Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 181 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 181 of 203)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


account of the Irish famine of 1847, in the Dublin Medical Pres*, Feb., 1848, p. 67. The
following are the most striking sj'mptoms: In the first place, pain is felt in the stomach,
which is relieved on pressure. The countenance becomes pale and cadaverous; the eyes
are wild and glistening; the breath hot, the mouth parched, and the saliva thick and
scanty. An intolerable thirst supervenes, which, if there be no access to water, becomes
the most distressing symptom. The body becomes gradually emaciated, and begins to
exhale a peculiar fcetor, while the skin becomes covered with a brownish dirty-looking
and offensive secretion almost as indelible as varnish, which Donovan at first mistook
for encrusted filth. The bodily strength rapidly declines; the sufferer totters in walking,
like a drunken man; his voice becomes weak and whining, and he is ready to burst into
tears on the slightest occasion. In the cases recorded by Donovan, imbecility, and
sometimes almost complete idiocy, ensued, but in no instance was there delirium or
inania, which has been described as a symptom of starvation in cases of shipwreck. On
examination after death, the condition of the body is such as might be expected from
Chossat's experiments, viz., extreme general emaciation; loss of size and weight of the
principal viscera; almost complete bloodlessness, except in the brain; ;ind the gall-
bladder distended with bile, which tinges the neighboring parts. Moreover, decomposi-
tion rapidly ensues.

It is impossible to fix the exact time during which life can be supported under entire
abstinence from food or drink. Dr. Sloan has given an account of a healthy man, aged
65, who was found alive after having been shut up in a coal mine for 23 days, during
the first ten of which he was able to procure a small quantity of foul water. He was in
a state of extreme exhaustion, and notwithstanding that he was carefully nursed, he
died three days after his rescue. Dr. Willan records the case of a young gentleman
who, under the influence of religious delusion, starved himself to death. He survived
for sixty days, during which time he took nothing but a little orange juice. In this
case, life was probably abnormally prolonged in consequence of the peculiar emotional
excitement of the patient. Judging from the cases of abstinence owing to disease of the
throat and impossibility of swallowing, Dr. Taylor infers "that in a healthy person
under perfect abstinence, death would not commonly take place in a shorter period than
a week or ten days."

It is worthy of notice that a deficient supply of food seems to check the elimination
and removal of the effete materials of the body. This fact accounts not only for the
tendency to putrescence, which is exhibited during the process of starvation, and for the
rapidity with which putrefaction ensues after death, but for the pestilential diseases
which almost always follow a severe famine; the excess of disintegrated matter in the
blood rendering the system especially prone to the reception and multiplication of the
diseases characterized as zymotic, such as fever, cholera, etc.

STASSFURT, a t. in Prussian Saxony, on the Bode river, in the vicinity of the
Hartz mountains, 20 m. s.w. of Magdeburg; pop. 11,263. It contains manufactories of



Stutant.
State.

chemicals, and a mine of rock salt, discovered in 1837 at a depth of 826 ft. , forming an
immense layer 1000 ft. thick. Mining operations by means of steam engines were com-
menced in 1852. In 1864 the product amounted to 2,071,880 cwt. It has also a mine of
potash salts.

STA'TANT, in heraldry, a term applied to an animal standing still, with all the feet
touching the ground. If the face be turned to the spectator, it is said to be statant
gardant, or in the case of a stag, at gaze.

STATEMENT, in Scotch law, is sometimes used technically to denote the account
given before the sheriif by a person when arrested on a criminal charge. It is called the
prisoner's declaration in England.

STATEN ISLAND, a beautiful and picturesque island, which forms the w. shore of
the bay and narrows, and the s. shore of the harbor of New York. It contains 584 sq.m.,
forming the county of Richmond, divided into 5 townships. Its shores are dotted with
villages, and its heights crowned with villas. A narrow sound, the Kill van Kull,
separates it from New Jersey. Four strong forts guard, with those on the opposite shores
of Long Island, the entrance to the harbor, and the Hudson and East rivers. There are
asylums for sick or disabled seamen and families of seamen. Pop. '75, 35,241.

