage through the earth to the roofs of caves a certain
amount of lime. When the water is exposed on the roof or floor of the cave, evapora-
tion takes place, and so both the bulk of the water and its sol vent power are reduced, and
a thin pellicle of solid carbonate of lime is deposited. When this takes place on the roof
of the cave, long icicle-like pendants are.formed, which are called stalactites; and when
the water drops upon the floor, a stalagmitic layer is formed, which rises at the points
where the largest supply of material exists, in the form of pillars to meet the overhang-
ing stalactites. In some caves, the descending and ascending points have met and
formed a series of natural columns as if supporting the roof. The color of the limestone
thus formed is affected by the superincumbent strata, but it is generally white or yellow-
ish. The stalactites have a rich subcivslalline structure, being composed of acicular
radiating crystals, arranged in concentric layers from their exogenous growth Some-
times, from metamorphic changes that have t:,ken place subsequent to their formation,
they become more truly crystalline. The amount of the deposition is very great in some
caves, and the wonderlul variety and singular groupings of the stalactites give them a
peculiar beauty. The caves most remarkable in this way are the cave of Adelsberg in
Btyria, the grotto of Autiparos in the Grecian Archipelago, Wyver's cave in the United
States, and the caves of the peak in Derbyshire

The remains of primeval man found in the caves in France, and the fossils from the
bone caves in Britain and elsewhere, are generally cemented together into a stalagmitic
deposit on the floor of the cave.


STALL, a fixed scat inclosed at back, and with elbows at the siaes. One or more rows
of these extended along each side of the choir of most churches before the reformation,
and fine examples still remain in nearly all the cathedrals. They are generally inclosed
at back with a Ligh screen, and covered with canopies ornamented with pinnacles, et.

6TALYBKIDGE, a market-t. and parliamentary and municipal borough, partly in
Lancashire and partly in Cheshire, stands on the Tame, eight m. e. of Manchester.
It is ren:arkable chiefly for its cotton manufactures. The print works, iron foundries,
and machine-shops are also numerous and important. Free communication by railway
is afforded in every direction. There are in Stalybridge 39 mills employing 10,000 hands,
and 28 foundries and machine-shops, employing 1100 hands. Pop. 1871 of municipal
borough, 21,092.


STA'MENS are those parts in the flowers of phanerogamous plants which excite the
pistil to the formation of the fruit, and thus effect fertilization or fecundation (q.v.). A
stamen consists of a receptacle the anther ; which contains a dust the pollen various
in color, but generally yellow, and is generally supported on a stalk called \\\e flament ;
the anther being the blade of a metamorphosed leaf, and the filament the leaf-stalk. The
filament is, however, sometimes wanting, and the anther is .then said to"; be
sessile. Each anther generally consists of two cells, forming two lobes,
which, before they open to give forth the pollen, are again divided into two
cell-like parts, and at the time of their maturity open by longitudinal clefts, by pores, or
by valves, to scatter the pollen, which is conveyed to the stigma either by its own falling,
by the wind, or by the insects which seek honey in flowers. See PISTIL. The pollen
consists of single cells, which are usually free; more rarely, the pollen of each cell is
united into a mass, called the pollen-mass or polliin-um, as in the Orchidere and Afdcpia-
dacew. The stamens are either found along with the pistil in the same flower, :;nd are
then arranged around it, in which case the flower is hermaphrodite; or thev are placed
by themselves in separate flowers, which are therefore called mule flowers. The stanu u
are sometimes united together, generally by the filaments, which form a tube, and the
flower is monadelphom ; sometimes, by their union, they form two sets, when the flower
is diiidelplifim ; sometimes three or moYe. when it is polyadelpJious ; and the filaments are
sometimes united with the pistil into a column, from which the anthers spring, as if
they grew from the pistil, when the flower is f/ynandrous. See BOTANY. The stamens
form either one or more whorls, and when in one whorl are either opposite to the petals
or alternate with them. The latter is regarded as their normal position. Sometimes, by
abortion, there is only one stamen. Being leaf-organs, stamens arise from the axis; but
they very frequently grow upon the corolla, so that they seem to derive their origin
from it. When the stamens seem to arise from the corolla or from the calyx, they, and
also the flower, are said to beperigynoue (Gr. pen, around, and gytte, a wife); when they

m Stake.

