Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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years; held, along with other offices, that of chancellor of Scotland; was created earl of
Arrau on the forfeiture of the Hamilton family; and enriched himself with the spoils of
the estates of Angus, Mar, Glammis. and other forfeited lords. But his downfall was as
sudden as his elevation. At the raid of Stirling, in 1585, he was stripped of his honors,
offices, and spoils, the earldom. of Arran being restored to the Hamillons; and in 1596
he was assassinated by sir Jamas Douglas. The second lord Oehiltree was succeeded
by his grandson, Andrew, third lord Oehiltree, who resigned the lordship of Oehiltree to
his cousin, sir James Stewart of Killeith, sou of the earl of Arran, settled in Ireland,
where extensive lands were bestowed on him by James VI., and was in 1619 created
lord Stuart of Castlcstuart in the peerage of Ireland. After the death of the fifth lord
Castlestuart in 1084, the title remained dormant till claimed by AndreW. ninth lord, as
heir-male of the body of the first lord, which claim was proved to the satisfaction of the
Irish house of lords 'in 1774. The younger branch of the house, to whom the title of
Oehiltree was transferred, had come to an end in 1673, and lord Castlestuart claimed
also the Oehiltree title; but the evidence adduced by him was held insufficient by the
British house of lords. He was, in 1793, created viscount Castlestuart, and, in 1800, earl
of Castlestuart; and the present and fifth earl is his great-grandson.

LORDS METHYEN. Henry Stewart, second son of Andrew, second lord Avandale,
became, in 1526, third husband of the princess Margaret of England, widow of James
IV., and divorced wife of Archibald, earl of Angus. In 1528 he was created lordMeth-
ven. He left no children by the queen-dowager, but by a second marriage had a son,
who became second lord Methven, and in the person of whose son, the third lord, the
succession terminated.

LORDS DOUNE, EARLS OP MORAY, LORDS ST. COLME. Sir James Stewart of Beath,
third sou of Andrew, second lord Avandale, obtained from James V. the hereditary
command of the castle of Doune, with the stewartry of Menteith. He had two sons,
from the younger of whom sprang the Stewarts of Burray in Orkney. The elder son,
James, on the dissolution of the monasteries, obtained the lands cf St. Colme, and was
created lord Doune in 1581. His son, the second lord Doune, married Elizabeth, the
only child of James Stuart, earl of Moray, regent of Scotland, natural son of James V.
by Margaret, daughter of John, lord Erskine (see MURRAY, JAMES, EAKL OF) and,
thereupon became earl of Moray. This nobleman is known in history as the " bonny
earl of Moray,'' and fell a victim to his hereditary enemy, the earl of Huntly, in 1592.
His son, the third earl, is believed to have got a new investiture to heirs-male, and from
him descends the present and fourteenth earl of Moray. The ninth earl became, in
1796, a peer of Great Britain, as baron Stuart of Castlestuart. Henry Stuart, younger
brother of the ' bonny earl of Mora}'," was made a lord of parliament as lord St. Colme
in 1611, a title which, however, became extinct on his sou's death without issue, and the
estates reverted to the earl of Moray. The family of Stuart of Duuearn sprang from a
younger brother of the fifth earl.

EARLS AND MARQUISES OF BUTE, LORDS WHARNCLIFFE, LORDS STUART DE ROTHE-
BAY. Sir John Stuart, a natural son of Robert II., was made hereditary sheriff of Bute
and Arran: and his descendant and representative, sir James Stuart, had a baronetcy
conferred on him in 1627. Sir James Stuart, grandson of the above sir James, a privy
councilor to queen Anne, and a strenuous opponent of the union, was raised to the
peerage as earl of Bute. The fourth earl was advanced to the marquisate of Bute. Tlie
present peer is the third marquis. Two grandsons of the third earl were raided to the
peerage as lord Wharncliffe, and a grandson of the same earl, lord Stuart de Rothesay
(the latter title is now extinct); and a grandson of the first marquis as lord Stuart de
Deciea.

