Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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daughter of court marshal von Schardt; and in 1764 was married to Iwron Fried rich
von Stein. Her intimacy with the poet Goethe commenced soon after liU arrival at
Weimar in ITT.T. and was broken off after his return from Italy in 1788. Her tragedy
Dido is of literary interest, owing to its allusions to Goethe and to many of hi* contem-
poraries. She burned her letters to Goethe, but the poet's letters to her were edited by
A. Schott (1848). Letters addressed bv Goethe and his mother to Frau von Stein's son
were published in 1846. See Charlotte von. Stein, by H. Ddntzer (1874).


STEIN, HEESRICH FRIEDRICH KARL, Baron von, one of the greatest statesmen that
ever conducted Prussian affairs, belonged to an old Rhenisli-Franconinn family, and
\vas born at Nassau, Oct. 26. 1757. He studied at Gottingen from 1773 to 1777; entered
Ilie service of Prussia in 1778, and in 1784 had risen to be at the head of the depart-
ment of mines for Westphalia. In 1786 he visited England in company with his
friends, the counts von Redern and Schlahberndorf, and carefully studied the institu-
tions of that country, for which he conceived a high admiration, and sought to intro-
duce them at a later period into Prussia. After several minor preferments, he was
appointed, in 1797, president of the Westphalian chambers, where he displayed rare
sidministrative talent. In Oct.,* 1804, he entered the Prussian ministry as chief of
rhe department of indirect imposts, taxes, manufactures and commerce. In this capa-
city he effected important ameliorations, particularly by abolishing various restrictions
on the internal trade of the nation; yet to his great grief and vexation he found himself
incapable of modifying the policy that resulted in the French invasion and conquest.
Of a thoroughly conservative and religious disposition, full of pious reverence for the
past, to tar as it possessed vital energy, but strongly opposed to the bureaucracy and
military despotism; recognizing in the self-governing powers of communities and prov-
inces the only practical guaranty of national liberty, yet, as a baron of the empire,
hostile to the anarchic sovereignty of little states, he occupied a political stand point
which procured for him man}- adversaries and few friends. In 1807 he was dismissed
from office by the king, and withdrew to his estate in Nassau; but the peace of Tilsit
opened the eyes of his sovereign to the wisdom of Stein's policy, and in less than seven
months he was recalled, with the approbation of Napoleon, who had as yet no idea of
the deep and earnest patriotism of the minister. Stein's industry was untiring. Seeing
clearly that, in a military point of view, Prussia was powerless for the moment, he set
about developing her internal resources by attempting a series of administrative and
political reforms, known as Stein's System the principal of which were the abolition of
serfage, with indemnification to the territorial lords; the subjection of the .nobles to mano-
rial imposts; equality of orders in the sight of the law; the universal obligation of mili-
tary service; promotion in the state by merit alone, without distinction of caste; and
the establishment of a municipal system analogous to that of England. Some of these
reforms were carried out by Stein, and others by his successor, Hardenburg (q.v.).
Meanwhile, he had become suspected by Napoleon. Among other things, an inter-
cepted letter \vas brought to the French tmpcror, in which his policy was sharply criti-
cised. Stein was obliged to resign (Nov. 1808), and retired to Austria, where he became
the center of a secret national society the Tvgenbuna. Napoleon, who bitterly hated
patriots that stood in his way, confiscated his property. In 1812 Stein was summoned
to Russia by the emperor Alexander, and contributed by his cour.cils to prepare the coali-
tion against Napoleon. After the march of the allies into Saxony, he was appointed presi-
dent of the council of all the German states; was a leader in all the military diplomacy of
that stirring time up to the congresses of Tiennaand Aix-la-Chr.pelle, in which, however,
he took no part, owing to the intrigues of the Bavarian minister, acting for the lesser
states of Germany, who knew well that he did not look with a favorable eye on their
anarchic autonomy. The absolutists were also against him. Stein's active political
career was now finished; henceforth he enjoyed some honorable function's, but no
power, and died at Frlicht, July 29, 1831. See Pertz's Liben dcs firi/ierrn von Stein
(1855); Professor Seeley's Life and Time* of Stein (1879). His correspondence with
Humboldt, Gneisenau, Eichhorn, Niebuhr, etc., is extremely valuable for the political
history of the period.