. Stammering.

grow from the pistil, they are epirjynous (Gr. epi, upon); and when from beneath it,
hypogyiwus (Gr. hypo, under). These distinctions have been much made use of, by
Jussieu and others, in dussitication. The transitions of petals into stamens can be easily
traced in some tlow.Ts. for example, in the water lily. In double flowers, the stamens
have been changed into petals. Linna-us adopted the stamens as the means of his divi-
sion of plants into classes (see BOTANY); but in so far as the classification was founded
on their mL're number, it was artificial, the number of stamens being various in plants
very closely allied. Stamens are among the organs of plants which most frequently dis-
play irritability (q.v.).

The filament. ;is.-uines a great variety of forms. Sometimes it is short and thick,
sometimes long and slender; sometimes dilated at the base; sometimes petal-like, with
the stamen at its tip; sometimes forked, or divided into three teeth, of which the central
one bears the aiither; sometimes bent or jointed, sometimes spiral. The form of the
anther varies still more than that of the filament; indeed, the variety of forms is endless.
The connective is a body which unites the lobes of the anther. When the filament is con-
tinuous with the connective, the anther-lobes seeming to be united to it through their
whole length, the anther is said to be adnale or adherent; when the filament ends at the
base of the anther, the anther is inate or erect. In many flowers, as in those of grasses,
the anther is attached to the filament by a mere point, and is very movable, easily turned
by the wind. It is then said to be versatile.

STAMFOXD, a t. of Connecticut, at the entrance of Mill river into Long Island
sound, 3t> m. n.e. of New York, on the New York and New Haven and New Canaan
and Stamford railroad. It is a favorite residence and summer resort of opulent New-
Yorkers. It has 3 banks, 2 newspapers. 14 churches, a small coasting-trade, and manufac-
tures of iron, boots and shoes, dye-stuffs, carriages, coal oil, etc. Pop. in '60, 7,185; in
'70, 9,714.

STAMFORD, an ancient raarket-t. and a parliamentary and municipal borough of
Lincoln, on the Wclland, which is navigable hence to the sea, 11 m . n.w. of
Peterborough. Agriculture is almost the exclusive pursuit of the inhabitants of the dis-
trict around, and Stamford is chiefly remarkable for its ancient remains. It first appears
in history in 44l. when the Britons and S.i.xons heredefeatel the Picts and Scots. Many
of the Jews of Stamford were slain, and the whole community plundered in 1190 by
those who had enlisted for the Crusade. In the middle ages several parliaments and
councils were held here, and the town contained about 16 churches, and a number of
religious houses. In 1572 a number of Flemish Protestant refugees settled here, and
introduced the weaving of silk and serge. Portions of the walls and gates of the
melhe and Franciscan priories, as well as other curious remains, are still extant. There
are numerous schools and other important institutions. Pop. '71 8,086. Stamford re-
turns a member to the house of common*.

STAM MEBING- AND DEFECTIVE SPEECH. Stammering is an affection of the
vocal and enunciative organs, causing a hesitancy and dilticulty of utterance, and
respecting the nature and the origin of which a variety of different opinions has I>con
entertained. Stammerers themselves often attribute the varying conditions of their
impediment to causes which must be purely imaginary, such as the state of the wind,
the changes of the moon, etc. There can be no doubt that the impediment is aggravated
by depression of spirits, derangement of the digestive organs, physical debility, etc.;
but these influences have nothing to do with the primary cause of the infirmity. A
nervous dread of sp.'aking is usually associated with stammering; but this is rather the
result than the cause of the impediment. If constitutional nervousness were productive
of stammering, the number of sufferers would be vastly greater, and it would include a
larger proportion of females than of males; whereas the robust sex furnishes by far the
greater number of cases; and it is noticeable 1 , besides, that stammerers arc not in general
persons of weak nerves, otherwise than in connection with the act of speaking. Any
physical defect \vi!l render a person nervous when the peculiarity is made ;i subject of
observation, and it is in this way only that nervousness is associated with speech in
cases of stammering. The strength of this impediment lies in habit, in mismanagement
of the breath and the organs of utterance, rendered habitual before the development of
reason and observation; and the removal of the defect depends on the accp.iremcnt of
voluntary control over the mechanical airents of speech. The nervousness which unfits
the stammerer for self direction gradually subside as his \\ill :ii;ains a mastery over the
processes of speech; and perseverance in a discipline of s\ sii inatic and guarded utterance
rarely fails to remove the impediment, and the fear which accompanied it.

