Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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American cotton < luring the same period; and the Women's lodging-house in Park
avenue; designed by him to be a hotel for young working-women, at low prices, bu
diverted after his death to the ordinary business of a public hotel, with ordinary rates.
Mr. Stewart was buried in the family fault in St. Mark's church-yard, April IB, 1876.
The grave was afterward robbed of its contents for the purpose of obtaining a ransom.
It is not at this writing positively known whether or not the body was ever restored lo


he still controls. In 1869 Mr. Stewart was nominated to the position of secretary of tha
treasury by president Grant, but the existence of an old law against an importer holding
that position prevented his confirmation.

STEWART, BALFOCR, LL.D., b. Edinburgh, 1828; educated at St. Andrew's and
Edinburgh. He became director of the Kew observatory, 1859, and professor of natural
philosophy in Owens college, Manchester, in 1870. He has published an ^Elementary
Treatise on Heat; Lessons in Elementary Physics (1871); Physics (1872) ; and The (Jo nac mo-
tion of Energy (1874). He discovered the law of equality between the radiative and
absorptive powers of bodies.

STEWART, CHARLES, 1778-1869; b. Philadelphia; became a lieut. in the U. S.
navy in 1798. In 1800, in command of the schooner Experiment, he captured ti;o
French privateer Deux Amis, and the Diana, In 1804, in command of the Siren, ho went
with the American squadron against Tripoli. He was made capt. in 1806. and in 1813,
on the frigate Constitution captured several British vessels. In 1815, after a fight lasti:^
1 hour and 40 minutes, he captured the British ships, Cyane, 34 guns, and the ~L"fint, ~ ; 1
guns; but the latter was recaptured. He was in command of the Mediterranean squad-
ron, 1816-20, and the Pacific squadron, 1821-23. He became rear-admiral on the retired
list in 1862.

STEWART, CHARLES SAMUEL, D.D., b. N. Y. ; graduated at Princeton college, 1815;
studied law at Litchfield, Conn., and theology at Princeton; ordained a missionary to
the Sandwich islands, 1822; visited the United States, 1826; appointed chaplain in
U. S. navy, 1828; was chaplain of naval station New York, 1836-37. He published
Private Journal of a Voyage to the Pacific Ocean and Residence at the Sandwich. Island*.
1823-25; Visit to the South Seas in U.'S. Ship Vincennes, 1829-30; Sketches of Socx'y in
Great Britain and Ireland.

STEWAET, DUGALD. This philosopher was b. in Edinburgh, on Nov. 22. 1753.
His father was Matthew Stewart, professor of mathematics in the university of Edin-
burgh. He entered the high school in his eighth year, and remained till his thirteenth.
During the last two years of his attendance, when in the rector's classes, he was princi-
pally under Alexander Adam, afterward well known for his classical scholarship, who
then began to teach as the rector's substitute. His subsequent course at the university
extended from 1765 to 1769. In the departments of study where his own career a'ter-
ward lay, he was fortunate to find professors of ability and distinction; the logic (hair
was filled by John Stevenson, who lectured on logic, metaphysics, rhetoric, and the
history of philosophy; the moral philosophy chair was occupied by Adam Ferguson.
While Stewart gave his highest promise in these subjects, he also made great attainments
in mathematics and natural philosophy, and likewise in classics. In 1771 he went TO
study at Glasgow, partly with a view to one of the Snell scholarships at Baliol college,
Oxford, and partly to attend the lectures of Dr. Reid. It was while there that he wnVe
an essay on dreaming, which was his first effort in mental philosophy, and contained the
germs of many of his subsequent speculations. He lived in the same house with Archi-
bald Alison, the author of the Essay on laste, and the two became intimate friends
through life. He was at Glasgow only one session. In 1772, in his 19th year, he was
called upon by his father, whose health was failing, to teach the mathematical classes in
the university of Edinburgh; in 1775 he was elected joint professor, and acted in that
capacity till 1785. In 1778 Adam Ferguson was absent from his post on a political mis-
sion to America, and Stewart taught the moral philosophy class in addition to his mathe-
matical classes. The lectures that he gave on this occasion were wholly his own. and
were delivered from notes, as was his practice in after years. On the resignation of
U. K. XIII. 53 .

