Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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his version was published after his death under the title of All such Psalm of David as
Thomas Sternhold did in his Lyfe drawe into English metre (Loud. 1549). Sternhold's
labors were completed by John Hopkins and William Whittinghame, and first annexed
to the book of common prayer with the music attached, as The 'Whole Booke of Psalmes,
collected into English metre by Thomas Sternhold, John Hopkins, and otJiers; compared with
the Ebrue, with Notes to sing withal. Sternhold's and Hopkin's songs are very literal, but
somewhat coarse and homely in phraseology. They were used in the church service of
England till superseded by the version of Tate and Brady, which appeared in 1698.
They were also in use in Scotland down to the middle of the 17th century.


STERNUM, a portion of the skeleton of animals. It is present in the articulates
(arthropoda) and crustaceans, as well as arachnides and insects, and in those vertebrates
having exoskeletons, as tortoises, although Mivart and many others hold that the plas-
tron does not form (or contain) a sternum in other words, that the chelonia are sler-
numle38. A true sternum, however, belongs to the warm-blooded vertebrates, and
reaches its highest development in the birds. The somites of locusts have well-developed
sternal sections included between the pleura or side portions of the segments, especially
in the abdomen. All these sternal sections are collectively called the sternum. It can,
however, be said to be only analagous to the mammal sternum, or the sternum of birds.
It has nearer relations to the sternal pieces of the tortoises, because the plastron which
these pieces constitute is a part of the exoskeleton, and, as above mentioned, is by many
not regarded as a true sternum. In some mammals, and especially in man, there might
seem to be more analogy (if analogies are to be strained) between the sternum and the
" exoskeleton sternum," than between this latter and the sternum of birds, for in them
the relations with the rest of the endoskeleton are much more extensive. Man's ster
num is little else than a point of attachment for certain pleural pieces, the ribs and rib
cartilages, and a covering or shield for the central part of the thorax. In the chelonia
the whole of the under shell, or plastron, is regarded by some as a sternum, and com-
posed of pairs of pieces, and one single piece, the entoaternal. The pairs are the epi-
sternals, the most anterior, arched portion of the plastron, and including within the arch
the entosternal ; the hyosternals and hyposternals, respectively anterior lateral and pos-
terior lateral, and not joined together as pairs in the median line. Posteriorly, and
joined together at their extremities, are the Ttphisternals, small curved pieces, forming
an arch, like the anterior episternals. In birds of flight the sternum is the most impor-
tant bone in the body; it is enormously expanded, and gives attachment to the powerful
pectoral muscles which move the wings. In birds of great powers of flight it extends


over the abdominal cavity, and sometimes reaches the pelvis. In all birds -which fly it
luis a median ridge, called the keel, which is prominent in proportion to the powers of
flight, examples of which are seen in the sternum of the pigeon, the duck, and the wild
ID ostriches and other birds which do not fly the sternum has no keel. In the
mammalia it is composed of several pieces, usually three, the manubrium, or anterior
portion, the mesosternum, or middle portion, and the xiphisternum, or posterior portion .
(in man, xiphoid cartilage). In most mammals the sternum is long and narrow, but iii I
some, as in cetacea, it is broad. The Greenland whale has only a manubrium, while the
dugcmg has this piece and the xiphisternum, the mesosternum being absent. In some
mammals, burrowing and Hying animals, as the moles and bats, the sternum has a keel,
but it is placed differently than in birds, being more anterior. The middle and posterior
parts of the sternum iu birds are those which are most developed, the mauubrimn
being greatly subordinate or dwarfed.

STEBNUTATOBIES, are agents which cause sneezing. The most common arc the
different kinds of snuffs, but other substances are known which produce a more power-
ful and prolonged action on the nasal mucous membrane. They have been employed
in medicine with various objects; as, for example, to restore suspended respiration in
ca^cs of fainting, to dislodge foreign bodies from the nasal passages or even the wind-
pipe, to avert or check hysterical attacks, and to terminate prolonged fits of hiccup.
They are scarcely ever used at the present day.

STESICH'ORUS, lived about B.C. 570; b. Sicily ; a Greek lyric poet, acontemporary
of Pittacus, Alcseus, and Sappho. His original name was Tisias, and that of Stesicho-
rus (leader of choruses) was given him from his main employment; he is said to have
invented the tragic chorus. He excelled iu the arrangement of the strophe, autistrophe,
and epode, which were called the " three things of Stesichorus." Of his odes, poems,
and hymns but a few fragments remain.

