Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 177 of 203)
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of forming these articles by hand-labor was very tedious and clumsy.

German silver is too brittle a metal to be stamped like brass or iron, consequently it
has only hitherto been made into small objects, such as spoons and forks, by this pro-
cess. But the Messrs. Elkingion of Birmingham are now making articles of consider-
able size in this material, by means of a stamping-press worked by hydraulic power.
A numbfy of graduated dies are used for one object, each pair coining gradually
nearer the desired shape, but none of them making an impression deep enough to
strain the metal.

For stamping-machines used in dressing metallic ores, see METALLURGY.

STAMPS, or STAMP DUTIES, are taxes imposati on all parchment and paper whereon
private deeds or other instruments of almost any nature are written. It is a convenient
mode of raising the public revenue, and was first instituted by a statute of 5 and 6
Will, and Mary. c. 21. The subsequent statutes are varied and complicated, and embrace
nearly every kind of legal document.

STANBRIDGE, JOHN, abt. 1450-abt. 1525; b. England; made perpetual fellow of
Kew college, Oxford, 1481. About 1486 he formed a conncciion with the free school
adjoining Magdalen college, which lasted many years, entering as first usher and suc-
ceeding John Anwykyllas head master. He was author of the first printed school books
circulated to any extent in England; among them The Accydence <>f Wtyxter Sfuiibridge's
Owne M'lkyugc. printed in the 15th c., and Embryon Rdiinatum sice Vocdbularium, 8
editions, printed by Wynkin de Worde.

STANCHIONS, or STANCHELS, upright iron bars fixed in the stonework to protect win-
dows. They are sometimes let into the stone at top and bottom; sometimes at bot-
tom only, and ornamented with fleurs-de-lis, etc., at top.

STANDAKD. In its widest sense, a standard is a or ensign under which men are
united tog;?: her for some common purpose. The use of the standard as a rallying-point
iu bittlf takes us back to remote ages. The Jewish army was marshaled with the aid
of standards belonging to the four tribes of Judah. Reuben. Ephraim, ;md Dnn, and the
Egyptians had ensigns with representations of their favorite animals. The flag of
Persia was white, and, according to Xenophon, bore in his time a golden ea^le with
expanded wings; it was fixed on a chariot, and thus conveyed to the field of battle.
-iEsehylus, in enumerating the six chiefs who, headed by Polyniccs, set themselves in
battle array against Thebes, describes the device on the standard of each. In tiie earliest
em of Roman history a bundle of hay or fern is said to have l>een used a.s a miliiary
standard, which was succeeded by bronze or silver figures of animals attached to a staff,
of which Pliny enumerate-! five the eagle, the wolf, the minotaiir. the horse, and the
boar. In the second consulship of Marius, 104 R.C.. the other animals were laid aside,
and only the eagle retained; and down to the time of the later emperors, the eagii.'. often
with a representation of the emperor's head beneath it, continued to be carried with the
legion. On the top of the staff was often a figure of Victory or Mars. Each cohort had
also an ensign of its own, consisting of a serpent or dragon woven on a square piece of
cloth, and elevated on a gilt staff with a cross-bar. Under the Christian emperors,
the libnrmn (q.v.) was substituted for the imperial standard. Various standards
of great celebrity occur in mediaeval historv. among which may be enumerated the flag
of the prophet (q.v.); the standard taken from the Danes by Alfred of England; and
the oriflamrne, originally belonging to the abbey of St. Denis, and borne by the counts
of Vexin, which eventually became the standard of the French kingdom.

In strict languag", the term standard is applied exclusively to a particular kind of
flag, long in proportion to its depth, tapering toward the fly, and, except when belong-
ing to princes of the blood royal, slit at the end. Each baron, knight, or other com-
mander in feudal times, had a recognized standard, which was distributed among his


followers. The length of the standard varied according to the rank of the bearer. A
king's standard was from 8 to 9 yards in length; a duke's, 7 yards; a marquis's. 6$
VJIPI*: an earl's, 6 yards: a visem.iu's, oi yards; a baron's, 5 yards; a banneret's, 4$
yards; and a knight's, 4 yards. There was never a complete coat-of-arms on the stand-
ard ; it generally exhibited the crest or supporter with a device or badge of the owner,
and every English standard of the Tudor era had the cross of St. George at the head.
Standards were registered by the heralds, and the charges on them selected aud author-
ized by an ollicer of arms.