STATEN ISLAND (ante), an island belonging to New York state, and constituting
with a few smaller islands near by, the county of Richmond. It lies s.w. of the city of
New York, being separated from it by New York bay, and from Long Island by the
Narrows on the n.e. ; Staten Island sound, the Kill van Kull, and Newark bay divide it
from New Jersey; Raritan bay is on the s. and s.e, ; 58^ sq.m. ; pop. '80, 38,964-26,043
of American birth. There are five towns, Castleton, Middletown, Northfield, Southtield
and Westfield, and four villages. New Brighton, Port Richmond, Totteuville and Sta-
pleton. A railroad runs from Clifton to Tottenville, and the island is connected with the
metropolis by steam ferries. Close to the e. shore is the quarantine establishment; Forts
Tompkins and Wads worth lie on the n.e. coast. In the island are many beautiful coun-
try seats and residences of New York merchants and others. Iron ore is found. Co.
seat, Richmond.

STATEN ISLAND, an island off the s.e. point of Tierra del Fuego, from which it ig
separated by the strait of Le Maire. It is about 45 m. in length from e. to w., and about
10 m. at its greatest breadth, its shores much indented. Its eastern extremity is cape
St. John, in lat. 54 42' s., and long. 63 43 west. The surface is mountainous, descending
to the sea in steep slopes and precipices ; its general character similar to that of Tierra
del Fuego.

STATES, or ESTATES, in politics, the name given to the classes of the population who
either directly or by their representatives take part in the government of a country. In
all European countries where the northern conquerors established themselves, the rudi-
ments of representative government appeared in the form of assemblies brought together
to deliberate with the sovereign on the common weal. These assemblies at first consisted
of the two estates of the clergy and the nobility or baronage, who together constituted
the whole free population of the realm; the nobiiity including not merely the greater
barons, but the whole freeholders. As the burgesses gradually emancipated themselves,
and rose into importance, they formed a third estate. In France we find the tiers etat,
or citizens, recognized in the states-general (q.v.) in 1302. In Scotland the earliest
occasion on which the burghs are mentioned as attending and concurring in a grant of
taxation, is in the parliament held at Cambuskenneth in 1326, in which Robert Bruce set
forth to the assembled estates the diminished condition of the royal income in conse-
quence of the protracted struggle through which the country had come. The burgesses
represented by the commissioners for the burghs, continued in Scotland to be a separate
estate, and were not, as in England, amalgamated with the knights and lesser barons,
who, in the Scots parliament, were always classed with the baronage. The lesser barons
were, however, first allowed, and latterly enjoined, to appear by representatives; and
the three estates of clergy, barons, and burgesses all sat and deliberated in one house.
In England, on the other hand, the knights and lesser barons were at an early period
separated from the greater barons, and conjoined with the burgesses into the third
estate, which occupied a separate chamber from the lords spiritual and temporal. This
peculiarity in the original constitution of the tiers etat of England necessarily gave it a
weight which it did not possess elsewhere, and exercised an important influence on the
constitutional history of the country. As the peasants became emancipated, we also
find them in some countries taking a share in the legislative power, either as a part of
the tiers etat, or, as in Sweden, forming a fourth estate. The four estates of nobles,
clergy, citizens, and peasants were recognized in Sweden till 1866; and in the Swedish
legislature, as constituted, each had its separate chamber. Throughout Europe, except in
Russia (though in some small German states, such as Mecklenburg, the diet, representing
only the landed gentry and the towns, has very little authority), the co-operation of the
estates with the sovereign in the legislative power is more or less recognized. Some



>700 Statant,

' <> State.

assemblies have but one chamber, but more of them have two. The lower chamber is
always wholly, or partly, elective, but sometimes consists of separate delegates from the
different orders of the community, and has representatives of landed proprietors, of
towns, of peasants, and of traders and manufacturers. The upper house or senate is in
some constitutions hereditary; in some, it consists of members named by the sovereign
or by the nobility, or some other class of the community, and often it combines these
elements. In a few instances, as in Brazil, it is elected by the same constituency as the
lower house, and differs only in the higher property qualification required of its mem-
bers.