STETH'OSCOPE, THE (Gr. stetfws, the chest, and skopeo, I look into), is an instrument
invented by Laennec for examining the sounds of the chest. The upper part is the
chest end, the lower the ear-piece. The most convenient measurements are length, 7 in.,
diameter of the ear-piece, 3 in., circumference of shaft, l^in., and diameter of cliustcnd,
li inch. The main object of the stethoscope b^ing to circumscribe and localize the sounds
which it transmits, the chest end should be small, in order to determine the exact seat of
the greatest intensity of sound. To ascertain this, the instrument should be moved right t
and left, up and down, till its end is on the exact spot from which the abnormal sound J
for which we are searching or, it may be, the absence of sound proceeds. In the
construction of the stethoscope, the following points should be attended to: 1. It should
be composed of a material which allows the least amount of sound to be lost, and which
least of all modifies or prevents the sound. A porous wood, such as cedar or deal,
answers these conditions best, a dense wood, like ebony, having a tendency to modify
the sound; 2. It should be of one piece of wood, and not, for example, part ivory and
part cedar; 3. The ear-piece should be large and flat to secure perfect apposition* and
occlusion, and the chest end should be narrow and smoothly rounded over the edge.
The various sounds heard through the stethoscope are described in the articles RESPIRA-

STETTIN', an ancient t. of Prussia, capital of the province of Pomerania (Pommern},
and, after Danzic, the most important sea-port in the kingdom, is situated on the left
bank of the Oder, where it flows into the Stettiner-Haff, 83 m. n.e. of Berlin, with which
it is connected by railroad. The entire population of this town in '75 was 80,972. Across
the river, which is from here 12 to 16 ft. deep, lies the suburb of Lastadie, connected
with Stettin proper by means of two bridges. Outside the fortifications lie the suburbs
of Upper and Lower Wieck and Tornei. The site of the town is hilly, and in conse-
quence the streets are uneven, but the houses are good and the environs very pleasant.
The principal buildings are the castle or fortress, the government house, the "county
buildings" with a valuable library, the exchange, and theater. The chief manufactures
are silks, leather, sail-cloth, cottons, etc. There is also a large anchor foundry, where all
the anchors for Prussian ships are forged. Ship-building and the manufacture of
machinery give employment to great numbers; and (he commerce of the city is extensive
and increasing. Stettin is the port whence the products of Silesia, both natural and
artificial, are mainly shipped to other countries. Corn, wood, and brandy are the prin-
cipal articles of export. The value of the annual imports into Stettin is about 10, 000;
of the exports, about half that amount. In the course of a year about 1700 ships enter the
port from foreign countries, of near 200,000 tons burden. Stettin was formerly a fortress
of the first rank. The Stfttiner-Hdff is formed by an expansion of the river Oder, n. of
the town of Stettin, and is nearly quite shut in from the Baltic, having eommnnieaiiim
with the sea only by three narrow straits, the most important of which is the Swine. See
SwtNEMUNDK. It has an area of 200 sq.m., and a depth of from 12 to 18 feet.

Stettin, the ancient, later SMtinum, is of Slavic origin, became a flourish-
ing commercial town in the middle ages, joined the Hansa, and was repeatedly the
residence of the dukes of Pomerauia.


STEUBEN, a co. in extreme n.e. Indiana, adjoining Michigan; drained by Pigeon
river and several creeks; traversed by the Fort Wayne, Jackson, and Saginaw railroad,
320sq.m.; pop. '80, 14,644 14,274 of American birth. The surface is diversified by
lakes and forests, and the soil is fertile; wheat, corn, oats, hay, and pork, are the
staples. Co. seat, Angola.

STEUBEN, a co. in s.w. New York, adjoining Pennsylvania; drained by the Che-
mung, Tioga, audCouhocton rivers; crossed by the New York, Lake Erie, and Western,
and the Corning, Cowanesque, and Antrim railroads; about 1400 sq.m. ; pop. '80,
77,585 71,113 of American birth. The surface is uneven. The soil is fertile. The
principal productions are wheat, corn, buckwheat, barley, wool, and tobacco. There
are many saw mills and flour mills. Co. seats, Corning and Bath.

