Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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Chemistry, 9th ed. 1863, p. 269.

This view, which is frequently termed the Unary theory of salts, was originally sug-
gested by Davy, but it remained for many years nothing more than'(to use the words of
prof. Miller) " an elegant hypothesis," till' it was further illustrated by certain of Liebig's
researches in organic chemistry, and till, in certain special cases, it received direct con-
firmation from the voltaic researches of Daniell and Miller, who found that when a cur-
rent from two or three of Grove's cells was transmitted through fused nitrate of silver
(AgO,NO 5 ), the latter was resolved into crystals of silver (Ag) at one pole, and NO
(which at once broke up into red fumes of peroxide of nitrogen and free oxygen) at the

But although the binary theory serves to explain in the most satisfactory way many
chemical changes, as. for example, the modifications of phosphoric acid and phosphate
of soda (see Mdle/s Inorganic Chemistry, 2d ed. 1860, p. 333; or Galloway's Second Step
in Chemiistry, 1864, pp. 128-130), there are many objections to it, and it will probably
give place to other views regarding the constitution of salts. For a notice of these objec-
tions, we must refer to the above-mentioned works of Miller and Galloway. Some of



our most eminent chemists, as, for example, the editors of Fownes's Manual, take ft
more hopeful view. According to Drs. Bence Jones and llofmann, " the general appli-
cation of the binary theory still presents a few difficulties. But it is very probable that
the progress of discovery will ultimately lead to its universal adoption, which would
greatly simplify many parts of the science."

The sails may be, arranged according to their mode of composition into:

1. Neutral or Normal Halts; 2. Acid Stilts; and 8. Basic Salts. A salt is neutral which
is composed of as many atoms or equivalents of the acid as tUere are of oxygen in the
metallic base. If the base is a protoxide, or contains 1 atom of oxygen, 1 atom of the
acid is combined with it. Sulphate of potash (KO.SOj), nitrate of copper (CuO,NO s ),
and carbonate of potash (KO,CO) are all neutral in their composition, each, consisting
of one atom of the acid in combination with one atom of a metallic protoxide. But all
these salts are not neutral, if we judge of their neutrality by their exerting no action on
litmus or turmeric paper, for while the first is neutral to test-paper, the second exhibits
an acid, and the third an alkaline reaction; and hence the use of the term normal, in
preference to that of neutral, as applied to this class, has been judiciously advocated by
Miller and other chemists. If the base is a sesquioxide, three atoms of the acid com-
bine with one atom of the base to form -a neutral or normal salt: thus, the sulphates of
alumina and of sesquioxide of iron are represented by the formulae AljOs.BSOa and
Fe 2 O 3 ,3SO 3 ; and as these salts not only redden litmus, but have an acid taste, they
afford an additional reason for ou-r preference to the term normal over neutral salts.

Acid Salts are generally formed by dissolving normal salts in the same kind of acid
which they contain, by which means a new salt is often but by no means always formed.
Thus, if normal sulphate of potash (KO,SO S ) be dissolved in hot sulphuric acid, tablets
of a new and strongly acid salt will appeal- as the solution cools. These crystals consist
of bisuiphate or acid sulphate of potash, and their composition is represented by the
formula KO,HO,2SO 3 , or KO,SO 3 -f- HO,SO 3 , in which the atom of water may be
regarded as acting in the character of a weak basg. If a similar experiment is made of
dissolving nitrate of potash in hot nitric acid, no new salt will be formed, the niter crys-
tallizing out unchanged. Why some acids should have the power of forming acid salts,
and others should not possess the property, is unknown.

In Basic Salts, or Sub-salts, as they are often termed, the proportion of base predomi-
nates over that of the acid, there being two or three or more atoms of the basic oxide
combined with one atom of the acid. Thus nitric acid forms with oxide of lead not
only the normal salt, PbO,NO 5 , but three basic salts viz., 2PbO,NO 8 , 3PbO,jSTO 6 , and
GPbO.NOs. Sulphuric acid forms with oxide of mercury not only the normal sail,
HgO.SOa, but the basic salt commonly known as turpethinineral, and represented by the
formula 3HgO,SO 3 .