STEINMETZ, KARL FRIKDRTOII VON, b. Germany, 1796; entered the army in 1813
as a lieut. ; fought in the war against Napoleon, and was made a capt. in the regiment
of kaiser Franz in 1835. After 1848 he was made governor of the academy of cadets at
Berlin, and in the Austrian campaign of 1866 he won great distinction as < ominander-in-
chief of the 5th army corps. He received the order of the Black Eagle, and the diet
voted him a national donation for his services to Prussia. At the beginning of the
Franco-German war of 1870 he was appointed commander-in-chief of the first army,
but after the advance toward Metz, his army was united to that of prince Frh'drich
Karl, who was placed in command. In Sept., 1870, Steinmetz was appointed governor-
general of Posen and Silesia. He offered his resignation but the king declined to
receive it, He was made a general field-marshal and placed in the suite.


und SprachietMensduift,

tchaft. bei den Griechcn (1867); and Abrias der SprachwimtenscJiaft (1871 etseq.).


STELLERINE. llylina, a genus of fetacca. of the family manatidw (q.v.\ of which
only one species is known (R.fjiqad), about 25 ft. in length, a native of Behring's strait,
and never observed since the middle of last century, so that it is supposed to be extinct.


STELLIO, a genus of the agamidm family of lizards. The stellio cordylina species
is very common in Turkey and Arabia. A peculiar motion of its head lias suggested
the Mohammedan's tradition that the animal intends to mock the gestures made by
them at prayer. For this supposed mockery they think it a duty to kiil it.

STELVIO, PASS OF TIIK ( Ger. MftfxerJ/tc/i), the highest carriage-road in Europe (9, 176
ft. above the sea-level), leads from Bonmo, on the Italian side of the Tynurse Alps,
near the head of the Valteline, to Gltirns on the Austrian side. It forms part of the
great road between Milan and Innsbruck, and was completed by the Austrian govern-
ment in U'C'X. at an expense of 3. 000.000 florins. The praise bestowed on it in .Murray's
Handbook fur S<,>if/<rr/t (lin/cniy is well deserved: " Wheti cr \\e consider the boldness
of the design, the difficulties of its execution, from the great height and exposure to
storms an .1 avalanches, or the grandeur of the scenery through which it passes, the
route of the Stelvio is the most remarkable in Europe."

STEM, in botany, that part of the plant which, arising from the surface of the
ground, and shooting upward as the root shoots downward, bears the leaves and
flowers. Stems are either simple or branched. They are herbaceous or woody, solid or
hollow, jointed or unjointed. Sometimes they are weak so as to be procumbent,
although more generally firm and erect; sometimes weak stems ;ire twining, or they are
upheld in various other ways by the climbing habit of the plant. Stems are generally
round, but sometimes compressed or angular. The arrangement of the leaves and
branches, in reference to the stem, is symmetrical, but plants- differ from each other in
the nature of this arrangement. In the branching of trees, the symmetrical arrange-
ment is often lost, as to the principal branches, in consequence of the death of some of
them. In many plants the stem is obsolete, or so abbreviated as to be inconspicuous,
forming a mere neck the crown of tfic root where the leaves and flower-stalks spring
as at once from the root. Very important differences in the structure of stems distin-
guish the three great classes of plants Acrogenous (q.v.), Endogenous (q.v.), and Exo-
genous (q.v.). Stems sometimes creep along the ground, or even under the ground,
when they receive the name rhizome or root-stock.

STEM, of a ship, is that very powerful piece, or combination, of timber, which, being
scarfed to the fore-end of the keel, rises nearly perpendicularly to form the bow and cut-
water. To it are rabbeted the fore-ends of the planks. It is backed by an equally
powerful timber called the stemson, bearing the same relation to it as the keelson (q.v.)
foes to the keel. See also SHIP-BUILDING.

STEM BEL, ROGER N., b. Md., 1810; entered the navy as a midshipman. 1332. At
/he beginning of the civil war he was made commander and took part in the actions of
Belmont, fort Henry, Island No. 10, and several of less importance. lie became rapt,
in 1806: was with "the European squadron the next year, and in 1870 was made a

STENCILING, a method of printing letters or designs. The process consists in cut-
ting out the pattern in a thin plate, usually of metal; this is then laid on the surface
intended to receive it, and the color is rubbed into the cut space with a brush, the plate
preventing the contact of the color, except on the space cut out. It is much listed for
wall and other surface-decoration, as it is a rapid and cheap process.