STEU'BENVILLE, a city of e. Ohio, co. seat of Jefferson co., on the w. bank of the
Ohio river, 22 na. from Wheeling, and 68 m. from Pittsburg; pop. '80, 12,093. A block-
house was erected here in 1786, a fort was built in 1787 (namad in honor of baron Steuben).
The town was settled 1797, incorporated as a city 1851, enlarged, 1871. It is on the Cleve-
land and Pittsburg, and the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, and St. Louis railroads; the trains cross-
ing the river by a bridge. It is built on high land overlooking the river. It is the center
of a fertile agricultural region, and the trade by the river is important. It is the seat of
the Steubenville female seminary and a Roman Catholic school. It contains 18 churches,
public schools, 5 newspapers, 5 banks (3 national). It is in thevicinity of rich bituminous
coal mines with 8 coal shafts. The leading industries are the manufacture of paper,
nails, glass, woolen goods, iron (by the Jefferson Iron Co. ; employing 500 hands), white
lead, ale, and beer. Among the manufactories are the repair shops of the railroads,
several machine shops, blast furnaces, an oil refinery, and boiler works. It has an
efficient fire department with 2 steam tire-engines, is lighted with gas and supplied with

STEUBEN, FREDERIC WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, Baron, a general of the American revo-
lutionary army, was b. at Magdeburg, Prussia, Nov. 15, 1730; educated at the Jesuits'
colleges of Niesse and Breslau; and at the age of fourteen served as a volunteer under
his father at the siege of Prague. In 1747 he wa. appointed cadet of infantry, and in
1758 had risen to the rank of adjt.gen. He was wounded in the battle of Kun-
ersdorf, and in 1761 was conducted as a prisoner of war to St. Petersburg, but was
shortly after released. The following year he was appointed adjt.gen. on the staff of
the Prussian king, effected important reforms in the quartermaster's department, and
superintended an academy of young officers selected for special military instruction.
At the close of the seven years' war, he traveled in Europe, and was appointed grand
marshal and general of the guard of the prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen. Being on a
visit to Paris in 1777, where the cause of the American rebellion was favored by the
government, he was invited by count St. Germain to go to America. He arrived at
Portsmouth, Virginia, Dec. 1, 1777, and offered his services to gen. Washington, which
were joyfully accepted; and he joined the army, then in the most deplorable condition,
at Valley Forge. He was appointed inspector-general, prepared a manual of tactics for
the army, remodeled its organization, and improved its discipline. He was one of the
officers who composed the court-martial at the trial of rnaj. Andre. In the campaign
of 1780 he had a command in Virginia, and was on the staff of gen. Lafayette at the
siege of Yorktown. As generous in character as he was capable as an officer, he spent
his whole fortune in clothing his men, and gave his last dollar to his soldiers. Congress
made tardy reparation, and in 1790 voted him an annuity of $2,500, and a township of
land in the state of New York, both of which he divided with his fellow-officers. He
died on his estate near Utica, N. Y., Nov. 28, 1794. See Sparks's American Biog-
raphy, and a life by Friedrich Kapp (New York, 1860).

STEVENS, a co. in n.w. Dakota, drained in the n.e. by the Mouse river, and in the
s. and s.w. by the Missouri river. The surface is elevated and constitutes what is called
the Plateau du Coteau of the Missouri. On the river are forts Berthold and Stevenson,
and the rich prairie land is taken up by Indian reservations.

STEVENS, a co. in s.w. Kansas, intersected by the Cimarron river; 650 sq.m.: pop.
'80, 12 10 of American birth. The surface is undulating and the soil is fertile. It has
the Indian territory for its s. boundary.

STEVENS, a co. in w. Minnesota, intersected by the St. Paul and Pacific railroad;
576 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 3,911 2,664 of American birth, 3 colored. It is drained centrally
by the Pomme de Terre river. Its surface is hilly; the soil is fertile, producing grain
and potatoes, and furnishing excellent pasturage. Co. seat, Morris.

STEVENS, a co. in n. Washington territory, having the boundary line of British
Columbia for its n. border; 28,000 sq.m.; pop. '80, 1245736 of American birth. 287
colored. It is bounded on the n.e. by the territory of Idaho, and on the w. by the Cas-
cade range of mountains. It is drained by the Columbia river, Clark's Fork, and the
Okanagon river; also by lake Osoyoos in the n., and lake Chelan in the extreme s.w.
Its surface is mountainous in the w., and in the e. is composed of barren plains relieved
by tracts of prairie land of great fertility; producing grain and potatoes, and furnishing
good pasturage. Gold is among the mineral products. Co. seat, Fort Colville.

QOQ Steuben.


