Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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a volume of Historical and Critical Essay*; and a volume of Miscellanies. Of the Life of
Conde it may be remarked that it was originally written by the author in the French
language, and that the English work is really a translation, executed under his superin-
tendence. In conjunction with the right hon. E. Cardwell he edited the Memoirs of Sir
R. Peel; and he also published an edition of Lord Chesterfield's Letters. He was elected
president of the society of Antiquaries, 1846; lord rector of the university of Aberdeen,
1858. He was mainly instrumental in procuring the appointment of the historical
manuscripts commission. He was elected one of the six foreign members of the acad-
emy of moral and political sciences at Paris in 1872. His death took place at Bourne-
mouth, Dec. 24, 1875.

STANISLAS, AUGUSTUS, King of Poland. See POLAND, ante.

STANISLAS LESZCZYN'SKI. 1677-1766; b. Poland: elected to the Polish throne
in 1705, and driven from it by the defeat of Charles XII. of Sweden, at Poltava, in
1709. lie was a prisoner in Turkey, 1713-14. His daughter Maria marrie/1 Louis XV.
in 1725, and the latter, on the death of Augustus II. in 1733. began a war to place his
father-in law, who had been re-elected, on the throne. In 1735 Stanislas gave up his
claims to the throne, but retained the royal came and estates, and was given the duchies
of Bar and Lorraine, and a pension of 2,000,000 francs. He was a patron of literature
and art.

STANISLAUS, a co in central California; bounded on the n. by the Stanislaus
river; drained by the Tuolumne and the San Joaquin rivers; on the Central Pacific
railroad; about 310 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 8,751 6,725 of American birth. The surface is
generally level, except in the w., where it is intersected by the Coast range. The soil is
fertile. The principal productions are wheat, wool, and barley. Gold is found. Co.
seat, Modesto.

STANISLA WOW, or STANISLAU, a t. in the Austrian crownland of Galicia, pleasantly
situated between two branches of the Bistric/.a, 75 m. s.e. of Lembcrg. It is the seat of
active trade and manufactures. Pop., Dec. '69, 14,479.

STANLEY, a co. in s. Dakota, having the Missouri river for its e. boundary;
bounded on the s. by the Bad river; 1000 sq.m. ; pop. '80 (with Hughes co.), 770 642 of
American birth. 79 colored. The surface consists of fertile rolling prairies. It is inter-
sected by the Big Cheyenne and Tilton rivers, and has old fort Pierre in the extreme
s.e., and farther n. the Cheyenne agency, fort Sully, and fort Bennett.

STANLEY, a co. in central North Carolina, having the Yadkin river for its e. and
n.e. boundary, and the Rocky river on the s. ; 400 sq.m.; pop. '80, 10,506 10,504 of



Stanhope.
Stiiuley.

American birth, 1321 colored. Its surface is mountainous, a large proportion covered
with forests. The soil is moderately fertile, adapted to the production of grain, potatoes,
tobacco, wool, honey, sorghum, and live stock. Among the mineral products are gold
and silver. Furniture is manufactured. Co. seat, Albemarle.

STANLEY, The Very Rev. ARTHUR PENRHYN, D.D., an eminent scholar and divine
of the church of England, is the son of the late Edward Stanley, D.D., bishop of Nor-
wich, and nephew of the late lord Stanley of Alderley. He was born Dec. 13, 1815,
while his father was rector of Alderley, and resided there. Educated at Rugby under
the care of Dr. Arnold, he passed (1834) as an exhibitioner to Balliol college, Oxford,
where he achieved a brilliant reputation, winning the Ireland scholarship, and taking a
first class in classics (1887). the Latin essay priie (1889), and the English essay and theo-
logical prizes (1840). In 1838 he was chosen a fellow of University college, of which he
was tutor and examiner for many years. Appointed canon of Canterbury (1851), pro-
fessor of ecclesiastical history at Oxford, canon of Christ church, and chaplain to the
bishop of London (1858), he succeeded archbishop Trench in 1864 as dean of Westmin-
ster. He is also chaplain to the prince of "Wales, and chaplaiu-in-ordinary to the queen.
In 1863 he married lady Augusta Bruce, daughter of the 7th lord Elgin (died 1876). He
was elected lord rector of St. Andrew's university in 1874. Stanley is one of the most
accomplished and liberal theologians of this age, and may be fairly regarded as the leader
of the "broad church" party. In virtue of his literary genius, solid acquirements, and
sympathetic and generous piety, he ranks among the most eminent of living Christian
teachers. His principal writings, besides his contributions to Smith's classical diction-
aries, are the Life of Dr. Arnold (1844); Sermons and Essays on the Apostolical Aye (1846);
Memoir of Bishop Stanley (1850); The Epistles to the Corinthians (1854); Sinai and Pale-
tme (1855); The Unity of Evangelical and Apostolical Teaching (1859); Lectures on the
Eastern Church (1861); Lectures on the Jewish Church (1863-65 and 1876); Sermons
preached before the University of Oxford (1860-63); Historical Memorials of Westminster
Abbey (1867); The Three Irish Churches (3d. ed. 1869); Essays on Church and State (1870);
The Athanasian Creed (1871) ; and Lectures on the History of the Church of Scotland (1872).
In 1874 he published, with a preface, a collection of reports on the Utrecht psalter.