The first manifestations of stammering usually take place during the weakness
attendant on disease, or after a fall or sudden fright; but sometimes the impediment
appears to arise from imitation., and children have lieen known to be infected by even
the most casual example. Thus, when one member or visitor of a family stammers, the
younger members of a family are very apt to be similarly affected. From this cause
defects of speech run so much in families, that many persons have thought them to be
hereditarily transmitted. This, however, is altogether a mistake. In the early stages,
a little patient direction on the part of parents and nurses would suffice to check the
tendency to btammer, and prevent the formation of the unfortunate habit.

Stamp. 'TAO

Stamping". Uw

Stammering generally begins about the fourth or fifth year of age; but harshness in
checking children, or impatience in connection with incs.-.-igfs <,r lesions, may induce
the impediment at a considerable later period. Boys of ten or eleven years of ago have
been excited into the habit by injudicious hurry and peremptoriness at school. The
little stammerer, when he cannot be more directly assisted, should be kindly counseled
to take time and speak slowly, and lie should by no means be ridiculed or reproved for
what he cannot help, and is not taught how to avoid.

The varieties of stammering are so great, that scarcely. two cases are found precisely
alike. In some there is but Hi tie outward manifestation of effort; in others, the futile
attempts are painfully demonstrative. The silent straining to speak causes the e\ebails
to protrude, and the veins of the face and neck to swell, till relief from apparent chok-
ing comes in fitful, ungovernable bursts of sound. In almost all cases the head oscillates
loosely on the neck, and is forced upward by the misdirected current of breath; while
the larynx, the organ of sound, is from the same cause agitated in coniinual efforts to
ascend, and the voice is consequently abrupt and intermittent, and unnaturally acute.
The muscles of the face participate in the general upward action, and sometimes the
spasmodic contortions extend over the whole body, causing the stammerer to rock in his
chair, or start wildly to his feet. These muscular disturbances arise simply from dis-
ordered respiration, and they disappear when the habit of closing the 'glottis and
compressing the organs of articulation is overcome, and the air is allowed to pass freely
in or out of the lungs.

The terms stuttering and stammering are often used synonymously, but the former
term is properly, or, at legist, conveniently, limited to a loose and imperfect action of
the organs of articulation, as distinguished from the irregularity of breathing and the
convulsive and choking symptoms which invariably accompany stammering. In stut-
tering, the organs meet and rebound again and again in reiteration of syllables before
words can be fully formed. The source of this difficulty lies mainly in the lower jaw.
"When this organ is brought under control, and the effort of speech is transferred from
the mouth to the throat where all voice is formed the power of fluency is readily
obtained. But stuttering is rarely unaccompanied by some degree of spasmodic stam-
mering, and the two forms of impediment, while theoretically distinct, are generally
blended in mutual aggravation,

Stammering is. in nearly every case, perfectly curable, as it seldom arises from
organic defect. The means of cure must, however, often be continued for a length of
time before the stammerer is free from the danger of relapse. The best lime for the
cure is undoubtedly (he earliest, before the habit has acquired full strength, and before
the sufferer has endured the most grievous mortifications and drawbacks of the impedi-
ment. But the adult stammerer generally brings to the curative task a higher appreci-
ation of its importance, and a greater care and concentration of effort than the child is
capable of; and these qualities almost compensate for the disadvantage of long-established
habit. Parents often unwisely defer the attempt to correct impediments of speech, in
the hope that the defects will disappear as the child gains strength and reaches riper
years. But the hope is very rarely realized; and were it otherwise, the misery of years
of impediment, and the hindrance to education which stammering certainly involves,
are evils to be avoided by all possible means. With this, as with all habits, " prevention
is better than cure;" and stammering would be easily and certainly prevented by timely
advice carried out with ordinary care in the nursery.

