Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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try. The library is furnished with the best works in every department of science. A
large room has been fitted up with all the appliances of a gymnasium, and is accessible
to all the students. Number of professors, '78, 9; students, 74. President, Henry
Morton, PH. D.

STEVENSON, ROBERT, a Scotch engineer, was born at Glasgow, June 8, 1772. His
father, who was a merchant connected with the West India trade, died during his
infancy; and his mother having (1786) married Mr. Thomas Smith, the first engineer of
the light-house board, young Stevenson was led to devote himself to the study of
engineering, in which his progress was so rapid that in 1791 he was intrusted by Mr. Smith
with the erection of a light-house in Little Cumbrae, In 1769 he succeeded his father-in-
Iu\v as engineer and inspector of light-houses; and during his 47 years' tenure of that
office, he planned and constructed no fewer than 23 light-houses round the Scottish
eoasts; employing the catoptric system of illumination, and his valuable invention' of


" intermittent " and " flashing " lights. The most remarkable of these erections was
that on the Bell Hack (q.v.), for which he had been sketching plans for some time, when
the wreck of the York, a 74-gun ship, on this reef drew general attention to the same
subject. The enterprise was quite unprecedented in light-house engineering, for in the
only instance at all analagous the Eddystoue light-house the rock was barely sub-
merged at flood, while the Bell Rock was never uncovered except at very low ebb tides.
In 1814, Stevc-nson was accompanied in his tour of inspection by sir Walter Scott, and
while the former was projecting another light-house on the Skerry vore (q.v,) near Tiree,
the latter was doubtless laying up ample materials for those minute descriptions of the
w. coast of Scotland and its islands which were afterward embodied in the Lord of the Ixlcx.
Stevenson was also in great request as a consulting engineer in the matter of roads,
bridges, harbors, canals, and railways, introduced many improvements in their construo
tion, and occasionally co-operated with Ronnie, Telford, and others. He died in Edin-
burgh, July 12, 1850. Like most eminent practical men, Stevenson has left few lit-
erary remains; these being merely four volumes of professional printed reports, a large
work on the Bell Rock light-house, some articles in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and in
the Kdinluryh Encyclopaedia, and a series of letters on the engineering works of the
Netherlands in the /Scots Magazine (1817). See his Life bv his son, David Stevenson, C.E.

STE'VENSTON, a t. of Scotland, county of Ayr, is a station on the Ardrossan and
Faltcoats branch of the Glasgow and Ayr railway, and is situated about 3 m. e. of
Ardrossau. Pop. '71, 3,140. Stevenston consists mainly of one low, straggling, uneven,
and narrow street, about half a mile in length; but the parish church is finely placed on
a slight eminence, which commands a splendid view of the Arran hills and the lower
scenery of the firth of Clyde. Cotton-weaving used to be the chief industry of the
place, but its prosperity now depends almost exclusively on the collieries and ironworks
in its vicinity.

STEVINUS, or STEVIN, SIMON, 1550-1630, b. Bruges, West Flanders. By the
stadtholder of Holland, Maurice of Nassau, he was made inspector of the dykes, and
carried on important works in that connection. He also wrote a number of essays in
the Dutch tongue on mechanical, statical, and hydrostatic problems. These were
translated into French by Girard in 1634, and were copied into the Latin and German

STEWARD OF ENGLAND, LORD Hicn, one of the great officers of state, and anciently ,
the first officer of the crown in England. The dignity was in early times hereditary. I
From Hugh Grentmesnell, lord steward in the time of Henry II., it passed by the mar-
riage of his daughter and co-heir to the family of De Bellomonts, earls of Leicester, and
thence also by marriage to the Montforts, earls of Leicester. On the death and attain-
der of Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, in 1265, the office, reverting to the crown,
was granted with the earldom of Leicester to Edmund, younger son of "Henry III., and
continued annexed to the earldoms of Lancaster and Leicester, till absorbed into the
royal dignity on the accession of Henry IV. Since that time, there has been no perma-
nent lord steward, but the office is temporarily revived when occasion requires, a lord
steward being appointed under the great seal pro hac vice at a coronation, or the trial of
a peer (see PARLIAMENT). When the proceedings are at an end, the lord steward ter-
minates his commission by breaking his wand of office.