There is one other class of salts requiring a brief notice viz., the Double Salts. Many
neutral salts containing the same acid, but different bases, may be made to combine so
as to form salts of the class now under consideration. Thus sulphate of potash and sul-
phate of alumina (both of which are neutral sulphates) by combining, dve rise to the
double salt popularly known as alum, and represented" by the formula KO,SO 3 -f-
A1 2 O 3 ,3SO3 -f- 2i Aq. Similarly, double salts of silicic acid are of common occurrence.
Thus the varieties of feldspar are double silicates of alumina with potash, soda, litbia, or
lime, but most commonly with potash, and they may be represented by the general for-
mula MO,Si0 5 -f A] 8 3 ,3SiO 2 , where MO stands for potash, soda, etc.

The salts at ordinary temperatures are solid bodies, with a strong tendency to crys-
tallization, although a considerable number are amorphous. They may be either color-
less or colored. When a colorless acid combines with a colorless base, the resul'ing salt
docs not exhibit color. A colored base combining with a colorless acid transmits its
color to the resulting salts, and if a colored acid combine with a colorless base, a similar
but less marked result ensues. The salts usually have a decided taste, which is usually
dependent on the base; the sulphites are, however, an exception to this rule, as their
taste resembles that of the acid. They are variously influenced by high temperatures:
some remain unchanged; while others volatilize, fuse, and either simply lose their water
of crystallization, or become decomposed. Most salts ara soluble in water, and some,
as, for example, carbonate of potash and chloride of calcium, have so strong a tendency
to dissolve in that fluid that they abstract the moisture of the atmosphere. Such salts
are termed deliquescent, As a general rule, hot, water exerts a far more powerful snivel t
action than cold. There are, however, some remarkable exceptions to this law. Thus,
the solubility of common salt (chloride of sodium) is very nearly the same, whatever Ix:
the temperature of the water, and certain salts of lime are more soluble in cold than in
hot water.

It lias been already shown that an atom of water enters into the composition of cer-
tain sails in precisely the same way as an atom of potash or any other base. Such water
is termed hixic irttter. and is an integral constituent of the salt, from which it cannot be
expelled by an ordinary heat. This water is quite distinct from the water of crystalliza-
tion, which is taken up by many salts in a definite quantity, when crystallizing from
water, and which is readily expelled by a gentle heat without altering the chemical
properties of tlie salt. The crystalline form of salts which contain water of crystalliza-
tion is much influenced by the proportion in which the hitter occurs. Thus
U. K. XIIL 6

Salt. QO


vitriol (sulphate of iron) crystallizes in two different forms and with two different pro-
portions of water according to the temperature at which the .salt separates from its solu-
tion. The number of equivalents of water of crystallization may vary from 1 to 24,
which is the highest number yet observed. In order to distinguish the water of crystal-
lization from water acting as a base, we characterize it by the symbol Aq. (from the
Latin aqua, water). The ordinary phosphate of soda is represented by the formula
2NaO,HO,PO s -j- 24 Aq. Many salto which contain water of crystallization (for exam-
ple, sulphate or carbonate of soda) give off the whole or a part of their water of crystal-
lization in a dry atmosphere, and crumble to powder; such salts are said to effloresce.
,Salts which contain no water of crystallization are termed anhydrous; of which niter
t (KO, NO 5 ) is an example. All salts, when dissolved in water, are readily decomposed by
"the electric current, the base going to the negative, and the acid to the positive, pole. In
consequence of this result the acid is termed the electro negative, and the base the
electro-positive constituent of the salts. When a haloid salt is similarly treated, the
halogen (chlorine, etc.) is separated at the positive pole, while the metal is liberated at
negative pole.

SALT OP TAB/TAB, a commercial name for carbonate of potash in a very crude

SALT OP TIN is the term employed by the dyer and calico-printer for protochloride
of tin, which is extensively used as a mordant, and for. the purpose of deoxidizing indigo
and the peroxides of iron and manganese.

SALT-WOET, Salsola, a genus of plants of the natural order chenopodiacece, having
hermaphrodite flowers, with 5-parted perianth, and a transverse appendage at the base
of each of its segments, five stamens and two styles, the seed with a simple integument.
The species are numerous, mostly natives of salt-marshes and sea-shores, widely
diffused. One only, PRICKLY SALT-WORT (S. kali), is found in Britain. It has herbace-
ous prostrate much-branched stems, awl-shaped spine-pointed leaves, and axillary soli-
tary greenish flowers. It was formerly collected in considerable quantities on the
western shores of Britain, to be burned for the sake of the soda which it thus yields.
S. saliva is the chief barilla (q.v.) plant of the s. of Spain.