STEVENS, ABEL, D.D., b. Philadelphia, 1815; educated at Wesleyan university,
Middletown; settled pastor of a Methodist church iii Boston, 1834; traveled in Europe
1837; returning, was stationed at Providence, R.I. ; became editor of Zion's Herald,
Boston, 1840; National Muyazine, New York, 1852; revisited Europe, 1855; edited Chris-
tian Advocate and Journal, 1856; co-editor of the Methodist. He has published Memorials
of the Introduction of Metlwdism into New England; Memorials of the Pi'ogr ess of Methodism
in the Eastern States; Church Polity; The Preaching required by the Times; TJte Great
Reform; History of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States, 4 vols.

STEVENS, ALEXANDER HODGDON, LL.D., 1789-1869; b. New York; graduated i a
1815 at the university of Pennsylvania; became surgeon in the New York hospital; from
1826 to 1837 he was professor of surgery in the college of physicians and surgeons of
New York; from 1837 to 1839 professor of clinical surgery; and from 1843 to 1855 presi-
dent of the college. He was made president of the medical society of the state of New
York in 1848.

STEVENS, ALFRED GEORGE, 1817-75; b. England; studied art in Italy, 1833-42.
On his return to England he devoted himself especially to decorative art, such as wood
and marble curving and the painting of ceilings and panels. His greatest work was the
modeling of the Wellington monument in St. Paul's, which was not completed at the
time of his death.

STEVENS, EBENEZER, 1752-1823; b. Boston. He was active in the agitation which
led to the revolution and was one of the celebrated "tea party" of 1773. In 1775 he
was commissioned lieut. , raised two companies of artillery and one of engineers, and
accompanied them to the siege of Quebec. He had command of the artillery at Ticon-
derpga and Stillwater, and in part at Yorktown. He also served with Lafayette in Vir-
ginia. In 1812 he took part in the defense of New York.

STEVENS, EDWARD, 1745-1820; b. Va; col. of the 10th Virginia regiment in the
revolutionary war, through which he served with distinction, attaining the rank of brig,
gen. He was afterward long a member of the Virginia senate. He enjoyed the con-
fidence of Washington.

STEVENS, EDWIN AUGUSTUS, 1795-1868; b. N. J. ; established, with his brothers,
lines of steamboats on the Hudson and several other rivers; and introduced various
improvements in machinery and naval architecture. He endeavored, at the beginning
of the rebellion, to induce the government to make use of the iron-clad battery begun
by Robert L. Stevens, but the offer was declined. He left in his will $1,000,000 for the
completion of the battery, but that amount was not sufficient, and it was sold to the
United States navy in 1874, by the state of New Jersey, to which it had been bequeathed.
Congress, however, neglected to make the appropriation, and the vessel was sold in
1880 for a very small amount. Mr. Stevens endowed the Stevens high school at Hobo-
ken, and left nearly $1,000,000 to found the Stevens institute of technology.

STEVENS, HKNRT, b. Vt. 1819; graduated at Yale college, 1843, and Cambridge
law school, 1844; has resided in London since 1845 for the purpose of purchasing rare
and valuable books; has added largely to the collection of American books in the
British museum, and procured many Valuable works for the Smithsonian institution, the
library of congress, and other libraries in the United States. Among his publications
are Catalogue llauonne of English Bibles; Catalogue of American Books in British Mu-
seum; Bibliotheca Americana; Bibliotheca Hwtorica.

STEVENS, ISAAC INGALLS, 1818-62; b. Mass.; graduated at West Point, served
through the Mexican war, was principal assistant at the U. S. coast survey office,
1849-53, when he resigned from the army to become governor of Washington territory,
from which he was delegate to congress, 1857-61. He was a maj.gen. of volunteers in
the war of the rebellion, and was killed at Chantilly, while leading s. charge.

STEVENS, JOHN, 1749-1838; b. N. Y. ; a competitor with Fulton in the building of
steamboats, experimenting in their manufacture for nearly 30 years, the sight of John
Fitch's steamboat being the incentive to his ambition. In 1804 he built a screw pro-
peller, and afterward the Phoenix, with sectional boilers and high-pressure condensing
engines, which was completed soon after Fulton's Clermont. Fulton had the exclusive
right to navigate the Hudson, so Stevens contented himself with the Delaware and
Connecticut rivers. He designed, in 1812, a circular iron-clad, similar to those now in
the Russian navy, and published a pamphlet setting forth the advantages of railway
travel, and suggesting the construction of a railway from Albany to lake Erie. He
made the plans for the Camden and Amboy railroad.