The so-called royal standard of Great Britain is more properly a banner (q.v.), being
a square Hag with the national arms covering the entire tield without any external acceir
sories. The so-called cavalry standards in use in the British army are also in strictness
banners. They are small in size; their color is determined by the color of the regi-
mental facings, and they are charged with the cipher, number, "insignia, and honors of
the regiment. The banners of the houshold troops are. however, all crimson and richly
embroidered with the royal insignia of England. Corresponding to the standards of
the cavalry are the colors of the infantry regiments, of which each has "a pair," one,
called the queen's color, being the union jack (q.v.), charged with some ornamental
device; the other, the regimental color, with the cipher, number, device, motto, and
honors of the corps, cantoned with a small union jack. When a regiment obtains new
colors, they are usually given by the wife of the col. or some lady of distinction.

STANDARD, BATTLE OF THE. a batt'e between the English and Scots which took
place on (Juitiiii moor, near Norlhallerton, when the latter were defeated with great loss.
On the usurpation of Stephen, David I. of Scotland, who, along with Stephen, had
sworn to defend the rights of Matilda, daughter of Henry I., invaded England in pur-
suance of his oath, and compelled the barons of the northern part of the kingdom to
swear fealty to that princess. After a war of nearly three years' duration, David
encountered the English troops at Cutton moor, on Aug. 22, il'33, with a large but
undisciplined army, who, partly in consequence of a rumor that the king was slain, were
thrown into confusion, and the most disastrous rout followed, in which the Scots are
said to have lost 10,000 men. The battle derived its name from the circumstance that
a ship's mast, bearing on its summit the consecrated host, and surrounded by the
banners of St. Peter of York, St. John of Beverly, and St. Wilfred of Ripou, elevated
on a wagon, marked the center of the English army.

STANDARDS. In carpentry, the quarters or upright posts in wooden partitions are
so callet!. The upright timbers to which doors are hung are called door-standards.

STANDING ORDERS is the name given to those permanent regulations which may 1)6
made by either house of parliament for the conduct of its proceedings, and are binding
on the house by which they are made as continual by-laws enduring from parliament to
parliament unless rescinded. A standing order of the house of lords, when rescinded,
is said to be tucated; in the commons the corresponding term is repealed. In the lords,
a motion for making or dispensing with a standing order cannot be granted on the same
day that the motion is made, or till the house has been summoned to consider it; and
every standing order, as soon as agreed to, is added to the "roll of standing orders,"
which is carefully preserved and published from time to time. In the house of com-
mons there was, until 1854, no authorized collection of standing orders, except such as
related to private bills. In that year a manual of rules, orders, aud forms of proceeding
relative to public business was drawn up and printed by order of the house.

Standing orders are occasionally suspended when it is desirable that a bill should be
passed with unusual expedition.

STANDING STONES. Large rude unhewn blocks of stone, artificially raised to an
erect position at some remote period, have been found in almost every part of the world
where man has fixed his habitation. We rind them in Britain, in continental Europe, in
Assyria, India, Persia, and even in Mexico, and they are generally of such a size that
their erection pre-snpposes some degree of skill in the use of mechanical power. They
are especially abundant in the British isles, where they sometimes stand singly, and
sometimes in more or less regular groups; and it was long the general opinion of "archae-
ologists that they were connected with the Druidical worship of the Celtic races. The
result of modern investigation has been to throw doubts on the Druidical theory, while
no other explanantion has been given which is in all cases satisfactory. The erection
of a large stone not easily shifted from its place is perhaps the earliest mode which
man's instinct would contrive of preserving the memory of an event or of a hero; and
there can be no doubt that many of these monoliths mark the site of a grave or of a
battle-field. Human skeletons, and bronze, and iron weapons, have been in numerous
cases found underneath them. A traditional remembrance of this origin is preserved in
the name of "cat stane" (from Celtic cnth, battle), given to some of them in Scotland,
and " bauta stein" (battle stone) in Norway. Another possible purpose is preserved in
the Scottish name of "hair stane." or boundary stone, by which they are occasionally
known; not a few of them, whatever their original object, having been long used as
landmarks, and being alluded to as euch in very early charters. A third use of these
monoliths is at least as old as the historical books of the Old Testament. W c n>id in
Judges ix. 6, of Abimelech being made king "by the pillar which was in Shecnem,"

