Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 182 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 182 of 203)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

ered by the investigation ana comparison of phenomena extending over a verv larire
number of instances. Accidental diversities tend to neutralize each other, their, influ-
ence diminishing as the area of investigation increases; and if that area be sufficiently
extended, they so ne;irly disappear, that we are entitled to disregard them altogether.
While the length of a sinirie life cannot be counted on. an average of 1000 or 10.000 lives
gives us a constant quantity, sufficiently near the truth to answer the purposes of insur-
ance companies. Even the acts which are the most purely voluntary as regards individ-
ual men, have been found' to be subject to laws which, in ivsjieet of the mas.-s which
make up society, are invariably in like circumstances, and discoverable.

The science of statistics has a twofold relation to political and social economy. The
facts collected by the stati-t are the bases on which political economy ivsts; their
application to social and economical problems is an appeal from imagination to fact.
But the statist must b guided by the political economist in what direction to extend
his investigations: without political economy, we should have had no statistics.

It would be difficult :<> Live any exhaustive enumeration of the multifarious topics

which may be the subject of statistical inquiries. The results of statistics have been

classified as 1. Problems regarding the nature of wealth and its production and

growth in a community; "2. Problems relating to inland and foreign trade; 8. Prob-.

U. K. XIII. 50


lenis relating to taxation and finance; 4. Problems regarding currency, banks, and
prices; 5. Problems relating to the wages and hire of labor, and the division of employ-
ments: and 6. Problems relating to the functions of the state as regards interference
with the economic relations of its subjects.

The statistical section added to the British association for the advancement of sci-
ence in 1833, and the London statistical society founded in 1834, have made some
valuable contributions to this science, and helped to diffuse a knowledge of its prin-
ciples and its importance. But while in some branches there is undoubtedly room
for the labors of individuals or associations, statistics are, generally speaking, more
appropriately the province of the state. The most important of the subjects with
which this science is cognizant, cannot be investigated without unrestricted access to
government offices, and authority to demand information; and the ordinary adminis-
tration of government is continually affording opportunities for the collection of the
most valuable statistical facts. For some time past, statistics have largely occupied
the attention of the more enlightened governments of Europe. The statistical reports
issued by the various departments of the French government deserve especial praise
for the comprehensiveness of their basis, and the clearness of their arrangement.
The government of Belgium has, since 1841, engaged with much diligence in statis-
tics, and Austria and Prussia have also their statistical departments. In the United
Kingdom, a department of the board of trade has, since 1832, been charged with col-
lectiug and publishing detailed and classified information obtained from various
departments of government regarding the revenues, population, commerce, wealth,
and moral and economical condition of the country and colonies, as well as a selec-
tion from the statistics of foreign countries. Every session of parliament, there are
also nuiiK'rous statistical returns called for, which no doubt sometimes contain valu-
able material, but being drawn up to suit the particular purpose of those who move
for them, they have too often a desultory, fragmentary character, and from the absence
of any general plan, are of little use but tor the moment. It has been suggested
that, by establishing a separate statistical department of government, we might at a
hardly greater cost, obtain a yearly resume of administrative statistics complete enough
to supersede, to a large extent, the present system of moving for returns whenever they
are wanted.

The frequent connection of statistics with political theories renders it important to
guard against premature statistical conclusions, of which two very fertile sources are cal-
culations from an. insufficient number of data, and neglect to make allowance for dis-
turbing causes.


STATUTE OF FRAUDS, in English law, is a statute which required certain contracts
and agreements to be in writing, in order to be binding in such cases. The object of the
statute 29 Char. II. c. 3, was to prevent the perjury which so frequently takes place
where the proof of the contract is left to the memory of the parties. All leases for more
than three years, and their assignments, must be in writing; and no freehold estate in
lands can be created except by writing. So promises and agreements to bind an execu-
tor or administrator personally must be in writing; as well as to bind one party for the
debt of another. So as to contracts made for the sale of land, or of interests in land;
and for the sale of goods above 10 in price, unless part of the goods have bceu accepted
and received, or partly paid for.