STEVENS, JOHN AUSTIN, 1795-1874; b. N. Y.; educated at Yale, and went into
business. He was one of the first members of the New York chamber of commerce,
of which he was for many years secretary. He was president of "the bank of Com-
merce, 1839-66, the first president of the merchant's exchange, which he helped to
establish, and during the war president of the associated banks of New York, Boston,
and Philadelphia; and the loans made by them to the U. S. government were made
under his direction, as chairman of the treasury note committee. His opinion on
financial subjects was much sought for at the treasury department. Though a whig, h
was in favor of free trade.


STEVENS, PHINEAS, b. Sudbury, Mass.; d. 1756; removed with his father to Rut-
land, New Hampshire. At 16 he was taken prisoner and carried to Canada. He -joined
in an expedition against Canada, 1746, and gallantly defended his station in Charlestown,
on the frontier, from the French and Indians in 1747. In acknowledgment of his brav-
erv he received a valuable sword from commodore Kuowles, and was commandant of
the fort until 1750 In the New Hampshire Hist. Colls., v. 199, is an account from his
pen of his expedition to Canada in 1749.

STEVENS, ROBERT LIVINGSTON, 1788-1856; b. N. J. ; son of John Stevens; had
charge of his father's steamboat, the Phcenxc, in its passage to the Delaware. In 1808
lie introduced concave water lines in the hull of the Pfusnix, which was the first applica-
tion of the wave line to shipbuilding. He invented in 1813 percussion elongated shells
for smooth bore guns, and sold his invention to the government. In 1818 he burned
anthracite coal in a cupola furnace, using it soon afterward in his steamers. In 1822 he
substituted the skeleton wrought-iron working beam for the heavy cast-iron one before
in use; and introduced many other improvements in navigation and steam machinery.
He was commissioned by the government in 1842 to build an iron-plated war steamer or
battery, to be shell-proof and driven by screws, but he died before it was completed.

STEVENS, THADDEUS, 1793-1868; b. Vt. ; graduated at Dartmouth college, 1814;
laught school for a time in York, Penn. ; but at the same time studied law ; was admit-
ted to the bar, and soon acquired a large practice. In the presidential campaign of 1828
lie opposed Jackson, and from that time on was an active member of the whig party.
He was first elected to congress in 1848. Previous to this time he had served in the state
legislature and as canal commissioner, 1838. He was already an opponent of the slave
system, and in the two terms from 1848-52, vigorously attacked the fugitive slave law,
the Missouri compromise, and the Kansas-Nebraska bill. From 1852 to 1858 he occu-
pied himself with professional work; in the latter year was again elected to congress,
and held his seat until the time of his death. He was chairman of the committee of
ways and means for three sessions, and of the "reconstruction" committee of the 39th
and 40th congresses. In the impeachment of president Johnson he acted as chairman of
the board of managers. The issuing of the emancipation proclamation by president
Lincoln and the adopting of the 14th amendment were measures earnestly advocated by
Mr. Stevens.

STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY at Hoboken, N. J., a school of
mechanical engineering, founded in 1871 by Edwin A. Stevens, who left for it in his
will the sum of $650,000, and a lot of land suited to its uses. It has an annual income
from all sources of over $36,000. The plan of instruction is designed to fit young men
of ability for leading positions in the department of mechanical engineering and scien-
tific pursuits. Theory and practice in the construction of machines forms a distinct
department, under the charge of a professor experienced in the practical relations of his
subject, who devotes his entire attention to the branch. There is also included an
extended course of manual work in the workshop, under the supervision of a competent
workman. A mechanical laboratory has been instituted as an adjunct to this depart-
ment, in which students are permitted to study the materials of construction during the
process of testing, which is at nearly all times in progress, and frequently to take part in
such work. They are given opportunities to take part in tests of steam engines,. boilers,
and other commercial operations carried on in this laboratory, and witness and take part
in the construction of machinery and other work done in the workshop. Mechanical
drawing forms a separate department. Arrangements have been made to give a thorough
practical course of instruction in physics, by means of physical laboratories, in which
the student is guided in experimental researches bearing upon the subjects of his special
study. The institute is richly furnished with the needful appliances and collections. It
lias an apparatus for precise measurement for the measurement of capacities, weights,
and time; for molecular physics, elementary mechanics, and acoustics; for the measure-
ment of specific and latent heat of solids, liquids, and gases; instruments for electrical
measurement of every kind required for the most accurate and refined work; optical
apparatus, and rich collections in the departments of engineering, drawing, and chemis-

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 190 of 203)