STENDAL, a t. of Prussia, province of Saxony, situated on the river Uchte. 38
m. n.n.e of Magdeburg. Pop. '75, 12,870. It has a cathedral, founded in 1188,
five churches, and a gymnasium, and carries on important manufactures of woolens,
cottons, tapestries, tobacco, gloves, etc. Steudal was the capital of the Altmark of


STEPIIAX, HEIMUCII, b. Pomerania, 1831; entered the Prussian postal service in
1848, and was rapidly promoted until in 1876 he b< came postmaster-general of the
German empire. He has introduced many reforms, and brought about postal treaties
with foreign countries which have facilitated intercommunication and traHie. He has
published (ri-Kcfu'c/ife dcr pri'ii^i.-c/i: n Pout (1859); and Das h^itii/e A<'f/>/pt<n (l^~~).

STEPHANOCYPHUS MIRABILIS. a remarkable hydro/oon described by prof.
Allman, and for which he has founded a new order of coelenterata, tln'cotnfd'i&p, (see
coelenterata in article INVEUTEUIIATE ANIMALS). This organism is always associated
with a species of sponge. It consists of a combination of chitinous tubes permeating
the sponge, and opening on its surface by large orifices or osciiln. At their bases the
tubes are connected by horizontal brandies, and they expand widely as they approach
the surface, where their contents arc developed into a remarkable lx>dy which has the
power of extending itself beyond the mouth of the tube, and of withdrawing it. The
body has a crown of tentacles and a medusiform structure. There is a circular canal
at the base of the crown, surrounding the central opening, with four radiating canals
proceeding backward from this.

STEPHEN, the name of ten popes of the Roman Catholic church. It is on'y neces-
sary to refer in detail to the following. STEPHEN I. was the successor of Lu :ius IIL

Stephen. O 1 A


in 253. and his pontificate (253-257) is memorable as affording a topic for the historians
who discuss the question as lo the early evidences of a Roman primacy. The history of
Stephen I. is urged as an argument by eacli party in support of its own view. "The
advocates of the primacy infer, from several examples of the deposition of bishops by
Stephen in various places, that a power equivalent to the modern primacy of Rome was
even then acknowledged. The adversaries of the primacy contend that the resistance
offered to Stephen by Cyprian (q.v.), on the rebaptiziug of heretics, is altogether irrec-
oncilable with the general recognition in the 3d c. of any supremacy on the part of the
bishops of Rome. STEPHEN III. playp a most important part in the history of the tem-
poral sovereignty of the Roman see. He was a native of Rome, and was in possession
of the see during the occupation (which practically dates from the year 752) of Ravenna,
the exarchate, and the Pentapolis by Astolphus, king of the Lombards. That king
having invaded Rome, and the Byzantine emperor, Coustautine Copronymos, having
left unheeded the appeals of Stephen, and the Romans for succor, Stephen had
recourse to Pepin, king of the Franks. The latter in vain sent legates to Astolphus,
and the pope returned to France with the legates to solicit in person the aid of the Frank
monarch, whom he solemnly crowned. Pepin agreed to compel the Lombards to with-
draw from these provinces (which form the portion of the states lately in occupation of
the Roman see known as the "Legations"), and to bestow them on the seo of Peter.
The Lombard king made a promise to that effect; but on Pepin's withdrawal, again
renewed his pretensions, and marched upon Rome. Stephen, therefore, again recalled
Pepin in a most curious letter written in the name and person of St. Peter, an invitation,
with which Pt-pin at once complied; and having again forced Astolphus to withdraw,
he again (notwithstanding a demand from the Byzantine emperor for their restoration
to the empire) reinstated the Roman see in its sovereign rights. Stephen died iu 757.
STEPHEN VII., elected in 896, has supplied to historians much matter of dicussion, from
his strange proceedings in disinterring the corpse of his penultimate predecessor, For-
rnosus, stripping it of its pontilical garments, and condemning it, after a juridical proce-
dure, to lay burial. The circumstances of this curious conflict are not fully understood.
STEPHEN X. was one of the remarkable series of reforming popes in the llth c., who
are believed to have been elected under the influence of the celebrated Hildebraud, and
who by their energetic rule, prepared the way for that great scheme of ecclesiastical
organization of which the pontificate of that eminent man, under the name of Gregory VII.
(q.V), was the final development. It ought to be observed that, although in the series
of the popes (q.v.) printed in this Encyclopaedia ten pontiffs named Stephen are recited,
other catalogues reckon but nine; the discrepancy arising from the omission by some of
Stephen II., who was elected in 753. This pontiff died before consecration, and is there
fov by some excluded from the series of popes; but, as his election was complete and
canonical, we have included his name iu our general catalogue.