STATES EVIDENCE, a term in common use to describe the testimony of an accom-
plice in a crime against the other principals, given under an agreement, expressed or
understood, with the prosecuting otiicer, that the informer shall go unpunished in con-
sideration of his aid to the state. Such evidence is regarded as of little value if uncor-
roborated by other witnesses or circumstances; and it is usual for the court to instruct
the jury that it is to be regarded with suspicion unless confirmed in material points by
other testimony. It is for the states-attorney or other prosecuting agent to determine in
wuat cases and with \vhicb parties an agreement can properly be made without com-
promising the interest of justice and good order.

STATES-GENERAL (Fr. etats generaux}, the name which was given to the convocation
of the representative body of the three orders of the French kingdom ; so named in contra-
distinction from the etats provinciaux, or assemblies of the provinces. As far back as
the time of Charlemagne, there were assemblies of clergy and nobles held twice a year to
deliberate on matters of public importance; and in these assemblies the extensive body
of laws bearing the name of the capitularies of Charlemagne was enacted. The succeed-
ing centuries, however, were adverse to free institutions; and these national convocations,
becoming gradually less important, seem to have ceased to be held about 70 years after
Charlemagne's death. From that time forward, there is no trace of any national assem-
bly in France till 1302, when the etats generaitx, including the three orders of clergy,
nobles, and citizens, were convened by Philippe le Bel, with the view of giving greater
weight to the course adopted by the king in his quarrel with pope Boniface V III. In
1314 we find the states-general granting a subsidy: during the reigns of Philippe IV.
and his successor, the imposition of taxes by arbitrary authority was the subject of gen-
eral discontent; and in 1355 the states were strong enough to compel the government
to revoke the taxes so imposed. The states-general, however, though their consent
seems in strictness to have been considered requisite for any measure imposing a general
taxation, had, unlike the assemblies under the Carlovingian kings, no right of redressing
abuses except by petition, and no legislative power. Under Charles VI. and Charles
VII. the states-general were rarely convened, and it was often found more convenient to
ask supplies from the provincial states. But as the royal authority increased, the for-
mality of any convention of states general or provincial gradually censed to be regarded
as indispensable, and a final and unsuccessful struggle for immunity from taxation took
place at the states-general of Tours in 1484. Louis XIII. convoked the states-general,
after a long interval, in 1614. but dismissed them for looking too closely into the finances;
and from mat time down to the revolution, the crown, with the tacit acquiescence of the
people, exercised the exclusive powers of taxation and government. In 1789 the mem-
orable convention of the states- general took place, which ushered in the revolution. As
soon as they had assembled, a dispute arose between the two privileged orders and the
third estate as to whether. they should sit and vote in one chamber or separately. The
tiers etat, of its own authority, with such deputies of the clergy as chose to join them
none of the nobles accepting their invitation assumed the title of the assemblee
nationale, a name by which the states-general had previously been sometimes designated.
See ASSEMBLY NATIONAL.

The name states-general is also applied to the now existing legislative body of the
kingdom of the Netherlands (q.v.). It is so called in contradistinction from the provin-
cial states, which are legislative and administrative assemblies for the several provinces.

STATE STATE RIGHTS. The term state has a rather indefinite application in
several directions ; originating, however, in each instance, in the attribute of concentration,
or organization; assumed possibly, in the instance of a people, for the purpose of self-
preservation or defense. By a very common movement in language, the term becomes
also applicable to the method or form employed for carrying out the original design.
Thus a state is an orgnized body, made up, perhaps, of 'different races and different
speaking peoples; having the object of union under one system of government and one
general "policy. And the state, in tlmt instance, would be the actual r.ystem of govern-
ment and policy, which ruled the bod}- in question. Thus, Louis XlV. " L'etat, c'est
moi." In the case of the United States, the entrance into that condition WMS a transition
from that of provinces, or colonies; and, therefore, more readily accomplished than it
could otherwise have been. The concentration and organization were there, and it was
only necessary to endow these with the functions of self-srovernment and a systematic
policy, to create a state. The question of "state rights," is one which occurred after
tlie confederation, and on the formation of a more perfect union. Certain of these rights



S tat lee.
Statistics.

being withdrawn from the states and given to the general government, the actual con-
dition of independence in their case was just so far vacated. It became a question, so
far as rights still vested were concerned, whether or not these were perpetual, or if they
could also be withdrawn ou the application of a similar process, or in the natural order
of things tinder the new system. As to this,- the most learned expounders of constitu-
tional law are at issue; and the point becomes, in fact, one to be decided in the case of
instances as they arise, and with a due regard for national and interstate, as well as
individual relations.