SALUTE is a compliment paid in the navy and army, when a royal or other distin-
guished personage presents himself, when squadrons or armed bodies meet, when offi-
cers are buried, and on many oiher ceremonial occasions. There are several modes of
painting: firing great guns and small arms, dipping colors, flags, and topsails, present-
ing arms, manning the yards, cheering, etc. A royal salute consists in the firing of 21
great guns; in the lowering by officers of their sword-points, and the dipping of the
colors. Persons of less elevated rank, entitled to be saluted, receive less extensive
honors. A form of salute of more frequent occurrence is when a soldier "presents arms."
The various forms of military salute, such as the firing of guns, lowering swords, and
presenting arms alike render the ship or soldier so doing powerless for aggression. They
thus symbolize friendliness, the putting of yourself in the power of the person saluted,

SALUTE (ante), a compliment by the military or naval authorities to a ship or an
officer, etc., is indicated by manning the yards, firing guns, dipping the colors. The
national U. S. salute is a gun for eveiy state; 21 guns are fired for the president; 17 for
the vice-president; 15 for cabinet officers, generals in command, and governors of states;
13 for maj. generals, U. S. or foreign ambassadors; 11 for brig. generals, etc.

SALTJZZO, an episcopal city of northern Italy, in the province of Cuneo, at the foot
of the Alps, 22 m. e. of mount Yiso. It is a fine old city, and contains a semi Gothic
cathedral built in 1480, with pillars of rare marbles, and colossal statues exquisitely
sculptured, a seminary for priests, a royal college, and several elementary and infant
schools. The tower of the Commune, an ancient and singular building, is worthy of
notice; also the abbey of Staffarda, founded in 1135 by the marquis Tommaso I., and de-
stroyed in 1341 ; an ancient civic palace, and the old castle, formerly the residence of the
marquises of Saluzzo, now a penitentiary. Its products are grain, hemp, and wine; and
its rpanufactures are silk fabrics, iron goods, and hats. Pop. of town, '71, 9,796.

SALVAGE (from Lat. salrare, to save) is the payment due by the owner of a ship or
* .anro to persons who may have been instrumental in saving it from extraordinary danger
from the sea, fire, or an enemy. The propriety of this allowance, as an incentive to the
saving of life and property, lias always been admitted-, and though the correctness of the
principle which allows salvage to royal ships for saving vessels of their own nation may
be questioned on the ground thnt their duty is to protect such ships under all circum-
stances, yet it admittedly expedient to offer a fair pecuniary reward as an additional
incentive to what may often be an irksome duty.

Salvage was recognized in the earliest maritime codes as in the laws of Rhodes,
Oleron, and Wisby. The law ot England divides it into two classes, civil and hostile
salvage. Civil salvage is saving a vessel or her cargo, or part thereof, from the perils of
the deep; hostile salvage recovers it irom an enemy or pirate after capture. No propor-
tion is laid down in civil salvage, as generally applicable. Each case must be decided
OH its own merits, the ingredients for decision being, 1st the degree of danger incurred by

O Q Salt.


the salvor?; 2d, the degree of peril in which the property rescued stood; 3d, the degree
of skill, labor, and time evinced in the salvage; 4th, the value and nature of the property.
Except where the assistance rendered has been trifling, the salvage usually ranges from
a third to a half of the property saved. A contract to render assistance negatives any
claim to salvage on account of such assistance. A passenger can only claim salvage when,
having had the opportunity, while the danger existed, of quitting the ship, he voluntarily
remains to render help. A royal ship is bound to aid a merchantman in distress; but it
can s'ill claim salvage.

When the parlies cannot agree as to the amouut of salvage, the admiralty court
has jurisdiction over all cases which occurred at sea, or between high and low water
mark. The rules for trving salvage cases are fixed by the statute 16 and 17 Vint. c. 131

Hostile salDtige is fixed by 43 Geo. III. c. 160 (1803) at one-eight the value of tha
property saved for royal ships, and one-sixth for private vessels. Ships and merchan-
dise taken from pirates pay one-eight as salvage, 6 Gep. IV. c. 19 (1826).

In the case of saving a vessel belonging to ar. allied or neutral power, reference i
made in awarding salvage to the laws of such power, and to the degree of reciprocity it
grants to British vessels.