STEPHEN, SAINT, THE DEACON, called also the proto-martyr, or earliest of the Chris-
tian martyrs, was one of the seven deacons whose appointment is related in Hie 6th chap-
ter of the Acts of the Apostles. The circumstances of his martyrdom are related in the
same chapter. His festival is fixed during the festivals which accompany that of
Christmas. It is kept with great solemnity, both in the east and in the west. His relics
were believed to have been discovered in the beginning of the 5th c., the "discovery"
being commemorated by a festival held on the 3d of August. In the calendar of the
Roman Catholic church are several other saints of the same name, of whom perhaps
the most remarkable is Stephen, king of Hungary, in the early part of the llth century.
He died in 1038. His memory is held in great veneration throughout Southern Ger-
many, and churches are met everywhere, dedicated to his name.

STEPHEN. King of England, was the third son of Stephen, count of Blois, by Adele
or Alise, daughter of William the Conqueror, and was consequently nephew of Henry I.,
and cousin of Matilda, daughter of Henry. He was born in 1105, brought over to Eng-
land rxtan early age, and became a favorite with his uncle, who bestowed on him large
estates, both in that country and in Normandy, and procured for him a narriage with
Mahout, or Matilda, daughter of Eustace, third count of Boulogne, and younger brother
of the famous Godfrey of Bouillon. By this marriage Stephen not only inherited the earl-
dom of Boulogne on the death of his father-in-law (1125), but also became related to the
royal family of Scotland, for his wife's mother, Maria, was a daughter of Malcolm Can-
inore. When his uncle Henry resolved to settle the crown on his daughter Matilda,
whose first husband was Henry V., emperor of Germany (whence she is often spoken of
as the "Empress Maud "), he naturally relied on his project receivingthe support of hi?
nephew; and at a council held in London, Jan., 1127, Stephen, along with all the other
dignitaries of the land, lay and ecclesiastical, took the oath of fealty to Maud. A few
months later, the widowed empress married Geoffrey Plantagenet (q.v.). On the death
of Henry I. (Dec. 1, 1135). Stephen, knowing well the temper and wish of the English
people, hurried over to England from Normandy, where he had been in attendance on
his dying uncle, and before the year was out had got himself surrounded by a poweiful
body of Ihe nobles and clergy and crowned at Westminster. His usurpation of the throne
was confirmed by a bull of pope Innocent. But Stephen was doomed to find his crown
a crown of thorns. Although a gallant, generous, handsome prince, immeasurably su-

O 1 -I Stephen.


perioriu personal and royal virtues to Maud (who was suspected of having murdered her
lirst husband, who quarrelled with her second, and was altogether a fiery, iusolent, unwi.-e,
ami exasperating female): yet it must not be forgotten that on Stephen rests the responsi-
bility of causing a civil war as sanguinary, if not as protracted, as the famous \\'<irs of the
/.'<. Listen to the t'xxon Chronicle: " In this king's time, all was dissension and evil i\nd
rapine. . . . Thou mightest go a whole day's journey, and not find a man sitting in a
town, nor an acre of land tilled. The poor died of hunger, and those who had been men
well-to-do begged for bread. Never was more mischief done by heathen invaders. . . .
To till the ground was to plough the sands of the sea. This lasted the nineteen years
that Stephen was king, and it grew continually worse."

We have not space to narrate in detail the struggle of these ninrtcen vears. It is
enough to say, that in Feb. 1141, after rive years of the hardest fighting imaginable
- against David of Scotland, uncle of Maud, who had taken up arms" for his niece (see
STANDARD, BATTLE OF THE); against Robert, earl of Gloucester, natural son of the late
king Henry, who had also raised the standard of his half-sister, against individual no-
bles who simply wished to live in anarchy and barbarous independence, and finally,
against the power of the church, which he vainly sought to diminish he was taken pris-
oner by tlie earl of Gloucester, and placed in chains in the castle of Bristol. Maud was
now elected queen by her own party, but her rapacity and other bad qualities soon made
her rule intolerable, and the wife of the imprisoned Stephen (also called Maud or Matilda)
found it impossible to continue the war, by the help of the Londoners, who were staunch
adherents of her husband. Stephen obtained his liberty in exchange for the earl of
Gloucester, who had fallen into the hands of Stephen's friends at WinchcsU r, and the war
was resumed with greater violence than ever. The death of the carl of Gloucester, in
1146, forced Maud to take refuge in Normandy; but a conspiracy of nobles, headed by Ra-
nulph, earl of Chester, and another quarrel with the church kept Stephen's hands as full of
work as before, and no sooner were these matters settled, than Maud's son, young prince
Henry, appeared in England (1158), at the head of an army to support his claim to the
throne. Fortunately lor the nation, so sadly wasted aml'desolatcd, a compromise was
effected between the two rivals, which saved the necessity of further bloodshed Stephen
agreeing to acknowledge Henry as his successor. Stephen died at Dover the year after
(Oct. 25, 1154).