EARLS or ANGUS. Sir John Stewart (commonly called of Bonkyl), brother of James,
fifth steward of Scotland, was progenitor of some of the most considerable branches of
the family, and direct ancestor in the male line of James VI. and tbe Stuart kings
who followed him. He married Margaret, daughter and heiress of sir Jehu Bonkyl of
Bonkj'l, in virtue of which alliance most of his descendants added the bend or buckle of
the Bonkyl coat to the fess of the Stuart escutcheon. The issue of this marriage was
five sons 1. Sir Alexander Stewart of Boukyl ; 2. Sir Allan Stewart of Dreghorn; 3.
Sir Walter Stewart of Dalswinton; 4. Sir John Stewart of Jed worth; 5. Sir James
Stewart of Pierston; and a daughter, Isabel, who married the celebrated Thomas Ran-
dolph, earl of Moray, nephew of Robert Bruce. The eldest son, sir Alexander, suc-
ceeded to Bonkyl on his maternal grandfather's death, and was fallier of sir John Slew-
art, created earl of Angus in 1329. The third earl, grandson of this sir John, was the
last male descendant of sir Alexander of Bonkyl; and on his death the earldom devolved
on his sister, Margaret Stewart, countess of Angus in her own right. This lady was
married to Thomas, earl of Mar, by whom she had no issue; but she had a natural son,
Goorge, by William, first earl of Douglas (a connection then deemed incestuous, the
earl being brother in-law to her husband), upon whom, on her resignation, the earldom
of Angus was conferred by Robert II. in 1389, and who was ancestor of the Douglases,
earls of Angus.

EARLS OF DARNLEY, EARLS AND DUKES OP LENNOX, LORDS OF AUBIGNE. Sh
Alan Stewart of Dreghorn, second son of sir John of Bonkyl, who with his brothers,
John and James, fell at Halidon hill in 1333, was ancestor of this distinguished line.



Stewart.



830



His domains included the extensive lands of Cruickston and Darnley, in Renfrewshire,
to which his grandson, sir Alexander Stewart, added Galston by his marriage with
Janeta, daughter and heiress of sir William Keith of Galston, and widow of sir David
Hamilton of Cadyow. Sir John Stewart of Darnley, eldest son of this marriage, dis-
tinguished himself much in the French wars, when succors were sent from Scotland to
the aid of the dauphin, afterward Charles VII. He was constable of the Scots army ia
France, and contributed greatly to the victory of Bauge, in recompense for which the
lands and lordship of Aubigne and Concressault. in France, were conferred on him, as
well as the county of Evreux, with permission for himself and his descendants to quarter
the royal arms of France. In 1428, he was one of the ambassadors sent by Charles to
negotiate a marriage between the dauphin and the princess Margaret of Scotland; and
in "the following year, along with a younger brother, William, fell at the siege of
Orleans. His marriage with Elizabeth, one of the daughters and co-heirs of Duncan,
earl of Lennox, afterward added the Lennox estate to the family possessions. Accord-
ing to arrangements made by permission of the king of France, the lordship of Aubigne
was generally enjoyed by a younger member of the family; it went in succession to the
.third son of sir John Stuart, and to his son, Bernard Stuart. The latter, alike distin-
guished for military and statesmanlike qualities, had a share in the victory of Bosworth,
and supported by arms Charles VIII.'s claim to the throne of Naples. He held, among
other dignities, those of viceroy of Naples, .constable of Sicily and Jerusalem, and duke
of Terra Nova. His grandson, sir John Stuart, was advanced to the dignity of a lord
of parliament under the title of lord Darnley; he was also served heir to half the Lennox
domains, and claimed the earldom of Lennox. His elder son, Matthew, second earl of
Lennox, fell at Flodden; his younger son, Robert, got the lordship of Aubigne in 1508,
on the death, without issue, of Bernard Stuart, whose daughter was his first wife.
John, the third earl of Lennox, was son of the second earl by Elizabeth, daughter of
James, lord Hamilton, and niece of James III. ; he was one of the lords of the regency
in James V.'s minority, and in endeavoring to rescue the youthful king from the thral-
dom of the Douglases, he was taken prisoner at Linlithgow, and murdered by sir James
Hamilton of Finnart, Arran's natural son. This earl was married to lady Anne Stew-
art, daughter of John, earl of Athole, and had three sous, Matthew who succeeded him
as fourth earl Robert, and John. The termination of the male line of Robert III. by
the death of James V. , along with the imperfect legitimacy of the descendants of the
house of Albany, placed Matthew, earl of Lennox, in the position of heir-male of the
stewards of Scotland. He married lady Margaret Douglas, only child of Archibald,
earl of Angus, by the queen-dowager Margaret, sister of Henry VIII., an alliance which
brought his children into the position of being nearest heirs alter Mary, queen of Scots,
to the crown of England. The issue were two sous, the elder of them the unhappy
busband of the unhappy queen Mary, and father of James VI. Lennox, after spending
his youth in France and in the wars in Italy, returned home in 1543, and took an active
part in the negotiations for the proposed marriage of queen Mary with Edward VI. His
subsequent intrigues with England led to his banishment and attainder, but he was
recalled and restored to his honors by Mary. After that queen's forced resignation, he
was appointed to the regency, and when on his way to hold a parliament at Stirling in
1571, he was attacked by a party of the queen's friends and mortally wounded.