STANLEY, DAVID SLOANE, b. Ohio, 1828; graduate of West Point, 1852; distin-
guished himself in the war with the Comanche Indians, following them to their defeat in
the Wichita mountains, 1859. At the beginning of the rebellion he held the rank of capt.
4th cavalry, rising to maj.gen. of volunteers, 1862. After gallant service at Wilson's
creek he was disabled by a fall from his horse, and on his recovery commanded the 2d
division of the army of the Mississippi under gen. Pope, performing effective service at
luka and Corinth; chief of cavalry, army of the Cumberland, 1862; went with the
expedition to Huntsyille, Ala., crossed the Tennessee, and marched to the sea with
Sherman. He was disabled on the field of Franklin, Tenn.. where his presence saved
the day.

STANLEY, The Right Hon. EDWARD HENRY SMITH, now Earl of Derby, nn eminent
English statesman, eldest son of the fourteenth earl of Derby (q.v.), was born at the
family-seat, Knowsley park, Lancashire, July 21, 1826; was educated at Rugby, and at
Trinity college, Cambridge, where he concluded a distinguished university career by
taking a first class in classics in 1848, together with a declamation prize and mathemati-
cal honors. He early adopted the profession of statesmanship, and especially applied
himself to the studj' of social and economical questions. During his absence on a tour
in Canada, the United States, and the West Indies, he was elected (Dec., 1848) M.r. for
King's Lynn on the death of lord G. Bentinck. He afterward visited the east, and was
still in India when his father received the queen's commands to form an administration
in which Stanley was appointed under-secretary for foreign affairs. In 1855, on the
death of sir W. Molesworth, lord Palmerston paid him the compliment of offering him
the seals of the colonial office. The offer was declined; but in 1858 he was appointed to
the secretaryship of the colonies in lord Derby's administration, and was soon called
upon to succeed the earl of Ellenborough (q.v.) as president of the board of control i'or
the affairs of India. The great Indian mutiny had not yet been quelled, and it devolved
upon Stanley to frame resolutions and bring in a bill abolishing the East India company
(q.v.), and transferring their Indian possessions to the direct government of the crown.
This duty he performed with consummate ability. The great mutiny wns put clown
during his secretaryship, and in Feb. 1859 he had to meet the legacy of financial dis-
organization which it bequeathed. The Derby government resigned before Stanley
could carry out his plans for establishing the finances of India on a sounder basis; but
he gave effective support to his successor in office, in reducing the military expenditure,
and other measures of administrative improvement. In his father's third administration,
formed in July, 1866. he was invested with the office of secretary of state for foreign
affairs, and the ability and tact he displayed in conducting the negotiations for the fct-
tlement of the Luxemburg difficulty obtained for him a considerable amount of popu-
larity. He continued in this office till the accession of the Gladstone ministry to power
in 1868. In April, 1869, he was installed lord-rector of the university of Glasgow, and
in October of the same year, on the death of his father, he took his seat in the house of
lords. He was again made foreign secretary by Mr. Disraeli in 1874; but on account of
U. K. XIII. 49



Stanley.
StaSwlx.

divergence from the views of the premier on the eastern question, he, like his colleague,
the earl of Carnarvon, retired from the ministry early in 1878. In 1874 he was elected
lord-rector of Edinburgh university. His speeches are remarkable for admirable good
sense and perfect clearness. He is distinguished by his support of working-men's insti-
tutes, and of the cause of popular education.