STEWARD OF THE HOUSEHOLD, LORD, an officer of the royal household in England,
of great antiquity, origin aly designated the lord great master of the household. He is
the head of the ancient court called the board of green cloth, and as such has the control
of all the officers and servants of the household, except those belonging to the chapel,
the chamber, and the stable. The other members of the board of green cloth are the
treasurer and the controller, over whom, as well as the master of the household, the
lord steward's authority extends. That court had, by 3 Hen, VII. c. 14, and 33 Hen.
VIII. c. 12, authority to try and punish all treasons, misprisions, murders, manslaugh-
ters, bloodsheds, etc., in the royal palace, and within the verge of the court. But this
jurisdiction, which had long fallen into disuse, was in part repealed by 9 Geo. IV. c. 31.
and altogether abolished by 12 and 13 Viet, c. 101 : and the functions of the board of
green cloth are now confined to the supervision of the household expenses and accounts,
the purveyance of the provisions and their payment, and the good government of the
servants of the household. The lord steward selects all the subordinate officers and ser-
vants, except those connected with the royal stables; he also appoints the queen's trades-
men. He is always sworn a member of the privy council, and has precedence of all
peers of his own degree. He has no formal grant of office, but receives his charge from
the sovereign in person, who, delivering to him a white wand as his staff of office, says:
" Seneschal, tenez le baton de notre maison." He holds his appointment during pleasure,
and his tenure depends upon the political party to which he belongs. The salary of the
office is 2,000.

STEWARD, or HIGH STEWARD OF SCOTLAND, an office of high dignity and power
under the Scottish crown during the 12th. 13th, and 14th centuries (called in Latin
da'pifer or seneschallus). The high steward not only was chief of the household, but col-



lected and managed the crown revenues, and possessed the privilege of holding the first
place id the army next to the king in battle. The office was early in the 12th c. con-
ferred Dy Duvid I. on Walter, second son of Alan, lord of Oswestry, along with exten-
sive territorial possessions, comprehending among others the barony of Renfrew; and
the dignity of steward became hereditary in his family, who in virtue of their office
assumed the surname of Stewart. The accession of Robert, the seventh high steward,
to the throne, as Robert II., merged the sencschalship in the crown; but the estates of
the stewards afterward became the appanage of the king's eldest son, and by act of the
Scottish parliament of 1469, the titles of prince and high steward of Scotland, duke of
Rothesay, earl of Carriek, baron of Renfrew, and lord of the isles, were vested in the
eldest son, and heir-apparent of the crown of Scotland forever. " Great steward of
Scotland " has thus become one of the titles of the prince of Wales. See STEWART,

STEWART, a co. in w. Georgia, having the Chattahoochee river for itsw. boundary,
separating it from Alabama; 550 sqm.; pop. '80, 13,99813,981 of American birth,
9, 583 colored. It is drained by the Bannahalchee and Pataula creeks. The surface is
undulating and well-timbered with pine and oak. The soil is fertile, producing cotton
and maize, and is adapted" to the raising of stock. Co. seat, Lumpkin.

STEWART, a co. in n.w. Tennessee, adjoining Kentucky; drained by the Cumber-
land and Tennessee rivers, the latter of which bounds it on the w. ; crossed by the Louis-
ville and Nashville railroad, about 375 sq.m.; pop. '80, 12,690 2,757 colored. The sur-
face is rolling. The soil is fertile. The principal productions are corn, cotton, and
tobacco. Co. seat, Dover.

STEWAET, THE FAMILY OF. The origin of the Stewarts, long obscured by myth,
was rediscovered in the beginning of the present century by the indefatigable antiquary,
George Chalmers. Alan, son of a Flahald, a Norman, accompanied the conqueror inlo
England, and obtained by his gift the lands and castle of Oswestry in Shropshire. His
eldest son, William, remaining in England, became the ancestor of the Fitzalans, earls
cf Arundel, from whom the duke of Norfolk inherits that earldom through an heiress.
The second son, Walter, passing into Scotland in the service of David I., had huge
territorial possessions conferred on him by that monarch, along with the dignity of
steward of Scotland, which became hereditary in his family, and was assumed by his
descendants as a surname; some branches of the house, when spelling began to be con-
sidered, modifying the orthogrephy to Sttuart, or the French form Stuart. The fess
(hequy adopted as the arms of the family is emblematical of the chequer of the steward's
board. The connection between the Stewarts and Fitzalans was shown by Mr. Chalmers
to have been well known and acknowledged as late as 1336, when Richard Fitzalan,
earl of Arundel, sold the stewardship of Scotland to his sovereign, Edward III. r.nd
Edward Baliol, rs kirg of Scotland, ratified the transaction; the sale being a political
fiction, founded on a supposed forfeiture of the Scottish branch of the family, by which
the hereditary office reverted to the English branch.