The earldom and estates of Lennox, which, on the death of the fourth earl, had
devolved on James VI. by right of blood, were conveyed by him to his uncle, Charles,
fifth earl of Lennox, brother of lord Darnley. The marriage of this earl in 1574, with
a sister of the first earl of Devonshire, gave great displeasure to Elizabeth, whose own
doubtful legitimacy made her very sensitive to possible pretensions to the throne.
The sole issue of that union was a daughter, Arabella, and the earldom went in suc-
cession to the fifth earl's uncle, Robert, bishop of Caithness, and his cousin, Esme, sou
of John Stewart, lord of Aubigne; youngest son of the third earl of Lennox, who was
created duke of Lennox. The near relationship to the crown, both of England and
Scotland, in which the fifth earl's daughter, the unfortunate lady Arabella Stewart,
stood, made her an object of jealousy equally to James and Elizabeth. Elizabeth first
interfered to prevent her contemplated marriage with her cousin, Esme, duke of Len-
nox, and afterward imprisoned her for listening to overtures from a son of the earl of
Northumberland. The result was, that this lady formed an illicit connection with
William Seymour, afterward marquis of Hertford; on the discovery of which, both were
summoned by James before the privy council, and severely reprimanded. The con-
sequence was the reverse of what was intended. Lady Arabella privately married
Seymour; which becoming known, she and her husband were committed into custody.
Both effected their escape: lady Arabella was overtaken in Calais roads, and imprisoned
in the tower, where these undeserved oppressions drove her to a condition of lunacy, in
which she died, Sept. 27, 1615. Esme, first duke of Lennox, had two sons, Ludovio and
Esme, successively second and third dukes of Lennox. The former leld the offices of
great chamberlain and high admiral of Scotland, and was created earl of Richmoad, earl
of Newcastle, and duke of Richmond in the peerage of England. The latter, who was
also lord of Aubigne, was created earl of March in England, and was father of James,
fourth duke of Lennox, who fell under the guardiansiiip of James VI. as his nearest
heir-male, and had the title of duke of Richmond, which had expired at his uncle'?



831



Stewart.



death, revived in his favor in 1641. On the death of the sixth and last duke without
issue in 1673, king Charles II., as nearest heir-male, was served heir to him in special.

LORD PITTEKWEEM. Alexander Stewart of Galston, younger brother of the first
lord Darnley, got from his brother the lands of Dreghorn and Galston. His great-
grandson, Thomas Stewart of Galston, had two sons, Thomas and William. The
younger son, William, became commendator of the priory of Pittenweem, and his son
was made a lord of parliament as lord Pittenweem. The line of the elder son, Thomas,
failed in 1650 in the person of Ludovic Stuart of Galston.