R tan dish. >7(\R


and in 2 Kings xi. 14, of Joash, when he was annointed king, standing "by a pillar as
the manner was;" and a like usage prevailed in ancient Britain, where the king or chief
was elected at the "Tan 1st stone" j(from Tn-nist, the heir-apparent among the Celts),
and there took a solemn oath to protect and lead his people. A very celebrated stor.e
of this kind was the lia fail of Ireland, which was brought to Icolmkill for the corona-
tion of Fergus Ere; and after being removed to Scone, became the coronation stone of
Scotland, till conveyed away by Edward I. to Westminster, where it now forms part of
the corom.tion chair of the sovereigns of the United Kingdom. In all these cases there
is an idea of a solemn religious sanction attached to the stone; and a peculiar degree of
sacrediK-ss sevms to have invested any contract entered into at one of those perforated
stones which are or were occasionally to be met with in England and Scotland. Such
a stone, with an oval hole large enough to admit a man's head, till lately adjoined the
monolithic group of Stennis in Orkney. It was known as the "stone of Odin," and
continued till the middle of last century to be the scene of the interchange of matri-
monial and othei vows, he who broke the vow of Odin being accounted infamous. It is .said
to have been the popular belief that any one who had in childhood been passed through
the opening would never die of palsy. The power of curing rheumatism was ascribed
to a perforated stone at Madderty in Cornwall. While many of the monoliths in Britain
are undoubtedly of a very remote age, there are some indications that the practice of
erecting iJiem continued for a time after the introduction of Christianity, and that they
were used to subserve purposes connected with the new faith. A series of monoliths in
the island at' Mull are traditionally said to have been guide-posts to pilgrims visiting
lona, and it has been suggested dial they point out the route which St. Colninba must
have pursued on his way to tiie residence of the Pictish king, Brude Ma'- Meilochon.

Still mure puzzling to archaeologists than the single monoliths are the large symmetri-
cal groups of them, of which the most remarkable are Steunis in Orkney, Stoueheuge
and Avebury in Wiltshire, and Cavnac in Brittany; all which, till lately, existed
comparatively entire, though they have all been in the memory of the present genera-
tion more or less despoiled for building purposes. The most imposing of these monu-
ments is Su>nehcnge (q.v.). At Stennis from 70 to 80 stones were grouped in two sepa-
rate circles of 860 and 100 ft. diameter respectively, the largest stones being in the
smaller circle. At Avebury two double concentric circles were surrounded by an outer
circle of 100 .-tones, the whole being approached by two long avenues of stones in
double lines. In all these and other instances the circles were surrounded by a trench
and mound. At Carnac the stones are placed not in circles but in straight lines, with a
curved row at ore end an arrangement which has suggested the idea of a burial-place
on the site of a gieat battle-field. All around Carnac, as well as Stonehenge, Banows
and Cromlechs (q v.) are to be found. While the popular notion of all these monuments
is tlu.t they were Druid temples, the circular form so frequent among them has also
suggested that I hey may originally have been connected with sun-worship, and it is not
impossible that they may have been used in turn for the successive religious worship of
different races. They seem also to have served the purpose of courts of justice, or
battle-rings for the duel and judicial combat. See STONEHENGE.

A remarkable description of monument, whose purpose is utterly unknown to us, is the
. rocfcinff-xfune or lof;nn-nione (q.v.). For a notice of a class of standing stones of consider-
able interest, ornamented with a peculiar description of sculpture, and found largely in

STATsDISIT, MILES, 1584-1G56; b. England: was a soldier in the Netherlands; was
one of ihe emigrants who came to Plymouth in the Mayflower in 1620, though not a
member of the Leyden church; showed great courage ar.d energy, and was chosen
military leader by the pilgrims in their wars against the Indians. His daring and skill
awed the savages, and saved the settlements from their murderous assat'.lis. Duringthe
first winter he loet his wife Pose. In IGC'5 he visited Zngl:;nd ns agent lor the colony,
returning in 1626 with supplies: was one of the proprietors and settlers of Duxbury,
holding the office of magistrate or nssis'ant for the town during the remainder of his life;
took part in 1049 in the settlement of Bridgewater. His sword is in the Pilgrim hall,
Plymouth. In Oct., 1872, the corner-stone of a monument to his memory wa? laid
in Duxhury. Tiie monument has been completed. It stands on Captain's hill, a bold
promontory on which Standish lived. It i a handsome circular stone tower 110 ft.
high, surmounted by a statue of Standish. The view there is one of the finest on th
coast. Longfellow has related the marriage of Standish in the pocrn, 1 he Courtship of
Miles Si'itHt'ixh.