The lands conferred on Walter the steward by David I. included the barony, or what
is now the county of Renfrew, which became the chief patrimony of the family, as veil
as Innerwick, Hassendean, and other Irrge estates in Teviotdale'and Lauderdalc. For
seven generations the stewardship continued to descend without a break from father to
son. Walter, the third, and grandson of the first steward, held, in addition, the office
01 justiciary of Scotland, and was one of the two ambassadors sent to conduct Mnric de
Couci, second wife of king Alexander II.. to her adopted coun'.ry. His third son,
Walter, called Balloch. by his marriage with the younger daughter of M;mrice, earl of
Menteith the lady's elder sister having been banished and her rights forfeited got the
earldom of Mentefth, and was ancestor of a line of earls and countesses of Menteith, of
whom the countess Margaret carried the earldom to her husband, Robert, duke of
Albany, son of king Robert II. Alexander, fourth steward, was regent of Scotland in
Alexander III. 's minority; he commanded at the battle of Largs in 1263, Avhen the Scotch
army obtained u signal victory over Haco of Norway; and invading the isle of Man,
annexed it to the Scottish crown. From his second son, sir John Stewart, who married
the heiress of Bonkyl, sprang various important branches of the family, including the
Stewarts of Darnley, Lennox, and Aubigne. James, the fifth steward, was one of the six
regents of Scotland after the death of Alexander III. Walter, the sixth steward occupies
a conspicuous place among Bruce's companions-in-arms. When but a youth, he did con-
siderable service as one of the principal leaders at Bannockburn, and, four years hiter,'
increased the promise of his fame by his successful defense of Berwick against Edward
II. in person. His marriage with Marjory, daughter of Robert Bruce, eventually
brought the crown of Scotland to his family. He died at the age of 33. much lamented
throughout Scotland. His son by Marjory Bruce, Robert, seventh high steward, was
regent from 1338-41, and afterward during the captivity of his uncle, David II., from
1346-57; and in the midst of events which threatened a total overthrow to the liberties
of Scotland, he exerted himself with zeal and energy in their defense, anel was the main
instrument in defeating the intrigues of David II. and Edward III. to place an English

S'ince on the throne. On the death of David II. in 1371 he ascended the throne as
obert II., and died in 1390. He was twice married; first to Elizabeth, daughter of sir



William Mure of Rowallan, and afterward to Euphemia, countess of Moray, daughter
of Hugh, earl of Koss, and had issue by both unions. In consequence of Elizabeth
Mure being related to him within the prohibited degrees, he obtained a dispensation for
the marriage from pope Clement VI. in 1347, in which those children who had already
been born, as well as those to be born of that connection, were legitimated; and the suc-
cession to the crown was further regulated by parliament. In later times, when the
true history of these proceedings was lost or mystified, the descendants of Robert II. 's
fivst marriage came to be branded with the suspicion of illegitimacy, while those of the
second marriage were in the habit of boasting of their preferable claim to the throne;
and the dispensation setting the question at rest was only discovered in the Vatican in
1789 by Andrew Stuart of Castlemilk. Of the children by the first marriage, the third
son, Robert, duke of Albany, and his issue are separately noticed below. The fourth
son, sir Alexander Stewart, who got the earldom of Buchan on the forfeiture of the
Comyns, ruled over the northern part of Scotland with little less than regal authority,
and his savage and ferocious character obtained for him the appellation of the " Wolf
of Badenoch." He had no lawful issue, but several natural sons, one of whom stormed
the castle of Kildrummy, the residence of the countess of Mar, forcibly wedded that
lady, and possessed himself of the earldom; and others were progenitors of the branches
of the family known as the Athole Stewarts, of whom the principal were the Stewarts of
Garth. For the subsequent history of the royal family, see articles ROBERT II. and III. ;