STANLEY, HENRY M., American journalist, and explorer of Africa, was born in
1841. The place of his birth has been matter of dispute. He became notable as special
correspondent of the New York Herald, and in that capacity traveled in various parts of
the world, accompanying for example the English expeditions to Abyssinia and
Ashantee. But it was as the "discoverer of Livingstone" that Stanley suddenly
obtained a world-wide reputation. Commissioned by the proprietor of his newspaper
Stanley started from Zanzibar in April, 1871, and succeeded in meeting Livingstone at
Ujiji on Nov. 10 what an expedition equipped by English " Livingstone relief commit-
tees" had failed to accomplish. On his arrival in England in July, 1872, Stanley was
received with universal acclamation; but by his subsequent exploration of the lake
region of equatorial Africa, and of the Lualaba-Congo (see CONGO) in 1874-77 he has
placed himself in the front rank of African travelers. Under a joint commission from
the New York Herald and the London Daily Telegraph Stanley started from the e. coast
of Africa in 1874, circumnavigated the Victoria N'yanza, marched across country to the
Albert N'yanza, and then coming s. again examined part of Tanganyika and its outlet
toward the Lualaba. From Unyanyembe he pushed onward along the course of the
Lualaba, supported by a large party of followers, and frequently having to repel violence
by force of arms; and arriving at the mouth of the Congo in Aug., 1877, he proved that
those surmises were correct which identified the Congo with the great and many-named
river issuing from the lake country s.w. of Tanganyika. Of Stanley's works, How I
found Livingstone appeared in 1872; My Kalulu in 1872; Coomassie and Magdala in 1874;
Through the Dark Continent in 1878.

STANLEY, J. M., b- Canandaigua, N.Y., 1814: after a year's residence in Michigan
began his profession of portrait-painting in 1835. He visited the Indians, made himself
acquainted with tlieir habits and ways, and painted the portraits of the principal chiefs,
which were placed on exhibition at the Smithsonian institution, but in 1865 were de-
stroyed by fire. In 1851-63 he resided in Washington, but has since removed to Detroit.

STANLEY, THOMAS, 1625-78; b. England. He graduated from Cambridge in 1641,
traveled in Europe, and studied law. lie published Poems and Translations, and a
History of Philosophy. In 1663 appeared his edition of The Tragedies of ^Sichylus, with
Latin translation and a commentary. An edition of his poems was published in 1814
with a biographical memoir by sir Egerton Brydges.

STANNARIES (Lat. stannum, tin), the mines from which tin is dug. The term is
most generally used with reference to the peculiar laws and usages of the tin mines in
the counties of Cornwall and Devon. By an early usage peculiar to these counties, the
prerogative of the crown, elsewhere reaching only to gold and silver mines, is extended
to mines of lin, which are the property of the sovereign, whoever be the owner of the
soil. A charter of king John to his tinners in Cornwall and Devonshire, of date 1201,
authorized tliem to dig tin, and turf to melt the tin, anywhere in the moors, and in the
fees of bishops, abbots, and earls, as they had been used and accustomed a privilege
afterward confirmed by successive monarchs. When Edward III. created his son, the
black prince, duke of Cornwall, he at the same time conferred on him the stannaries of
Devon and Cornwall, which were incorporated in perpetuity with the duchy. Their
administration is committed to an officer called the lord warden of the stanneries, who
has two substitutes or vice-wardens, one for Cornwall and one for Deron. In former
times representative assemblies of the tinners (called parliaments) were summoned by
the warden under a writ from the duke of Cornwall, for the regulation of the stannaries
and redress of grievances; the last of them was held in 1752. The stannary courts are
courts of record held by the warden and vice-warden, of the same limited and exclusive
character as the courts-palatine, in which the tinners have the privilege of suing and
being sued. They were remodeled and regulated by acts 6 and 7 Will. IV. c."l06,
2 and 3 Viet. c. 58, and 18 and 19 Viet. c. 32. The last mentioned statute provides that
from all the decrees and orders of the vice-warden on the common-law side, there shall
be an appeal to the lord warden, who is to be assisted by two assessors, members of the
judicial committee of the privy council, or judges of the high court of chancery, or
/court of common law at Westminster; and from the lord warden there is a final appeal
to the judicial committee of the privy council.

In the county of Cornwall the right to dig tin in unlnclosed or "wastrel " lands within
specified bounds may be acquired by one who is not the owner of the lands, on going
through certain formalities, the party acquiring this right being bound to pay one-
fifteenth to the owner of the lands. An ancient privilege by which the duke of Corn
wall had the right of pre-emption of tin throughout that county has long fallen into
abeyance; and certain duties to which he was entitled on the stamping or coinage of tin
were abolished by 1 and 2 Viet. c. 120.

STANNIC ACID. See TIN.



m Stanley.

Stanwix.