Stewart. QQA


Ferguson in 1785 he was appointed professor of moral philosophy, and continued in the
active duties of the class for 25 years. His lectures were greatly admired and numerously
attended. He went over a wide compass of subjects: psychology, or the science of
mind proper, metaphysics, logic, ethics, natural theology, the principles of taste, politics,
and last of all, political economy, which, from the year 1800, he treated in a separate
course. In 1792 appeared his first volume of the Elements of the Philosophy of the Human
Mind. In 1793 he published his Outlines. He read before the royal society of Edin-
feurgh, in 1793, his Account of the Life and Writings of Adam Smith; in 1796 the Account
of the Life and Writings of Principal Robertson; and in 1802 the Account of the Life and
Writings of Dr. Reid. In 1805 he took a prominent part in the Leslie controversy ; being
the author of a pamphlet setting forth the facts of the case, and also, in the general
assembly, giving vent to his indignation at the proceedings against Leslie. In 1806, on
the accession of the whig party to power, he received a sinecure office worth 300 a year.
The death of his second son, in 1809, gave a blo.w to his health, otherwise indifferent,
and he was unable to lecture during part of the following session; Dr. Thomas Brown,
at his request, acting as his substitute. The following year Brown was appointed con-
joint professor, and taught the class till his death in 1820. From 1809 Stewart lived in
comparative retirement at Kinneil house, Linlithgowshire, which the duke of Hamilton
placed at his service. In 1810 he published his Philosophical Essays; in 1814 the second
volume of the Elements; in 1815 the first part, and in 1821 the second part, of the Dis-
sertation on the History of Ethical Philosophy; in 1827 the third volume of the Elements;
and in 1828, a few weeks before his death, the Philosophy of the Active and Moral

On the death of Brown, Stewart exerted himself to secure the appointment of sir W.
Hamilton to the chair, but the influence used with the town council in behalf of John
Wilson was overpowering; the votes stood 21 for Wilson, 9 for Hamilton. Stewart
resigned his conjoint professorship on June 20, 1820.

The philosophy of Stewart was the following up of the reaction commenced by Reid
against the skeptical results that Berkeley and Hume drew from the principles of Locke.
Both Reid and Stewart professed the Baconian method of observation and induction, as
against mere ontology, but considered that these processes of investigation could estab
lish certain ultimate proofs of a higher certainty than themselves. Hence arose the
principles of common sense of Reid, in which Stewart for the most part acquiesced.
Btewart also followed and improved upon Reid in that systematic exposition of all the
powers of the mind, which rendered mental philosophy for the first time a subject of
study, independent of metaphysical, logical, and ethical applications; although he also
followed it out in all these directions with his usual perspicacity and felicity of exposi-
lion. His contributions to the philosophy of taste, in the Philosophical Essays, are among
Ihe best parts of his writings.

On the whole, although Stewart was not one of the most original thinkers in his
flepartment, yet, by the force of his teaching and the compass of his writings, he did
more than almost any man to diffuse an interest in the speculations connected with the
human mind. His collected works have been edited by sir W. Hamilton, in 11 vols., to
which prof. Veitch has contributed his biography.

STEWART, HAMILTON, b. Jefferson, Ky., 1813; established The Civilian, a news-
paper in Texas, 1838, and conducted it in the interest of the democratic party for more
than 30 years. He resided in Galveston, was mayor of the city for several years, and its
representative in the constitutional convention of 1856. He favored the independence
of Texas, and opposed annexation ; collector at Galveston under pres. Pierce and pres.
Buchanan, lost his position during the war. He was persistently opposed to secession
for years previous to the rebellion. As one of the editors of the Galveston News, he has
exerted a marked influence on the politics of the s. west

STEWART, JOHN, b. Ireland, d. Charleston, 8. C.; brother in -law of gen. Wayne;
performed gallant service in the revolutionary war at Stony Point, and received a gold
medal from congress. In 1778 he commanded a corps of light infantry at Indian Field,
against col. Emmerick's command of tories and Indians; was killed by a fall from his

8TEWARTON, a town of Scotland, county of Ayr, on the right bank of the Annock,
five miles n.w. of Kilmarnock, and nominally a station on the Glasgow and South-
western railway, although the place called Stewarton Station is several miles distant from
the town. Stewarton owes its prosperity to its woolen and Scotch bonnet manufactures;
but it also carries on a variety of minor industries, such as carpet-weaving, Ayrshire
needle-work, and the making of spindles for mills. Pop. '71, 3,299.