STEPHEN, SIR JAMES, 1789-1859. h. London, educated at Cambridge, and called to
the bar. He practiced in chancery till 1823, when he was appointed counsel to the de-
partment for colonial affairs. He was afterward counsel to the board of trade, was un-
der-secretary for the colonies, 1834-47, when he retired and was knighted. He became
Regius professor of modern history at Cambridge in 1849. His lectures on the history
of France appeared in 1851.

STEPHENS, a co. in n. Texas, drained by the Clear Fork of Brazos river flowing
through the n.w. section; 900 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 4,720 4,651 of American birth, 25
colored. The surface is diversified, rising into considerable elevations in the s.e. por-
tion. The soil is adapted to grain culture and grazing. The name was changed from
Buchanan in 1862. Co. seat, Breckenridge.

STEPHENS (Fr. Estienne). The family of the celebrated printers and publishers of
this name (descended from a noble Provencal family) is found settled at Paris toward
1500 in the person of Henry Stephens, supposed to have been born about 1470, and died in
1520. In Paris Henry carried on the business of printer and book-seller for upward cf
20 years. In 15C6 Robert, his second son, b. 1503, is found in possession of the business.
Every year of Robert's life is marked by the issue from his printing-press of several vol-
umes, many of them masterpieces of art, and all of them surpassing anything of the
kind previously seen in France. He was at once printer, publisher, commentator, and
author. Though prosperous, he showed unmistakably that truth or that which to him
was truth was of more value in his eyes than worldly gain. Having secretly become a
convert to the doctrines of the reformation, he endeavored for some time to reconcile
his convictions with the outward demeanor required by his position. But the convictions
were too strong, or the nature of the man too truth loving. His Bible of 1545. and his
Greek Testament of 1549, each drew down upon him a public prosecution; and though
the prosecutions failed legally, they were disastrous to his private fortune. Having first
sent his family to Geneva, he followed them there in 1549. Robert, his second son,
shortly afterward returned to Paris, where he resumed his father's business, returning to
the Roman Calholic church.

In flyintr from Paris to Geneva, the Stephens family found that they had but
exchanged Roman Catholic for Protestant persecution.

Henry the second, born at Paris in 1528, and succeeding his father Rolxrt on his death
in 1559, was repeatedly called before the council, reprimanded, ordered to print cancels,
and excommunicated. Though Henry pOSMMed the same literary industry and ability
as his father, he was unfortunately deficient in his father's practical turn of mind.
Devoted to liisart and to his calling, he seems to have been utterly warding in worldly
prudence. In two years we find that he had revised and published more than -1.0<>0 pages
of Greek text; while at the same time he was writing his Apologia pro llerodote. t vi>rk
of formidable length and learning. Rendered nervous and irritable by an overworked

Stephens. Q1 O


brain, and by pecuniary difH cullies, which -were gathering fast around bim, the petty
surveillance and censorship of the pious pastors of Geneva became intolerable to him.
Traveling, originally undertaken from luerary curiusiiy, grew into a necessity of life.
In 1578 he visited Paris, where for several years he became a hanger-on of the court of
Henry III., who bestowed upon him a pension, which the state or' the royal exchequer
rendered merely a nominal one. Quitting Paris, he wandered in poverty over Europe,
his own family often ignorant of w jcrc he was to lie found. He died at Lyons in I~>y8.
Great as a publisher and commentator, Henry Stephens does not seem to have possessed
much power as an original thinker. His mastery of Greek seems to have been almost
complete, and as a critic of the French language he is slill esteemed in France. See
.Caracteres ct Portraits Litteraircs du Kiec'a XVI., by M. Leon Feugero (Paris, 1864); also
article in Quarterly Review (Lond. April, 1833); and article "Eslieune," in the Nouvelle
Xtwgraphie Generate.

STEPHENS, ALEXANDER HAMILTON, LL.D., b. Ga., 1812; graduated at Franklia

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 187 of 203)