STANOVOI', or STANOWOI KHREBET (Framework mountains), an extensive mountain
chain in Siberia, in the extreme n.e. of Asia, forms the watershed between the rivers
which flow n. into the Arctic ocean, and those which are tributary to the Amoor. The
chain extends in an e.n.e. direction from the Transbaikal territory along the shores of
the sea of Okhotsk, separating into several branches, one of which stretches e. to
Behring's strait. Of this great mountain chain, the length of which is estimated at
8,000 m., little is known further than that it is elevated and rugged, and that its peaks
are covered with perpetual snow.

STANSTEAD, a co. in s.e. Quebec, having lake Memphremagog for its w. boundary;
drained by lake Massawippi in the n. ; 408 sq.in. ; pop. '71, 13,188. It is bounded on the
s. by the state line of Vermont, and is intersected by the Stanstead, Shefford and
Chambly, the Massawippi Valley, and the Grand Trunk railways. Co. seat, Stanstead
Plain.

ST ANTON, a co. in s.w. Kansas, having the state line of Colorado for its w. boundary;
660 sq. m. ; pop. '80, 5 5 of American birth. It is drained by branches of the Arkansas
river. The surface is rolling, and adapted to grain culture and grazing. It is unorgan-
ized.

ST ANTON, a co. in n.e. Nebraska, drained by the n. branch of the Elkhorn, river,
Maple, and Taylor creeks; 576 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 1813 1131 of American birth. The
surface is undulating, thinly timbered, and adapted to grain culture and grazing. It is
intersected by the Sioux City and Pacific railroad. Co. seat, Stanton.

STANTON, EDWIN McMASTERS, 1814-69; b. Ohio; of Quaker stock, originally from
Culpeper co.,Va. ; graduated from Kenyon college in 1838. He entered a book-seller's
store in Columbus, Ohio, where he remained but a brief time; studied law, and was admit-
ted to the Columbus bar in 1836. He first practiced in Cadiz, Ohio, and became prosecut-
ing attorney of the county; afterward practiced in Steubeuville, Ohio; and in 1839-42,
reported the decisions of the supreme court of the state. In 1848 he settled in Pittsburg,
Penii., where he became the leader of the bar, and gained a high reputation for his mas-
terly arguments in the case of the state of Pennsylvania vs. the Wheeling Bridge company.
In 1856 he removed to Washington and practiced extensively before the L. S. supreme court.
In 1858 he was in California acting as counsel of the United States in certain important
land cases. After Mr. Lincoln's election in 1860, on the resignation of Mr. Cass from the
cabinet, and the appointment of Mr. Black, then attorney -general, to succeed him, Mr.
Stanton was appointed attorney-general. At the close of Mr. Buchanan's administra-
tion in the following March he retired with the other outgoing members of the cabinet;
but in Jan., 1882, was recalled by Mr. Lincoln, and took the portfolio of secretary of
war, in which office he sustained the burden of the vast war operations of the govern-
ment to a degree that was not equaled by any other one man. His administration was
marked by a course of integrity, comprehensive judgment, determination, and force
which won for him the admiration of his countrymen. He was in advance of the presi-
dent in humanitarian leanings with regard to the negro, the severity of his nature being
curiously softened in this connection. Mr. Lincoln viewed the integrity of the entire polit-
ical system in his conduct of affairs, rather than any one element thereof, and it was not
until after long effort on the part of Mr. Stanton that he was induced to specially enter-
tain the negro question on its own merits, and to take that definite course which resulted
in the emancipation act. Mr. Stanton continued a member of the cabinet under presi-
dent Johnson's administration until May 26, 1868. His resignation occurred after a
serious and painful imbroglio, which resulted in the impeachment of Mr. Johnson,
which impeachment was not sustained on trial. Congress passed a vote of thanks to
Mr. Stanton on his retirement. He resumed the practice of his profession, but his health
was broken by his long and arduous labors, and he was speedily forced to retire from
active employment. On Dec. 20, 1869, president Grant nominated him an associate jus-
tice of the supreme court, and he was at once confirmed by the senate. He died four
days after this appointment.

STANTON, ELIZABETH CADY, b. N. Y., 1815; married Henry B. Stanton in 1848.
She attended the world's anti-slavery convention at London, where she met Lucretia
Mott, with whom she signed the call for the first woman suffrage convention in 1848.
This convention, which met at her house in Seneca Falls, N.Y., made the first formal
demand for woman suffrage. She lias addressed .several constitutional conventions and
congressional committees, and canvassed Kansas in 1867, and Michigan in 1874, in behalf
of her cause. '

STANTON, HENRY BREWSTER, b. Conn., 1805; studied theology at Lane seminary;
was delegate to the world's anli-slavory convention, London, 1840", and its secretary;
admitted to the bar in Boston, 1842; removed to Seneca Falls, N. Y., 1848; was Mate
senator, 1849 and 1851. He published Jitfun/ix <fad Reformers of Great Britain and
Ireland, and for many years contributed to the New York Tribune and New York Sun.
He has been a popular anti-slavery lecturer.