SALVAGE (ante), in maritime law, the compensation w r hich persons are entitled to
receive, who in the absence of any obligation making it their legal duty, voluntarily save
a ship or her cargo from loss by peril of the sea, which may be called civil salvage; or
recover them after capture, which is termed military salvage. The whole subject lies
under admiralty jurisdiction, and the method of procedure is by libel. The interest of
the salvors is not joint, but several, and all may be joined in a libel. The salvage is to
be regarded as a reward and encouragement for courage rather than as a payment quantum When the salvors are in possession they have a certain qualified property right
in the ship, which docs not, however, extinguish that of the owners. Except under very
unusual circumstances the crew, pilot, officers, and passengers, are not entitled to sal-
vage ; as by duty and interest they are bound to do what lies within their power. But
where the seaman's term of service has expired or the services necessary are entirely
outside his ordinary duty, an exception is made, and similar exceptions are made in the
other cases. Vessels belonging to the naval force of a country are bound to protect from
mutineers ships sailing under the same flag, and are not entitled <o salvage for such ser-
vices. Where the first set of salvors are themselves assisted by a second sst the salvage
is divided according to the respective merits of the parties; but only gi"at peril of thj
first so! can justify interference on tb.3 part of tha second. The rule is that only tho-io
who actually participate in the service can share in the reward, but the owners of tho
saving ship are allowed to obtain pay both for stores or provisions furnished and as
salvage. The amount of the salvage to be paid is not fixed either 1>3' common law or by
United States statutes and the proportion will vary with the degree of danger incurred
and the value of the services rendered. That maritime property is derelict which has
been abandoned by the owners with no intention of return to it. Some attempt was
made to establish the rule that the salvage on derelict property should be one-half; but
all that can now be claimed is that higher salvage will be usually decreed in derelict
cases than where an intention of returning is clear. Where no ow"ner appears the Eng-
lish rule was that the property should be turned over to the crown by the lord hiu r ii
admiral. In the United States the property is held for a year and a day and then given
up to the finder. Another distinction was formerly made between articles easily saved,
such as coin or jewelry, and bulky things, but this no longer exists. While 'there is
no absolute law regarding the distribution of salvage, the owners usually have one-third,
the master twice as much as the mate, the mate double a seaman's share, and those who
navigate the saved ship into port, or otherwise take the greater risk, double the share of
tho>e who remain on the salvor vessel. A claim to salvage may be barred by a contract,
not extorted or unconscionable, to pay a fixed sum for the aid to be given. In such case
the remedy for non-payment is at common-law and not at admiralty. Another bar i
tha existence of a custom of rendering assistance among vessels of the same class, as in
the steam-boat navigation of the Mississippi. Theft of any of the saved property, fraud,
negligence, or gross misconduct of any kind in the care of the property also acts as a bar.
Salvage is on ship, cargo, or freight, but perhaps not on mails. Military salvage is.
given where a vessel is recaptured or saved from pirates or a public enemy, and in the
war of the rebellion an award was decreed as of salvage, to parties who, after the cap-
ture of a harbor which had been under blockade, enticed blockade runners in by exhibit-
ing the usual signals.

SALVANDY, NARCISSE ACHTLLE, Comte de, 1795-1856; b. France; entered the
army in 1813. He was master of requests 1819-21, an editor of the Journal de* l)<'!><tt*
in 1824. and was elected to the academy, in 1835. He was twice minister of public
instruction, and in 1843 was made count, and sent as ambassador to Turin. He pub-
lished Histone de Pologne avant et sous le Hoi Jean Sobieski, and other works.

SALVE REGINA, the first words of one of the most popular prayers in the Roman
Catholic church, addressed to the Blessed Virgin Mary. It forms part of the daily offic*
of the Roman breviary, and is recited at the end of "Lauds" and of "Complin." But

Sal via. 04


it is still more in use as a prayer of private devotion, and concludes with nn earnest and
tender appeal for the intercession of the Blessed Virgin with her Son, " that we may bo
made worthy of the promises of Christ."

SALVIA. See SAGE, ante.

SALVI'NI, TOMMASO, b. Italy, 1830; a celebrated tragedian. His parents were
actors. When quite a boy he showed a rare talent for acting, and was placed under
the tuition of the great Gustavo Modena. After winning renown in juvenile characters,
he joined the Ristori troupe. In 1849 Salvini entered the army of Italian independence,
and received several medals in recognition of his services. After the war lie played in
the Edipo of Nicolini, a tragedy written expressly for him, and achieved a great success.
He next appeared in Alfieri's Saul, and then all Italy declared that Modena's mantle had
fallen on worthy shoulders. He then visited Paris, where he played Orasmaiie, Or<.*tcx,
Saul, and Othello, and was received with great enthusiasm. In 1865 occurred the sixth
centenary of Dante's birthday, and the four greatest Italian actors, Ristori, Rossi,
Majeroni, and Salvini, were invited to perform in Silvio Pellico's Francenca di Rimini.
In 1868 Salvini visited Madrid, and in 1874 came to America, where he was so well
received that he returned in 1880. He acted in London in 1875, and appeared in
Brussels in 1877.