STUARTS OF CASTLKMILK. The earliest proved ancestor of this important and well-
allied branch of the Stewarts, was sir William Stewart of Castlemilk, who in 1398 was
appointed umpire for the preservation of the western marches, probably descended from
the Stewarts of Daruley. Archibald Stuart of Castlemilk was created a baronet of Nova
Scotia by Charles II. His line failed on the death of sir John Stuart, fifth baronet, in
1797, when the succession devolved on Andrew Stuart of Torrauce and Castlemilk,
M.P., the author of The Genealogical Hiatory of tJw Stewarts, descended from an uncle of
the first baronet, who died without issue.

STEUAKTS OP ALLANTON, COLTNESS, etc. This family, which first came into notice
in the 16th c. , and includes various men of eminence who would do honor to any line of
ancestry, is of unascertained descent, but some traditional accounts make it a branch of
Castlemilk. Sir James Steuart of Coltness and Kirkfield, younger brother of sir Walter
of Allanton, and his son, sir Thomas, were active Covenanters; and the latter, an ener-
getic member of king William's first parliament, and the f ramer of the act of 1690 for
the regulation of the church of Scotland, was in 1698 made a baronet. His son, sir
David Steuart of Coltness, accompanied Archibald, earl of Argyll, in his descent on
Scotland, for which he was sentenced to death, but escaped, and was afterward par-
doned. His brother, sir Robert Steuart, fourth baronet, was among the more distin-
guished scientific men of the beginning of the 18th c., and filled the natural philosophy
chair in the university of Edinburgh, in which he was succeeded by his son. Sir James
Steuart of Goodtrees, lord advocate under king William and queen Anne, author of the
Answers to Dirleton's Doubts, and one of the most eminent jurists of his time, was
younger brother to the first baronet of Coltuess. His son, sir James Steuart of Good-
trees and Coltness, also a distinguished lawyer, and created a baronet in 1705, was father
of another sir James, who was prince Charles's confidential agent at the court of France,
and at the same time the author of various works of merit on political economy and kin-
dred subjects.

EARLS OF GALLOWAY. Sir Walter Stewart of Dalswinton, third son of sir John of
Bonkyl, obtained the lands of Dalswinton from king Robert Bruce, and Garlies from his
nephew, John Randolph, earl of Moray. His grandson, sir Walter of Dalswinton, left
an only daughter, Marion, who married sir John Stewart, son of sir William Stewart of
Jedworth, and probably a descendant of John, fourth son of sir John of Bonkyl. Sir
Alexander Stewart of Garlies, eighth in descent from sir John and Marion Stewart, was
created lord Garlies in 1607, and earl of Galloway in 1623. In 1796, John, seventh earl of
Galloway, was created a British peer as baron Stewart of Garlies. Alan Plantagenet
Stewart, tenth earl of Galloway, is present representative.

LORD BLAXTYRE. This branch of the house of Stewart is descended from sir Thomas
Stewart of Minto, third son of sir William of Dalswinton and Garlies, the eldest son of
the heiress, Marion Stewart. Sir John Stewart of Minto, great-grandson of that sir
Thomas, had two sons. The line of the elder, sir Matthew, became extinct in the per-
son of sir John Stuart, who died in the Darien expedition of 1697. The second son,
Walter, was educated along with James VI. under George Buchanan, anc" had the priory
of Blantyre bestowed on him by that monarch: he was privy councilor, keeper of the
privy seal, one of the four commissioners of the treasury and exchequer, called octa-
vians, and afterward high treasurer. In 1606 he was raised to the peerage as lord Blan-
tyre. The present representative of this branch is Charles Stuart, twelfth lord Blantyre.