STATUTES, or ACTS OF PARLIAMENT, are those laws made from time to time hy the
legislature, which qualify and alter the common law or previous statutes. All laws may
be divided into common law and statutory law, the former being unwritten, the latter
being written. The theory as to the common law is, that it consists merely of ancient
usages, accepted by all, of which the written exposition has perished, but which tradi-
tion has kept alive: and much of the common law necessarily consists of what has some-
times been called judge-made law a department of law which has often been ignorantly
denounced as illegal or unconstitutional, but which is a necessary part of even' code, under
whatever name it is disguised. The legislature of this country consists of the queen, lords,
and commons in parliament assembled, and the statutes which they pass have been
likened by sir Matthew Hale to written contracts or indenture's, the general public being
bound, by their respective agents, as if by solemn deed. There is no legal mode of
altering the previously existing law, except by a statute passed with the consent of par-
liament; but there are other ways of modifying the law, so far as mere details of admin-
istration are concerned as, for example, by orders in council, by ordinances, by char-
ters, and by by-laws issued under some inherent or statutory power belonging to corpo-
rations. The mode in which a statute is made belongs properly to the head of proced-
ure in parliament. Statutes or acts of parliament are all founded on the theory that the
legislature has an inherent right to alter all previous laws or statutes; and though some-


by them, into public and private- the former applying to the whole public, the latter
only to the persons named or described. There is also a .subdivision of both into local
and persona] statutes. Suiuiles are also divided into declaratory, penal, or remedial,
according to the nature of their object. There are certain important rules as to the
interpretation of statutes, the chief business of the various courts of law and equity
being to construe or interpret the statutes. A statute begins to operate from the lime
When it receives the royal assent, unless it state some other" time for its commencement;
but formerly each statute was presumed to take effect from the beiriuninsr of the session
of parliament in which it passed, until the rule was changed, iu 1793, bjMhe act '33 Geo.
III. . c. 13. The leading rule in construing statutes is, that the words are to be taken in
their ordinary grammatical sense, unless the context shows that they are used in some
other sense. All other rules resolve more or less into this. There is also a well-known
rule that penal statutes are to be construed less strictly than other statutes of a remedial
kind. Another rule is, that a subsequent statute repeals one that is prior, cither
expressly or by necessary implication, if the prior one is inconsistent in substance.
Though it might seem an easy task to construe or interpret what is meant by a statute,
it is in practice so far from being easy that it requires a special traininsr and Ion? expe-
rience to arrive at an accurate mode of construction, the chief business of lawyers being
to acquire this art; and one excels another solely or chiefly by virtue of the tact, skill,
and accuracy of thinking which are required to'do such work in perfection. All the
main disputes in litigation turn chiefly ou the different interpretations put by parties on.
statutes or contracts, both of which are construed according to precisely the same rules.
Another rule applicable to statutes is, that each remains Tn force until it is repealed,
either expressly or impliedly. [So much confusion, however, has arisen out of the mul-
tiplicity of statutes, and it is so difficult for lawyers to discover what statutes have been
so impliedly repealed, that of late years a process of revision and examination has been
instituted by the government with a view to repeal expressly all that is obsolete and that
is already only impliedly repealed, so as to reduce the bulk of the statutes, which have
now grown to an inconvenient si/.e. This task is preliminary to a codification of those
statutes which remain after such revision and expurgation.

STATUTES (ft nf<) are passed through congress or the state legislatures in a differ-
ent method from that in usage with legislative assemblies in Europe, where great pains
are taken in framing statutes, and specialists and lawyers are consulted in reference to
them. In Un-American legislature a bill may be presented by a private member, and
will then be referred to the proper committee, or a committe may introduce a bill. It
must then pass through three readings, of which the tirst two are formal. After its pas-
sage through both houses it is engros.-ed. signed by the presiding officer of each house,
and, if it receive the signature of the presiding officers and the executive, it becomes an
"act," and is filed in the office of the secretary of state. American statutes take effect
immediately, or a certain number of days after the session, or after passage.

STAUBBACH, FALL OF, a celebrated waterfall in the southern part of the canton of
Bern, Switzerland, 1 in. from the village of Lauterbrunnen. and 8m. s. of Interlaken.
It is one of the loftiest in Europe, having a descent of between 800 and 900 ft., but it
often disappoints visitors, wlio expect a swift loud-roaring- cataract, and find instead a
slender stream of water, concealing the face of the precipice like a " beautiful lace veil,
and imitating in its center the folds of the drapery.' 1 Long before it reaches the bottom
it is blown into a dust of silver spray, whence its name siaiibbuch (dust-stream). Both
Byron and Wordsworth have praised it iu verse.