The means that have been proposed for the cure of stammering have been as various
as the theories of the nature of the defect; and sometimes the "cure" has been appar-
ently but little better than the disease. Drawling, singing, interpolations or elisions of
letters, speaking with the teeth closed, or with the tongue pressed to the roof of the
mouth, sniffling, whistling between words, beating time to utterance, stamping the foot,
jerkincr the body, forks on the tongue, pebbles in the mouth, or tubes fixed between the
organs, bands compressing the larynx, and other absurd and uncouth devices, have been,
under cover of expedient secrecy, practiced on unhappy stammerers. But the removal
of this defect, as above shown, depends on the skillful application of scientific principles,
respecting which there is no mystery save that which arises from the little attention that
has been paid to the science of speech.

From the preceding account of the nature of stammering, it is almost superfluous to
add that the cure of this impediment does not fall within the province of surgery. Yet
the barbarous operation of cutting a wedge from the root of the tongue introduced from
Germany about 25 years ago and the equally futile and cruel operation of excising the
tonsils, have been, within no distant date, extensively practiced by surgeons in this

The habit of sfnmmerinc can only be counteracted by the cultivation of a habit of
correct sneaking: and the latter can only be acquired by studying the processes of speech,
the relation of breath to articulate sounds, the positions of the tongue ;ind the other oral
organs in molding the outward stream of nir; and by a patient application of these
principles in slo^V and watchful exercise. The lungs constitute a pair of hollows, and
the mouth, in all its varying shapes. Ihe nozzle of the bellows. The passage of the throat
must be kept open, and the breath expelled by means of the ascent of the diaphragm,
not by downward pressure of the chest. All sound originates in the throat, and all effort


in speech must be thrown hack behind the articulating organs, which must be kept
passim, yielding to the air, always opening to give it exit, ami never resisting it by
asceut of the tongue or of the jaw. The head must be held firmly on the neck, 'to give
free play to the attached organs; and the great principle must never he lost sight of that
tjHr-'/i i.t li-,nt!t : and that, while distinctness depends on precision and sharpness of the
oral actions. Jlticncy depeuds on the unrestrained emission of the material of speech
the air we breathe.

Besides stammering and stuttering, there are many other forms of vicious articula-
tion, which are rather defects than impediments of" speech. The elementary sounds
most subject to mispronunciation are those of r and *, giving rise to the common defects
of burring and lisping. Burring consists in vibrating the uvu'.a < r the edge of the soft
palate, instead of the tip of the tongue; and lisping counts in appiving the tonirue to
the teeth or the gum, so as to intercept the breath, and force it over "the sides instead of
the cenier of the tongue. The sound of / ;;!M> is often defective, /r. //, /,>', or a
being substituted for the lingual articulation. Other substitutions of one element for
another are common, such as t, d. and ?/, for k, and iig; s or z for 1h; t fe>r *ft, etc. There
are also defects which arise from organic malformation, and require the aid of -ur<rery;
as when fissure exists in the palate, and the breath cannot be enclosed behind the lips
or tongue, but escapes into the nostrils; when the tongue is too clo.-ely tied to the bed
Of the mouth, and the tip cannot be raised to the palate; when the tcel'h are so irreirular
or abnormally numerous as to leave the tongue too little room to act. e'c. In some
Crises the breath escapes into the nostrils when there is 1:0 organic cause for liie peculiar-
ity, and r, I, *, and other elements are m. sally afl'ccud, merely from habit. The nasal
passages are, in oilier cases, insufficiently free," and in, >/, and >i<j are scarcely dis.inguish-
able from b. d. and g.

There are comparatively few persons who have perfect con.nir.nd over their vocal
organs. Speaking, \\hich is in reality an art, is cxcn ised only us an instinct ; and thus,
as an eminent American author (Dr. Tush) o; serves, '-sonic men only 1 kat, bark,
whinny, or bray a little belter than others." It is some consolation to those who
have been c< w\ elled by delicts to study the art of speech, that they exercise the
crowning facility of man's n;.ture more worthi.y than others, and thus become, per-
haps, bitter speakers than they \\ould have bee'n without the stimulus of defect or
impedin cut.