SALVO is a concentrated fire from a greater or less number of pieces of artillery.
Against a body of men, a salvo is generally useless, as the moral effect is greater in pro-
portion to the area over which devastation is spread; but with fortifications, the case is
otherwise. For the purpose of breaching, the simultaneous concussion of a number of
cannon-balls on masonry, or even earth- work, produces a very destructive result. At
Almeida, after the French had fired a few salvos of 65 guns, the castle sunk in a shape-
less mass. The effect of a salvo of modern arn'llery, witli its enormous steel shot,
against iron-plated ramparts, has never yet been tried in actual war. The concentrated
fire of a ship's broadside forms a powerful salvo.

-Jf SALZBRTJNN, the name of three villages, NEU, NIEDER, and OBER SAT^Z/IRUMST, in
Prassian Silesia, 37 m. s.w. of Breslau. The villages are dull, and worthy of notice only
from their eight mineral springs and their much-frequented baths. About 2,500,000
bottles of alkalo-saline water are annually exported. Pop. in all, from 2,000 to 3,000.

SALZBURG, a crown land in the w. cf Austria, bounded on the w. partly by Bavaria
and partly by the Tyrol. Area, 2,765 sq.m. ; pop. '70, 153,160. The principal moun-
tain-ranges are the Noric Alps, which traverse the s. of Salzburg from w. to e. and
rise in the Grossglockner to the height of 13,360 feet; and branches of the Rh-eti;m
Alps, which separate the Tyrol from Salbuvg and ramify throughout the middle dis-
tricts of the latter, rising in the Ewiger Schneeberg to 9,580 feet. Snow-fields and
glaciers occur in the more elevated regions. The chief river, the Sal /.a, drains the
greater part of the crown-land, Hows first e.. then n., and is 147 m. in length. The
climate is cold and variable, but healthy, and although, of the whole area. 2,000 sq.m.
are capable of bearing crops, this crown-land is inferior to most of the provinces of the
monarchy in quantity and value of products. The rearing of cattle and horses is an
important branch of industry. Salt is obtained in large quantities, especially at Halle
(q.v.). Salzburg is the capital.

SALZBURG (anc. Jutavia), perhaps the most charmingly situated town in Germany,
is the capital of the Austrian crown-land of the same name, and stands on both banks,
but chiefly on the left bank, of the Salza, 190 m. w.s.w. of Vienna by railway. Here
the river, banked on both sides by precipitous crags, rushes through what seems to be a
natural gateway, and flows northward to its junction with the Inn. The picturesque
situation of the city is thus described by Wilkie: "It is Edinburgh castle and the Old
Town brought within the cliffs of the Trosachs, and watered bv a river like the Tay."
The heights on either bank of the Salza are crowned with edifices. That or. the left,
called the Monchsberg, is surmounted by. the castle, called Hohen-Salzburg, an irregular
feudal citadel of the llth c., and, during the middle ages, the residence of the arch-
bishops of Salzburg, who combined the dignity of princes of l!>e German empire with
their ecclesiastical rank. The castle itself is now dismantled, but si ill serves as a
barrack. A statue of Mozart (q.v.) adorns one of the squares. Opposite Monehsberp is
the Capnzinerberg, with a convent. The cathedral, a large and beautiful Italian edifice,
was built in the early part of the 17th century. The architectural taste of the arch-
bishops has adorned the city with many beautiful edifices, chiefly in the Italian sUle.
The city is surrounded by walls, here and there dismantled, and the bast inns are for'the
most part in a state of decay. The city is the seat of an archbishop, and contains numer-
ous libraries, museums, and educational and other institutions, among which is an
upper gymnasium, and the Moznrtenm. It carries on manufactures to some extent, is in
communication with Vienna, Munich, and Innspruck by railway, and has a considerably
transit -trade. Pop. '70, 14,615.

SALZKAMMERGUT, called also the Austrian Switzerland, one of the most picturesque
districts of Europe, forms the s.w. angle of the crown-land of Austria ob der Enns,
between the crown-lands of Salzburg on the w. and Stvria on the east. Area, 249 sq.m. ;
population, 18,000 of whom 6,500 are Protestants. The scenery combines in] rare

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 19 of 203)