STANFIELD, Cr.AKKSON. a distinguished painter, was b. of Irish parents, in the town of
Sumierlnnd, about the year 179;?. At an car!v period of his life he went to sea, and
made frequent long voyage^, among which was that to China. In the China seas he
passed some years of his life, and served for a time in the same ship with Douglas
Jon-old: Stanfidd in the capacity of a common sailor, and Jerrold as a midshipman.
While thus' encaged, Stanfieid exhibited considerable talent both in painting and draw-
ing. The first person of public note, however, to observe Stanfield's genius as a painter
was the celebrated capt. Marryat, who met with him in tiie Mediterranean, serving in a
king's ship as captain's clerk. Stanlield and Marryat afterward became intimate; and


in 1.&/0 the novelist employed the painter, then become famous, to illustrate his Poor
JacrC. Btanfieid left the uavy, in ccmsequeuce of an injury to his feet, through a fall
froiii. *i\e fore-topgallant mast-head of his ship. He then took to sceuc-pauiting as a
me:ins of earning his bread. His lirst efforts in this direction were made in the old
Royalty theater. Wells street, Weilc'.ose square, in the e. end of London, about the year
1818. lit was afterward employed at Drury Lane theater, and here it is said that he
produced some of h;s most extraordinary effects. He carried on this occupation until
the year 1M7, when lie finally abandoned it, except on rare occasions. Stanlield, while
painting for the theaters, had by no means neglected easel-painting. The lirst picture
by him tha*, attracted any considerable notice was "Market-boats on the Scheldt,"
exhibited at the British institution in 1826. The picturesque grouping,- variety of
figures, and g\v costumes were much admired. His " Wreckers off Fort Rouge, Calais,"
exhibited in tl.e following year, also at the British institution, was even more successful.
In 1828 he obtained from the British institution a prize of lifty guineas for another of
his pictures. la 1830 Staufield made his first excursion on the continent, and in the
same year exhibited at the academy his "Mount St. Michael, Cornwall," which placed
him at once in the foremost rank us a marine painter. In 18^ Stanfield, in conjunction
with. David Roberts and others, founded the society of British artists. His election to

banqueting room at Bowuter. In 18o4 he commenced a similar series for the duke of
Sutherland. In 18:36 lie exhibited "The Battle of Trafalgar," painted for the Senior
United Service club; and in 1841 his celebrated " Castello d'lschia," engraved by the
art-union in 1844 In 184;) he sent to the academy " Ma/.erbo and Lucello, Gulf of
Venice," said to be one of the finest landscapes he ever painted. " A Skirmish, off
Heligoland" (1867), was Stanfield's last contribution to the exhibitions of the academy,
of which he was so distinguished a member. His great merit lies in the skillful com-
bination of land and sea in the same view. Man and the works of man are not disdained
by him in his portraiture of nature, and there is frequently a poetic feeling of the highest
order in some of his conceptions, as in his pictures of "The Abandoned," and "The
Wreck of a Dutch East Indiaman." Stauiield died on May 18, 1867.

STANFORD, LELAND, b. Albany, N. Y., 1824; descended from pioneers of 1820
who settled in the Mohawk valley; educated at the public schools; studied law; was
admitted to the bar in 1849. and practiced law in Port Washington, Wis., until 1852,
when he went into business with his brothers in Sacramento, Cal. He was a delegate to
the republican convention at Chicago which nominated Abraham Lincoln for the presi-
dency in 1860; governor of California, 1862-64; one of the projectors of the Pacific rail-
road, and president of the Central Pacific railroad company, and is prominent in rail-
road and financial matters on the Pacific coast.

STANHOPE, CHVHI.ES M.VHOX, third Earl of, 1 753-1 816; b. London: educated at
Eton school and at Geneva; in 1774 married lady Hester Pitt, daughter of the earl of
Chatham. In politics he was an advanced liberal, advocated republican ideas, and was
known in the house of lords as the "minority of one." He is best known, however, for
his mechanical inventions and improvements, the most important of which was the
Stanhope- printing-press. He also made some discoveries in regard to electricity, and
introduced a new system of canal locks. Among his voluminous writings were: Ob*er-
vativiix on Mr. PM'st Plan for Reducing the National Debt, Rights of Juries Defended,
Principles of Electricity, etc.