STATICE, a genus of plants of the natural order plumbaginea, having a funnel-shaped
membranaceous, and plaited corollo; the flowers in spikes on one ^ide ot a ] anicled,
leafless, flowering stem (scape). Several species are natives of Britain, growing near the
sea, most of them on muddy shores and in salt marshes. The root of utatice Curoliniana,
called marsh rosemary, is used in North America for all the purposes of kino and catechu,
and is a very powerful astringent.

STAT ICS (Gr. root sta, to stand), the science of the equilibrium or balancing of forces
on a body or system of bodies, has gradually advanced from the days of Archimedes to
the vast developments it has now acquired. Singularly enough, though most of its
simpler theorems are very generally known, are almost popular, in fact, there is no
science in which elementary teaching is so defective. The ordinary proofs of its
fundamental principles, such as the parallelogram of forces, the principle f the lever,
etc., are usually founded on the supposition that a body in equilibrium is absolutely at
rest. Now, any one who knows that the earth rotates about its axis, that it revolves
about the sun, that the sun is in motion relatively to the so-called fixed stars; that they
are in all probability, in motion about something else which is itself in motion, etc., will
at once see that there is no such thing as absolute rest, and that relative rest or muliou,
unchanged with reference to surrounding bodies, is all that we mean l,y equilibrium.
He will then, at once, see that the foundations of statics are to be sought in the Laws of
Motion (q.v.). And, in fact, Newton's second law of motion gives us the necessary
and sufficient conditions of equilibrium of a single particle under the action of any
forces; while his third law, with the annexed scholium, gives these conditions for any
body or system of bodies whatever.

. The simplest statement of the conditions of equilibrium of a rigid body which can be
given, is that furnished by this scholium of Newton's, which is now known by the name
of the principle of energy (see FORCE) or work (q.v.). It is as follows: A rigid body is in
equilibrium if, and is not equilibrium unless, in any small displacement whatever, no
work is done on the whole by the forces to which it is subject. In the case of what are
called the mechanical powers (q.v.), this is equivalent to the statement that work
expended on a machine is wholly given back by the machine or that the work done by
the pouer is equal to the work spent in overcoming the resistance.

It is shown in the geometrical science of kinematics that any motion whatever of a
rigid body can be reduced to three displacements in any three rectangular directions,
together with tJiree rotations about any three rectangular axes so that the equilibrium
of a rigid body is secured if no work be done on the whole in any of these six displace-
ments. There are thus six conditions of equilibrium for a rigid body under the action of
any forces and these are reduced to three (two displacements and one rotation), if the
forces are confined to one plane; and to one (a displacement) if the forces act all in one
line.

Equilibrium may be stable, unstable, or neutral. It is said to be stable if the body,
when slightly displaced in any way from its position of equilibrium, r.nd left free, tends
to return to that positio^. It is unstable if there is any displacement possible which
will leave the body in a position in which it tends lo fall further awny from its position
of equilibrium. It is neutral if the body, when displaced, is still in equilibrium. It is
easily shown, but we cannot spare space for the proof, that a position of stable equilib-
rium is, in general, that in which the potential energy (see FORCE) of the body is a mini-
mum of unstable equilibrium, where it is a maximum (for some one direction of dis-
placement at least) -of neutral equilibrium, where the potential energy remains
unchanged by any small displacement. Thus a perfect sphere, of uniform material, is
in neutral equilibrium on a horizontal plane while an oblate spheroid, with its axis of
rotation vertical, is in stable equilibrium: and a prolate spheroid, with its axis vertical,
is in unstable equilibrium on the plane. Similar statements hold for other than rigid
bodies. Thus, a chain, or a mass of fluid, is in stable equilibrium when its potential
energy is least, i.e., when its center of gravity is as low as possible. This simple state-
ment is sufficient for the mathematical solution of either question.