VISCOUNTS MOUNT JOY, EARL, OF BLESSINGTON. Sir William Stewart, descended
from Walter Stewart of Tonderghie, fourth son of sir William of Dalswinton and Gar-
lies, who was in great favor with James VI., and undertaker foi the plantation of
escheated lands in Ulster, was made a baronet of Ireland in 1623. His grandson, sir
William Stewart, second baronet, was in 1682 created baron Stewart of Ramalton, and
riscount Mountjoy in the peerage of Ireland. He served in Hungary at the siege of
Buda, and in 1688 undertook a mission from lord-deputy Tyrconnel to James II., then
at Paris, when he was thrown into the Bastille, and was a prisoner there for four years.
He afterward joined king William at Flanders, and was killed at the battle of Stein-
kirk. The second viscount, his son, married the daughter and eventually heiress of vis-
count Blessiugton. Their son, the third viscount Mountjoy, was advanced to the earl-
dom of Blessington, which title, as well as that of Mountjoy, became extinct on his
decease in 1769, though the baronetcy exists.

EARLS OF ATHOLE. LORDS OF LORN AND INNERMEATH. Sir James Stewart, fifth
son of sir John of Bonkyl, killed with his brothers Alexander and John at Halidon hill,
had a grant from Robert Bruce of the lands of Pierston and others in Ayrshire, and was
father of sir Robert Stewart of Shanbothy and Innermeath. This sir Robert had two
ons, John and Robert, who married the two co-heiresses of the princely house of D



Stewart.



832



Ergadia, lord of Lorn, who were also co-heirs of the line of Robert Bruce. The younger
son, Robert of Durrisdeer, was ancestor of a line of Stewarts of Rossyth and Craigie-
hull, to whom Oliver Cromwell's mother is said, on no very certain grounds, to have
belonged, and which probably came to an end about 1830. The elder son, sir John,
fc'liose wife was the eider and principal co-heiress, had five sons. The eldest, Robert,
became lord of Lorn; the third, sir James, known as he black knight of Lorn, was hus-
band of James I. 's widow; and his eldest son, brother uterine of James II., was cre-
ated earl of Athole, with remainder to the heirs*male of his body. His great-grandson,
John Stewart, fourth earl of Athole, was much involved in the political events'bf Mary's
and James VI. 's time. An adherent of the old faith, and at first a stanch supporter of
the queen, he nevertheless assisted in her seizure, and took a lead in the association
formed in 1567 for the defense of James VI. He headed the confederacy which took up
arms against the regent Morton, and induced James to call a parliament. In 1577 lie
became chancellor of Scotland, and died suddenly under suspicion of poison from Mor-
ton. His son, the fifth earl of Athole, had no male issue, but daughters, of whom the
eldest was married to the earl of TuHibardine ; and at his death, the earldom fell to the
crown, and was conferred on the elder branch of the house of Innermeath, to which we
now revert.

Robert, lord of Lorn, eldest brother of the black knight, had two sons. The elder
of these, John, second lord of Lorn, had three daughters, co-heiresses, who respectively
married the earl of Argyll, Campbell of Glenorchy, and Campbell of Ottar. the lordship
of Lorn parsing to the Argyll family; he had also a natural son, ancestor of the Stewarts
of Appin. The second son of Robert, lord of Lorn, was Walter, lord Innermeath,
whose descendant and representative, John, sixth lord Innermeath, obtained the earldom,
of Athole on the death of the above-mentioned fifth earl; with a remainder to the heirs-
uiale of his body, which came loan end on the death, in 1625, of his only sou, who had
succeeded him in the earldom. The earldom of Athole was then conferred by Charles
I. on the earl of TuHibardine, grandson through his mother of the fifth earl of Athole,
from whom the existing ducal house of Athole is descended. From Alexander, fourth
son of sir John Stuart of Innermeath, descend the family of Stewart of Graudtully, on
whom a baronetcy was conferred in 1683.

EAIILS OF BUCIIAN. The earldom of Buchan was, in 1469, bestowed on James
Stewart, second son of the black knight of Lorn, and brother uterine of James II. By
his marriage with the heiress of Auchterhouse, his family became heritable sheriffs of
the county of Forfar. His legitimate line ended in the fourth generation in an heiress,
Christian, countess of Buchan, who, marrying a son of sir Robert Douglas of Loch-
leven, carried the earldom of Buchan into his family.