James II. (of England) was twice married, first to lady Anne Hyde, daughter of lord-
chancellor Hyde; and secondly, to Mary Beatrice, daughter of the duke of Modena. By
the first marriage he had Mary, queen of William III., and Anne, who succeeded to the
throne, neither of whom left issue; and by the second, James, prince of Wales, born in
1688, known as the chevalier St. George, or the elder pretender. Prince James, who
was born but a few months before his father's abdication, was commonly but ground-
lessly alleged to be a supposititious child, and was involved in his father's exclusion
from the crown. In 1715 the party who supported him. known in history as the Jaco-
bites, endeavored to procure him the throne by force of arms. In Scotland, the earl of
Mar, with about 5,000 men, engaged the royal forces under the duke of Argyll at
Sheriff inuir: it was a drawn battle, but the result was a delay as fatal as a defeat. In
England, the rising was headed by the earl of Derwentwater, and ended by the uncondi-
tional surrender of the insurgents at Preston, when lords Derwentwater and Kuumure
were beheaded, and other persons of note executed and attained. James escaped to
France ; and for the rest of his life resided in obscurity principally at Rome, where he
died in 1766. In 1719 he married one of the wealthiest heiresses in Europe, Maria
Clementina Sobieski, granddaughter of John Sobieski, king of Poland, and by her had
two sons, Charles Edward Lewis Casimir, born 1720, known as the young pretender (see
STUART, CHARLES EDWARD), and Henry Benedict Maria Clement, cardinal York, bora
1725. Henry Benedict, second son of the chevalier St. George, went to France in 1745
to head an army assembled at Dunkirk for the invasion of England, but the news of the
defeat of Culloden put an end to his plan. He then returned to Rome, took orders, and
was advanced to the purple by Benedict XIV. in 1747. During his brother's life, he was
known as cardinal York; but after his death he assumed the regal style as Henry IX.,
king of England. His various bishoprics and rich church livings enabled him for long to
live in great splendor; but the expulsion of Pius VI. from Rome, and other events of the
revolution, drove him to Venice, aged and infirm, stripped of his means, and reduced
to absolute poverty. His deplorable situation becoming known to the British court,
George III. settled on him an annuity of 4,000, which the cardinal accepted with
gratitude, and enjoyed during the remainder of his life. He died in 1807 at the age of
82, the last surviving descendant of James II.

Next to the exiled Stewarts in representation of the royal house as heir-of-line came
the descendants of Henrietta Maria, daughter of Charles I., who was married to Phil-
ippe, duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV. of France. This princess had two daugh-
ters, of whom the elder, Mary, was queen to Charles II. of Spain, but died childless;
the younger, Anna Maria, married Victor- Amadeus, duke of Savoy and king of Sardinia,
and was mother to Charles-Emmanuel III., king of Sardinia, and grandmother to Victor-
Amadcus III., king of Sardinia. Victor-Amadeus had three sons who successively
occupied the Sardinian throne as Charles-Emmanuel IV., Victor-Emmanuel I., and
Charles- Felix, and a daughter who married Charles X. of France, and was mother of
Henri, due de Bordeaux, present representative of the French Bourbons. Victor-
Emmanuel and Charles-Felix left daughters only; and the present senior co-representa-
tive as heir-of-line of the house of Stewart, as well as that of Tudor, is Maria Teresa,
wife of prince Louis of Bavaria and only child of the younger brother of the last duke
of Modena, grandson of Victor-Emmanuel IV. The house of Savoy -Carignan, from
which the king of Italy springs, does not participate in the Stewart descent.

Tire branch of the tamily which the parliamentary settlement called to the throne on
the death of Anne were the descendants of the electress Sophia of Hanover, grand-
daughter of James VI. by her mother the princess Elizabeth Stewart, electress palatine
and queen of Bohemia. By this destination, not only were the already mentioned


descendants of Charles I.'s daughter, the duchess of Orleans, excluded, but also the song
of the king of Bohemia and their descendants. The eldest son, Charles Lewis, duke of
Bavaria, is represented through his daughter, the duchess of Orleans, by the com'e de
Paris, grandson of Louis Philippe, late king of the French. Her majesty queen Victoria
is sixth in descent from and representative of the electress Sophia, the line of descent
being through George I.; George II.; Frederick, prince of Wales; George III.; and
Edward, duke of Kent.