STATIONERY, a very general term applied to the materials connected with writing,
such as paper, books for accounts drawing, etc., envelopes, sealing materials; and even
writing-desks, blotting-books, albums, porte-feuilles, pocket-books, red tape, and many
other necessaries of the writing-desk, are included.

STATIONERY OFFICE, on office in London established by the lords of the treasury in
1786, for the purpose of purchasing, wholesale, writing materials for the supply of the



7 QZ Statico.

Statistics

government offices .it home and abroad. It also contracts for the printing of all
ta and cither matters laid before the house of commons. The duties are performed
by a comptroller, a storekeeper, and about 30 elerks or other subordinate officers.
There is r, branch establishment in Dublin. The appointments are made by the lords of
the trea>ury.

STATIONS (Lat. afnti"'), a name applied in the Roman Catholic church to certain
places reputed of special sanctity, which are appointed to be visited as places of prayer.
The name i~ particularly applied in this sense to certain churches in the city of Home,
which, from an early period, hare been appointed as ehurehes which the faithful are
particularly invited to visit on stated davs. The names of these churches are found on the
several days in the Roman missal prefixed to the liturgy peculiar to the day. The word,
however, is employed in a still more remarkable manner in reference to a very popular
and widely-received devotional practice of the Roman Catholic church, known as that
of "the stations of the cross." This devotion prevailed in all Catholic countries; and
the traveler often recognizes it even at a distance by the emblems which are employed in
directing its observance the lofty " Calvary'' crowning some distant eminence, with a
series of fresco-pictures or Iws-reliefs arranged at intervals along the line of approach.
Tiiese representations, the subjects of which are supplied by scenes from the several
stages of th'' passion of our Lord, are called stations of the cross, and the whole series
is popularly known as the Vl<i C/V//vV'. or way of Calvary. The origin of this devo-
tional exercise, like that of local pilgrimages, is traceable to the difficulty of access to
the holy places of Palestine, consequent on the Turkish occupation of Jerusalem and
the Holy Land: these representations being designed to serve as some analogous incen-
tive to t'he jiiety and faitli of the Christian worshiper of our Lord in his passion. The
number of the so-called " staiions" is commonly 14, although in some places 1;1, and in
others, as Vienna, only 11; but whatever maybe their number, the subject of all is a
:' pictorial narrative of the passion. The devotional exercise itself is performed
by kneeling at the ..several stations in m, and reciting certain prayers at each.

Form< of prayer are prescribed to those who c:in read. The poor and ignorant recite
the Lord's Prayer and Hail, Mary ! all being directed to fix their thought i.i grateful
memory upon " the sufferings which, each ivpresentatiou describes our Lord as having
undergone, in atonement for the sins of mankind.'' Many " indulgence, " are granted
to those who, having duly ren-nted of their sins, shall piously perform this exercise.
Many of thesv stations arc celebrated a.s works of art, especially one near Boiogna. Some
of those in the Alps and along the precipitous banks of the Rhine, Danube, and other
German rivers, are exceedingly striking and picturesque.

STATISTICAL COXGHESS. IXTKKXATIOXAL. The first congress of this character
wa- held on the suggestion of Mr. J. C. G. Kennedy, superintendent of the I". S. census,
and occurred in 18ol at Brussels.. To M. Adolph Quetelet, the eminent statistician, Ls
due the successful organi/.ation of these meetings, which were successively convened at
Paris. Vienna, London, Berlin. Florence, the Hague. St. Petersburg, and Buda-Pesth.
Their object has been to systematixe and define the statistical work of the countries rep-
resented, and the result accomplished in this direction has been valuable and suggestive.
Hon. Samuel B. Ruggles and Dr. Edward Young, ou the part of the United States, have
afforded valuable services in this connection.

STATISTICS, that branch of political science which has for its object the collecting
and arranging of facts bearing on the condition, social, moral, and material, of a people.
The word statistics was iir-t employed in the middle of last century by prof. Aciienwall of
Gottingen. who may be considered the founder of the science. Th" principle Ivinsrat
its foundation is, that the laws which govern nature, and more especially tho-e which
govern the moral and physical condition of mankind, are constant, and are to be di-n>v-



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 181 of 203)