STAVXTOX". a river in s.w. Virginia, 200 in. long, rising in Montgomery CO., flow-
ing s.e. through a gorge in the Blue Rid ire mountains. It separates the counties of
Franklin, Pittsylvania, and Halifax from the counties of Bedford. Campbell, and Char-
lotte, and unites at Clarksville with the Dan river to form the Roanoke. The upper por-
tion is sometimes called the Roanoke. In the first 20 m. It has a fall of 1000 feet.

STATTNTON, a rapidly increasing t. of Virginia, on a branch of the Sljcuandoah
river, 100 m. w.n.w. of Richmond. It was incorporated in 1749, and is the site of the
western *;tate lunatic 'asylum, and the deaf and dumb and blind asylums. It c< ntain> 9
churches, 3 newspapers, several academies and seminaries, mills, foundries, and manu-
factories. Pop. '70, 5,120.

STAVXTOX, HOWARD, 1810-74; b. England; received his education at Oxford, and
after extended travel settled in London, and devoted himself to literature and the game
of chess. He had great skill as a player, and was enthusiastic in his researches into the
obscure analysis of the game, lie became the editor of the CheKx-l'lnm-rx Ci< rnnicle ; also
edited the chess department of the Illustrated London Xeirs. In 1847 he published the
Cfu'ss- Player's Handbook; in 1849 the Companion ; in 1851 the Chess Tournament ; and
1860, Chess Praxis. He alo devoted much time and study to the works of Shakesj>eare,
of which he edited an edition in 1857-60. He also wrote Great School* of England, 1665.

Biauii ton. tr Q O


STAUNTON, WILLIAM. D.D. ; b. England, 1803; came to America, 1818; ordained in
the Protestant Episcopal church, 1834; rector of St. James's church, Roxbury, Muss.,
1835-40; of St. Peter's church, Brooklyn, 1848; rector at Potsdam, N. Y. He pub-
lished Dictionary of Phrases, /Subjects, and Usages of the Protestant Episcopal Church;
Book of Chants; Songs and Prayers for the Family Altar; Book of Common Praise; Vol-
untarics for the Organ. He is an authority on ecclesiastical music.

STAUPITZ, JOHANN VON, descended from an ancient noble family of Misnia, but
the date and place of his birth are unknown; studied theolgy at Tubingen; became an.
Augustinian monk; was called by Frederick the wise, elector of Saxony, to assist in found-
ing the university at Wittenberg; became in 1503 its dean and professor of theology; in
,1503 was made vicar-general of the Augustines for the province of Germany; procured
'for Luther in 1508 the chair of dialectics and ethics at Wittenberg; retired from Witten-
berg, 1519, to Salzburg, and became court-preacher, and in 1522 abbot of a Benedictine
convent. He was a w.arm f riend of Luther and the reformation. He wrote De A more
Dei and De Fide Christiana.

STAY ANGER, a sea-port t. of thew. coast of Norway, in the stift of Christiansand, 35
m. n.w. from the Naze, and 100 m. s. from Bergen, on the w. side of a wide and shel-
tered bay of the Bukne-fiord. It is a very ancient town, with a very fine old got hie
cathedral, built in 1013. Stavanger has cloth-manufactories and distilleries. Ship-
building is carried on. There is a considerable export trade in timber, oak-bark,
lobsters, herring, and stock-fish. Pop. '70, 17,653. ^

STAVES ACRE, Delpliinium stapJiisagria, a species of larkspur (q.v.), a native of the
s. of Europe. The seeds have been used in medicine from ancient times. They are too
violently emetic and cathartic to be safely employed; but in powder they are applied
to cutaneous eruptions, and are used for killing lice. Their properties depend upon an
alkaloid, Delphinia (C 21 H 19 NO 7 ), which is now used in medicine instead of the seeds,
chiefly in rheumatism and neuralgia. See LARKSPUR.