Speaking, v. hen the respiration is properly conducted, is one of the most healthful
exercises; but violent or long continued ( fi'ort is injurious to the chest, when the lungs
are not kept well inflated. Frequently, also. ui;d( r such circumstances, the vocal chords
become permanently relaxed, and total loss of voice sometimes en>

The Requirement of the power of speaking in infancy is ele; em'.cnt on the possession
of hearing, so that deaf children are also mule. Under proper training, however, they
may be taught to articulate, as the organs of s| i ee h are very rarely imperfect. Children
vho have I,< en subject to fits or other cerebral affections, or who are dcticient in imita-
tive power, are sometimes very b:*ck \\arel in learning to speak. In such e-;,se... great
care is requisite to direct the early att- mpls. and prevent the forn at ion e>f bael habits.
Man}- of the worst forms erf defect anel impediment owe their origin simply to the want
of proper direction in the pre>duction of e''.-ry sounds, when the little sufferers
have failed to enounce them correctly by natural imitation.

It is unnecessary to enumerate the various English. American, and foreign authors
who have propounded conflicting theories of the cause, and sehimes for the cure of
impediments of speech. Of the systems practiced in this country at the present day,
those of Dr. Ilrnt and Mr. Melville P.ell have been most fully published. The views of
these authors differ but little, anel are in substance the same ;.s tho:.e contained in this

STAMP ACT. This act was one of those procured from the British parliament by
the direct influence of George III., with that elesign toward oppression \\ldcli character-
ized his cour-e with regarel to the ce>lonies, anel which finally bronchi a': -out the revolu-
tion. It was passed in Mar., 17G/5. re-ccivin;r the royal signature e>n the i.d of that month,
and to take effect Nov. 1. Its immediate r-s-iit was to bring about the ass< mbling of a
colonial cmiim <s at New York. Oct. 7, 17(.5; and on ihe day of its taking eilect, bells
were' toll, i. tla^s were placed at half-mast, and newspapers we-re put in mourning; while
no officials were found courage-oils enough to enforce the obnoxii us law. The act
declared that no legal instrument should be vnlid in the colonies unless it bore the gov-
ernment stamp. On Mar. 18, 17G6. it was repealed.

STAMPFLI, JAKOH. 1820-79: b. Switzerland; studied law, anel became a lawyer,
and a radical journalist, lie was head e>f the financial elepartment in the council of
state in 184<>, anel represented Bern in the diet in 1X47, when he advocated the expulsion
of the Jesuits and war with the Roman Catholic cantons, lie was president in 1849,
1851, 18");). and 1862: several times vie-e-prcsident. and minister ef war. In lb?2 lie was
one of the Geneva arbitrators under the treaty of Washington.

STAMPING e>F METALS. There are diffeient kinds of stamping. The plan adopted
for producing coins or medals is described under MINT, and the preparation of the dies
used, under DIE SINKING. For the ordinary stamped braes-work, so extensively made


iu Birmingham, a stamping-machine is employed, of which the essential parts are a die,
a reverse or counter-die, and a hammer. A toothed rack, with arrangement for catching
the hammer after it rebounds, is only used for special purposes. The die, which is
made of cast-iron or steel, is tixed to the bottom of the stamp, and the reverse is attached
to the hammer, which works between two guides. Pieces of thin rolled brass are cut
to sue, and one placed upon the die; the hammer, with the counter-die, is now raised
to a sultieieut height by a windlass and rope, or other means, and allowed to fall, and
thus force the thin plate into the die. The plates from the first blow are then annealed.
Repeated blows and annealings follow until the article is "brought up," slight altera-
tions in the reverse being from time to time required. Sometimes as many as 30 blows
are necessary, but 10 or 12 strokes will suffice for an object with a considerable
depth of raising. Globular articles are stamped in two or more pieces, and then soldered

The stamping process was first adapted to the production of hollow shapes in sheet-
iron by Mr. T. Griffiths in 1841; and since tJieu, !he manufacture of such goods as dish-
covers, basins, and teapots Ijas been improved and expended to a surprising extent. In
the case of a dish-cover, for example, a single sheet of iron is brought to the required
shape by repeated stampings and buruishings upon a chuck. It is afterward tinned
with great ease, there being no joints to interfere with the operation; for the same
reason, iron basins stamped out of a single sheet can be readily enameled. The old way

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 176 of 203)