EARLS OF TRAQTJAIR. This James Stewart, first earl of Buchan, had, besides his
lawful issue, a natural son, James, legitimated in 1489, on whom his father conferred
the lands of Traquair. His descenadnt, sir John Stuart, was created by Charles I. loul
Stuart of Traquair in 1628. and, in 1638, earl of Traquair. The title became extinct or
dormant on the death of the eighth earl in 1861.

Various works have been written to elucidate the history of the Stewart family, or
particular branches of it, including Symson's Qeneral and IJixtorical Account of the
Stewarts (Edin. 1712); Hay of Drumboote's Essay on the Origin of the Royal Family of
the Stewarts (1722); Duncan Stewart's Histor^ical and Genealogical Account of the Eoyat
Family of Scotland, and cf the Surname of Stewart (Edin. 1739); Noble's Historical Gene-
alogy of the Royal House of Stewart (Lond. 1795); and Andrew Stuart of Castlcmilk's
Genealogical Histort/ of the Stewart's (Lond. 1798), a work full of laborious research, but
nearly confined to the houses of Darnlcy, Lennox, and Castlemilk. See also r jhe Gene-
vlogy f the Stewarts Refuted (Edin, 1799), and the rejoinder to it in Andrew Stuart's
Supplement to the Genealogical History of the Stewarts (1799) ; Chalmers's Caledonia (1807
24); Crawfurd's Description of the Shire of Renfrew, with Supplement by George Robert-
son (Paisley, 1818); Eraser's Red Book of 'Granadtully (Edinburgh, 1868).

STEWART, ALEXANDER, I,L.D., 1781-1862; b. Scotland; was minister of Douglas.
He published Cornelius Nepos with notes; Hair's Introduction; Goldsmith's England, with
continuation: History of Scotland; Stories from the History of Scotland ; Discourses; Com-
pendium of Modern Geography. He was one of the leading contributors to the Edinbu rgh
Encyclopaedia.

STEWART, ALEXANDER TURNEY, 1802-76; b. Ireland; educated at Belfast, and at
Trinity college. Dublin; came to New York about 1823, and was usher in a private
school, but in 1824 engaged in the dry -goods business. In 1841 he married Miss Cornelia
M. Clinch ; and in 1848-49 erected the magnificent store corner of Broadway and Cham-
bers street, having purchased the property for $62,000. His business, which was
already enormous, continued to extend until it dwarfed all others in the same Hue m
the country; and in 1862 Mr. Stewart found it necessary to follow the tendency toward
the upper part of the island, and erected the building corner of Broadway and Tenth
street, at a cost of $2,755.000. To this structure he removed his retail business, confin-
ing the lower store to wholesale transactions, In the mean time Mr. Stewart's business
comprised agencies in Glasgow, Manchester, Belfast, Paris, Berlin, and Lyons; and
mills in the United States at" Holyoke, Mass.; New Hartford, N. Y. ; Catskill, N. Y. ;



833



Stewart.



and in New Jersey. At the time of Mr. Stewart's death, April 10, 1876, bis transac-
tions were estimated to exceed $65,000,000 per annum. He also owned much real estate,
inclu.ling Garden City, L. I., a settlement on Hempstead plains, which has grown to t\
considerable town; the Metropolitan hotel and Niblo's garden, the Globe theater; the
Park Avenue (formerly the Women's) hotel, cor. 32d street; and many other building?
and lots in New York; the Grand Union hotel, Saratoga, etc. Mr. Stewart's resident c,
corner of Fifth avenue and Thirty-fourth street, contained perhaps the finest pnv;.; ;
gallery of paintings in the country. Mr. Stewart gave considerable sums in charity
during his life-time, including aid to the Irish during the famine of 1847; a ship-lo;..f
of flour sent to Havre, after the Franco-Gvr::i:tn war; $50,000 to Chicago on the occa-
sion of the great tire iu 1871; $100.000 to the U. S. sanitary commission during the war-.
$10,000 to the Lancashire, England, operatives who were sufferers 1>V the detir-iency of



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 192 of 203)