STAVRO'POL, a government in Russian Cnucasia, bounded on the n. by the govern-
ment of Astrakhan, and by the country of the Don Cossacks; by the Caspian sea on the
e. ; and by the Caucasus on the south. Area 27,009 sq.m. ; pop.'71, 437,118 The chief
rivers are the Kuban and Terek, forming the greater part of the southern boundary, and
the Kuma. Along the shores of the Caspian, there are no harbors, and only fishermen's
; boats_can approach the beach. The climate is milder in the e. than in the west. In the
s. w., "where the soil is fertile, and produces millet and wheat, agriculture is the chief
employment; in the n.e., the inhabitants lead a nomad life. Vineyards line the
banks of the Terek and Kuma, and mulberry trees are cultivated for the rearing of silk-
worms. Immense herds of oxen and sheep are sent to the interior of Russia.

STAVROPOL, capital of the government, stands on the chief highway from Europe
to the Caucasus, 200 m, s.e. of Rostov. It was founded in the end of the last c., and as
yet it is only important from its position. Pop. '67, 20,927.



STEAM. Steam is water in the gaseous form (see HEAT) When dry, it is invisible
and transparent, like air. and is not to be confounded -withrapor, which is steam returned
to the state of water, and thus become visible water-dust, as it were. As steam has
become the most important of all motive powers, the properties on which its action
depends deserve careful consideration. The development of steam is, naturally enouirh,
connected popularly with a high temperature, but the two things do not necessarily go
together. Water (or snow, or ice) gives off vapor or steam at erery temperature a'low
temperature not preventing the formation of steam, but. only decreasing its density.
The only limit to this evaporation is when the air surrounding the water (or snow, etc.)
is already saturated with vapor of the maximum density which the water can give off at
the existing temperature. Thus water at 32 F:ihr. will give off vapor of a pressure
equal to 0.085 Ib. per ; but if the air above it is already saturated with vapor of
that density, the tendency of the particles of water to fly apart is exactly balanced by
the pressure of the vapor on its surface, and no more evaporation takes place. It is
a remarkable fact, that while no atmospheric pressure can prevent the water or ice pass-
ing into vapor, the previous presence in the air of vapor of the required densiry (even
when so small as in the instance just given) entirely stops it.

At 32 Fahr., as we have already said, the vapor in the space a would exert a pres-
sure equal only to 0.085 Ib. per sq. inch. If the temperature were raised to 80, more
vapor would rise until its pressure became about 0.5 Ib. per; at 102 the
pressure would be 1 Ib. ; at 162, 5 Ibs. ; at 193, 10 Ibs. ; and so on, until at 212
Fahr. the pressure would be 14.7 Ibs., or exactly equal to that of the atmosphere.
When this point has been reached, it is evident that the piston will be in equilibria, the
pressure beneath it being exactly equal to that above. At each intermediate point the
downward pressure on pp is equal to the pressure of the atmosphere, minus the pressure
of the steam below the piston. So far as the piston is concerned, the conditions are
therefore the game as if the vacuum had been impaired by the introduction of a certain


quantity of air below pp; but there is this difference between the two cases: if the space
a had been occupied by raritied air, then, by forcing the piston down, and compressing
it into less space, its density would increase until its pressure became equal to or greater
than that of the external air. With steam, however, if the piston were depressed, and
if the tempi future of the steam were preserved the same, instead of its pressure being
increased, a portion of it would be liquefied, and the remainder would have the same
pressure as before.

It is at 213 that water in an open vessel begins to boil; that is, the vapor rises
rapidly and in volumes, being able to displace the atmosphere (see BOILING). In this
state it is usually called steam; but there is no essential difference between steam at 212
and steam at 60 J . The steam rising from boiling water in an open vessel is of the same
temperature as the water viz., 212; but notwithstanding this, it contains a great deal
more heat. This heat is employed in (lo use popular language) forcing asunder the mole-
cules of the steam, and thus causing it to occupy so much greater a bulk as steam than
as water. It does not make itself known by the thermometer (for which reason it is
called latent heat), but its existence and amount are known by other means, fc ; which,
see the article HEAT.