We h;ive now briefly to notice the most important cadets of the house of Stewart.

dukedom of Albany, forfeited on the attainder of duke Murdoch, nephew of Robert III.
(see infra), was conferred on Alexander, second son of king James II. of Scotland, who
also obtained the earldom of March, and lordsliip of Annaudale and Man. Albany, fall-
ing under suspicion of James III., was arrested, and escaping from custody in Edin-
burgh castle to France, was attainted. He afterward took part in a plot with the dis-
contented barons and Edward IV. of England to place himself on the throne, and
joining the English army, captured Berwick. After making his peace with James, and
being restored to his dukedom, he again rebelled, and invading Scotland with the earl
of Douglas, was routed at Lochmaben, and once more attainted. He was first married
to lady Catherine Sinclair, daughter of the earl of Orkney and Caithness, from whom he
obtained a divorce on the ground of propinquity of blood, by which his sou Alexander
was bastardized. By his'secoud wife, the daughter of Bertrand, count de la Tour
d'Auvergne, he had a" son John, who was restored to the dukedom, assumed the regency
of Scotland in James V.'s minority, and was declared heir to the throne. By the settle-
ment of the crown under Robert II., John, duke of Albany, would, had he survived
James V., have had a preferable claim to Mary. After a regency of eight years, during
which he gave offense by his hauteur and French predilections, he returned to France,
became governor of Bourbonuais, attended Francis I. in his unfortunate expedition into
Italy in 1525, and died in 1536. By his wife, Anne de la Tour d'Auvergue, he left no

son of Robert II. and Elizabeth Mure, obtained the earldom of Menteith by marriage
with its heiress, and the earldom of Fife by indenture with his sister-in-law, the
countess, and was appointed great chamberlain of Scotland in 1383. He practically
exercised the regency during his father's declining years, and continued to wield the
supreme authority after the succession of his timid and irresolute brother, Robert III.,
who bestowed on him the title of duke of Albany i.e., of all Scotland north 'of Forth
and Clyde. His unscrupulous ambition led him to get rid of his nephew, the duke of
Rothesay, by starving him, in order to pave his way to the throne ; and prince James
was sent abroad by his father, lest he should meet a similar fate. On Robert III.'s
death, Albany at once became regent of Scotland, and wielded the chief power of the
state during the minority and captivity of James I. By his first marriage to Margaret,
countess of Menteith, he had a son, Murdoch, who, on his father's decease in 1419, suc-
ceeded, unchallenged, to the regency. By his second wife, Muriel la, daughter of sir
William Keith, the marischal, he had, besides two younger sons of whom there was no
succession, a son, John, created earl of Buchan, on whom Charles VII. bestowed the
office of constable of France after the battle of Bauge, and who fell at Verneuil, leaving
only a daughter, who married the second lord Seton, and is represented by the earl of
Eglinton. Duke Murdoch married the eidest co-heiress of the earl of Lennox, and had
four sons. On James I.'s restoration, his vengeance fell on duke Murdoch, his sons
Walter and Alexander, and his father-in-law Lennox, who were all put to death, and
the dukedom of Albany forfeited to the crown. Murdoch's youngest son, James, gen-
erally known as " James the gross," escaped to Ireland, where he had a numerous issue
by a lady of the family of the lords of the Isles, some of whom were brought to Scot-
land, and raised to high honors by James II., and received letters of legitimation, which
in the 15th c. conferred far more nearly than at a later date the full rights of legitimacy.
The eldest, who was created Lord Avandale, enjoyed for life the estates of the earldom
of Lennox, which had belonged to his grandmother, to the exclusion of the descendants
of that lady's sisters; and we afterward find the earl of Arran, a descendant of the sixth
son of James the gross, entering a protest in the parliament of 1585 regarding the per-
fect legitimacy of the house of Ochiltree. From the youngest son, James (not legiti'
mated), sprung the Stuarts of Ardvorlich, Glenbuckie, and others in Balquidcbr.

Andrew Stewart,, eldest legitimated son of James the gross, and grandson of Murdoch
duke of Albany, was created lord Avandale in 1455, and held the office of chancellor to
James III. On his death without issue in 1488, he was succeeded by his nephew,
Andrew, eldest son of his also legitimated brother, Walter, who had three sons. The
eldest of these, Andrew, third lord Avandale, exchanged his title for that of Ochiltree,
and was father of Andrew, second lord Ochiltree, sometimes called the "good lord
Ochiltree," an active promoter of the reformed faith, one of the lords of the c~ngre-
gation, and an accomplice in the assassination of Riccio. One of his daughters became
the second wife of John Knox; and his younger son, James, has an unenviable notori-
ety in history. He was the unprincipled and arrogant favorite of James VI. 's early.



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 191 of 203)