STANHOPE. Lady HKJSTEU LUCY, the eldest daugl^orof Charles, third earl Stanhope,
and his wife Hester, daughter of the great lord Chain un, was b. Mar. 12, 177(i. She
grew up to be a wonrm of great personal charm, and of unusual fc/rce and originality of
character. Very early she vent to rcsie with her uncle. William Pitt, and as unstress
of his establishment, and his ruost trusted confidant during his season of power, and till
his death, she had full scope for the exercise of her imperious and queenly instincts.
On the death of Pitt, a pension of 1000 a year was a<>i'ined her bv the king. Mr. Fox
proposed to provide for her mu"h more munificently, but she proudly declined his
offers, as unwilling to accept benefit at the hands of the politic *1 enemy of her dead
uncle. The change from the excitements of a public career, as it might almost be called,
to the life of an ordinary woman or' her rank with means somewhat in-nfiicicnt. \vas
naturally irksome to her, and in 1808 she was tried slill further by the de-it h, at t'oruna,
of her favorite brother, major Stanhope, and of sir John Moore, for whom she is known
to have cherished an affection. The precise relations between them have never been
made known; but the last words spoken by the living hero were: "Stanhope" (a captain
Stanhope of his staff, who stood by him) " remember me to your sister." Conceiving a
disgust for society, she retired for a time into Wales, and in 1810 she left England never
to return to it. in mere restlessness of spirit she wandered for a year or two on the
shores of the Mediterranean, and finally settled herself among the semi-savage tribes of
mount Lebanon. Here she led the strangest life, adopting in everything the eastern
manners, and by the force and fearlessness of her character, obtaining a curious ascend-
ency over the rude races around her. She was regarded by them with superstitious

Stanhope. h ( O


reverence as a sort of prophetess, and gradually came so to consider herself. "With the
garb of a Mohammedan chieftain, she adopted something of the faith of one, and her
religion, which seems to have been sincere and profound, was compounded in about
equal proportions out of the Konfn and the Bible. Her recklessly profuse liberalities
involved her in constant straits for money; and her health also giving way, her last years
were passed in wretchedness of various kinds, under which, however, her untamable
spirit supported her bravely to the end. She died in June, 1839, with no Frank or
European ^iear her, and was buried in her own garden. The main sources of informa-
tion about her are the notes of the frequent travelers who visited her in her strange seclu-
sion, and the Memoirs derived from her own lips, and afterward (3 vols. Loud. 1845-
46) published by a medical gentleman who went abroad with her, and from time to time
lived with her in her retirement.

STANHOPE, PHILIP HEXIIT, Earl, historian and biographer, was representative of a
branch of the family of the Stanhopes, earls of Chesterfield. Its founder, a distinguished
diplomatist in the reigns of William III. and Queen Anne, was son of the tirst earl of
Chesterfield. James, first earl Stanhope, was an eminent military commander, who
effected the reduction of Port Mahon, in the island of Minorca, and was the favorite
minister of George I. His grandson, the third earl, distinguished for his scientific re-
searches, and inventor of a printing-press which bears his name, died. 1816. The subject
of this notice, only son of the fourtn earl, was born at \Valmer, 1805. His courtesy
title was viscount Mahon. He received a private education, but graduated at Oxford,
where he took his B.A.. degree, 1827; created D.C.L. 1834. He entered the house of
commons in 1830. He was greatly instrumental in 1842 in securing the passing of the
copyright act(q.v.); was under-secretary for foreign affairs during the brief Peel admin-
istration, 1834-35; and secretary to the Indian board of control under the same minister,
1845-46. He was a moderate conservative in politics, and was warmly attached to sir
R. Peel, who named him one of his literary executors. His contributions to history are
numerous and valuable. Macaulay, in a review of one of his earliest works, the War of
the Succession, in Spain, accredits him with some of the most valuable qualities of a
historian, viz., perspicuoushess, conciseness, "great diligence in examining authorities,
great judgment in weighing testimony, and great impartiality in estimating characters."
His most considerable work is A History of England from the Peace of Utrecht to the Peace
of Versailles, 1713-83, in 7 vols. His other works include & Life of the Right lion. W.
Pitt; a History of Spain, under Charles II. ; a Life of the Great Cunde; a Life of Belisarius;

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 177 of 203)