It is important to note, before going further, that, in speaking of the pressure of
steam, we have given it in pounds per above a perfect vacuum, or in what are called
absolute pressures. These must be carefully distinguished from pressures (as often given)
in pounds above abote atmospheric pressure. According to the method we adopt, which is
the more scientific one, steam of 14.7 Ibs., or one atmosphere, exactly balances the pres-
sure of the air, and can therefore do no work against it; while, if the other nomenclature
had been adopted, steam of 14.7 Ibs. above atmospheric pressure would have been really
steam of tiro atmospheres pressure. In reading on this subject the student should always
make sure whether the pressures spoken of are measured above an absolute zero, or only
above the atmospheric pressure, as much confusion is sure to result from any mistake on
this point.

AViien a cubic in. of water is converted into steam at the ordinary pressure of the
atmosphere, its volume is increased to 1.645 cubic in. i.e., a cubic in. of water becomes
nearly a cubic ft. of steam of one atmosphere. If the steam is produced at any greater
pressure, its volume will be very nearly inversely as that pressure; at two atmospheres,
it would occupy about 855 cubic in. ; at four atmospheres, about 457 cubic inches.

When water is boiled in an open vessel, neither the temperature of the Water nor that
of the steam rising from it ever rises higher than 212, however hot the fire; the heat as
It enters is carried off in a latent state in the steam. But under pressure, the tempera-
ture of both can be raised to any degree. If, when the water and steam in a, fig. 1, came
to 212, the application of heat were still continued, more steam would continue to rise,
and the pressure on the under side of the piston being now greater than that of the
air above it, the piston would begin to ascend; but suppose it held in the same position
by force, the upward pressure of the steam would be found rapidly to increase, until it
would soon require a weight of 14.7 Ibs. per to keep it down, showing that the
pressure of the steam was now equal to twice that of the atmosphere, or to 29.4 Ibs. per
su.inch. If at this point the temperature of the water and steam were examined, it
would be found to be very nearly 250 Fahr. " When the absolute prersure of the steam
readied 50 Ibs. , its temperature would be 281 ; at 100 Ibs. , 338 ; at 150 Ibs. , 360 ; and so on.

From the numerous experiments made on this subject some very important general
conclusions may be drawn. Of these, one which will be evident from the figures just
given is, that the pressure of steam increases at a far higher rate than the temperature
(doubling the temperature increases the pressure nearly 23 time*), which shows the extreme
danger or continuing to apply heat to a vessel from which the steam is not allowed to
es, ape. The bursting force would soon become such as no vessel could resist.

Another general conclusion of great importance is, that for every temperature there
is a corresponding density of steam produced. This steam contains a fixed amount of
latent heat, and exerts a certain uniform pressure oa ever}' side of any vessel in which it
may be contained. The following table shows the relation between these values for
steam of several different temperatures:

T. p. H. V. v.

82" 0.085 1091.8 SWO.O 211,536

104 l.Oti 1113.7 :5V,'.8 19,519

!.> 4.51 1130.1 80.08 4,!W

212 14.7 114rt.6 20.36 l.iur,

248 28.83 1157.5 14.0 874

2l'3 60.4 1171.2 6.092 438

356 145.8 1190.4 3.057 191

401 250.,; 1204.1 1.838 115

f , Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. This corresponds to the sensible heat of the sfenm.

p. Pressure in pounds per of the steam at that temperature.

H, Total heat of the vapor above 32 Fahr. at that temperature (according to Retrnault's liypntheniift
ir thcrniiil units. A thermal unit (772 foot-pounds) is the quantity of heat which will raise 1 U>.
of water 1 Fahr. at or near its temperature of jrreatt-st density. H'.i.l- Fahr. The specific heat <.f
water increases slowly as the temperature rises, so that 1 thermal unit will not i aise 1 Ih. of w ai t -r
quite so nuich as 1 at hijh temperature; but for the purposes of this article we need not take this
into account.

V, Volume in cubic ft. occupied by 1 Ib. of steam.

v, Number of times which volume of steam exceeds that of same weight of water.



The relations between temperature and pressure in the foregoing table apply only so
long as the steam is in contact with the water from which it is generated. Once away
from the water, its temperature may be raised without altering its pressure. Steam
which has received additional heat in this way is called superheated steam. It approxi-
mates to the condition of a perfect gas, and therefore follows nearly what is known as
Boyle's or Mariotte's law (q.v.); its volume varying always inversely as its pressure. By

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 182 of 203)