STANWIX, JOHN, 1690-1765; b. England; entered the army, 1706; became capt. of
grenadiers, 1739; maj. of marines, 1741; lieut. col., 1745; equerry to Frederick, prince of
Wales, 1749: made governor of Carlisle, and represented it in parliament, 1750; deputy



Stanza.
Starch.

quartermaster gen. of the forces, 1754; sent to America as commander of the 60tli, or
royal Americans, and put in charge of the southern district with headquarters at Carlisle,
Penn., 1757; made brig. gen. ; was sent to Albany, 1758, and ordered to erect a fort at
the Oneida carry ing place, -which in his honor was called fnri Stamvix; returned to Penn-
sylvania, 1759; became maj. gen. ; returned to England, and became member of parlia-
ment.

STANZA. See RHYME.

STAPE LIA. See CARRION FLOWERS.

STAPHYLE'A AND STAPHYLEA'CEJE. See BLADDER -NUT.

STAPHYLO MA (from the corresponding Greek word, derived from stapliyle, n hunch
of grapes, or, in this case, rather a grape at the end of a stalk) is a term employed by
the oculist to signify any protrusion on the anterior surface of the eye. Btaphyloma
of the iris occurs when there is a protrusion of the iris through a perforation of the
cornea, consequent either on ulceration or on a wound. Staphyloma of the cornea
occurs when that coat of the eye is more or less completely destroyed, and when the
cicatrix with which the iris has become covered is caused to protrude, by the pressure of
the fluids of the eye, in the form of an opaque white prominence. It is unnecessary to
enter into details of the treatment of these affections, which must be left entirely to the
hands of the surgeon.

STAPLE (Ang.-Sax. stapel, a prop, support; aheap, and hence a place where goods
are stored up or exposed for sale), a term applied, in the commerce of the middle ages,
in the first instance, to the towns in which the chief products of a country were sold, and
afterward to the merchandise that was sold at the staple towns. The staple towns, at first
chosen from convenience, came in the course of time to be invested with important privi-
leges. The staple merchandise of England has been enumerated as wool, wool-fells (i.e.,
sheep-skins), leather, lead, and tin, to which have sometimes been added butter, cheese,
and cloth. Wool was, however, in point of fact, a far more important article of export
than any of the rest, and was really the subject of those multitudinous regulations which
fixed the staple in particular towns, both of England and of the continent. Goods
intended for exportation had, in the first instance, to be exposed for sal? at the staple
town; the principal purpose of this regulation being, probably, to restrict commerce to
those places where the officers who collected the king's customs could superintend it.
.Another object kept in view in the provisions made in the 13th and 14th centuries with
respect to the staple was the encouragement of the resort of foreign merchants; indeed,
greater privileges seem to have been accorded to the foreign than to the English mer-
chants who attended the staple.

A tribunal of great antiquity, called the court of the staple, had cognizance of all
questions which should arise between merchants, native or foreign. It was composed of
an officer, called the mayor of the staple, re-elected yearly by the native find foreign
merchants who attended the staple; two constables, appointed for life, also chosen by
the merchants; a German and an Italian merchant; and six mcdiii'ors between buyers
and sellers, of whom two were English, two German, and two I onil ard. The law
administered was the lex mercatoria, and there was a provision that c; uses in which one
party was a foreigner should be tried by a jury one-half of whom were foreigners. Tlie
most important legislative enactments regarding the staple and the court of staple were
the statute of action Burnel (11 Edward I.), by which merchants were enabled to sell
the chattels of their debtor, and attach his person for debt; 13 Edw. I. c. 3; and 27
Ed. III. c. 2, called the statute of staple, one object of which was to ren.ove the staple
formerly held at Calais to certain towns in England, Wales, and Ireland. With the
growth of commerce the staples became more and more neglected, and :;t last fell alto
gether into disuse.

STAPLETON, a villasre in s. New York, Richmond co., Staton Island, on the shore
of New York bay; pop. '70, about 10,000. It is 8 m. s. of New York city, on the Staten
Island railroad, and contains 10 churches, a private institute, public schools, and a cir-
culating library. The surrounding heights are occupied by many elegant residences.
It is supplied with water, lighted with gas, has an infirmary, and is the seat of several
public institutions industrial and benevolent. The seamen's retreat, nccoirmodnting 200
sick seamen, the old ladies' home of the mariner's industrial society, and the Keutgeu



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 178 of 203)