STEWARTRY, the name which was given in Scotland to a district governed by a
steward, an officer appointed by the king with jurisdiction over crown lands, and powers
similar to those of a lord of regality. While the civil jurisdiction of a steward was
equivalent to that of a sheriff, his criminal jurisdiction was much more extensive. The
only remaining trace of this jurisdiction exists in the term stewartry, which in place of
county is applied to the district of Kirkcudbright. Galloway was in early times rather
a tributary dependency of Scotland than an integral portion of the kingdom, and re-
tained its old Celtic proprietary, and peculiar laws and usages, which were adverse to

OOK Stewart.


the introduction of a sheriffdom. It was for a long time ruled by a line of lords, who
were among the most powerful feudatories of the Scottish crown. The Comyus, who in
the course of time succeeded to the lordship, were overthrown and expatriated by Bruce;
and it seems to have been on their forfeiture that eastern and central Galloway were
erected into the present stewartry, western Galloway being already under the jurisdic-
tion of the sheriff of Wigton. On the abolition of heritable jurisdictions in 1747, various
regalities and baronies which had existed within the district were done away with, and
the emancipated stewartry was placed under a steward-depute, whose functions were in.
every practical point of view the same us those of a sheriff-depute. Act 1 Viet. c. 39,
declares that in any existing or future statute the words sheriff-clerk, etc., shall be held
to apply to steward, steward-clerk, etc.

STEWING, in cookery, a very economical way in preparing meat, and fruits for food.
It differs from boiling in this respect, that only a small quantity of water is used, and
the heat applied is so gentle as only to simmer it. A stew-pan should be well fitted with
a lid, and the more slowly the ebullition is carried on the better. As the small quantity
of water is retained as gravy, nothing is lost. Meat prepared in this way is tender and
savory, but owing partly to the richness of the gravy is not very digestible.

STEY ER, a town of upper Austria, at the confluence of the Steyer and the Enns, 23
miles s.e. of Linz. It is a great seat of the iron and steel manufactures of Austria, and
also carries on important manufactures of paper, woolens, and hosiery. Pop. 13,392.

STHAVIRA (a Sanskrit word, meaning old) is, in Buddhist hierarchy, the name of
the "elders" or " venerable?," who, after the death of the Buddha Sakyamuni, taught
the doctrine, presided at the Buddhist assemblies, etc., and since the time of As'oka
were invested with a kind of episcopal power. In the sectarian history of Buddhism,
Sthavira is the name of those Arhats who did not follow the schism of the Mahasang'M-
kas (q. v.), but adhered to the old doctrine. According to another account, the Sthaviras
are one of ttie four divisions of the Vaibhashika system of Buddhism, and claim for
their founder Kat} ayana, the disciple of Sakyamuni. See C. F. Koeppen, Die Religion,
des Buddha (Berlin, 1857); and W. Wassiljew, Der Buddhismus, seine Dogmen, Geschichte
und Literatur (St. Petersburg, 1860).

STICKING-PLASTER, or COUKT-PI.ASTEK, is best prepared in the following manner:
Two solutions are first made, one of an ounce of isinglass in eight ounces of hot water,
and the other of two drams of gum-benzoin in two ounces of rectified spirit. 1 These
solutions are to be strained and mixed. Several coats of this mixture, kept fluid by a
gentle heat, are then to be applu-d with a camel's-hair brush to a piece of black silk
{stretched on a frame, each coat I eing allowed to dry before the next is applied. A layer
of a solution composed of one ounce of Chian turpentine in two ounces of tincture of
benzoin is then to be r.pplicd to the other side of the silk, and allowed to dry. In place
of the ordinary black sticking-plaster, some persons prefer colorless plaster, or gold-
beater's skin (q. v.).

STICKLEBACK, Gatferostnis, a genus of acanthopterous fishes, referred by many
naturalists to the family of mailed cheeks (q.v.) (scUrogenidw or trigtidce); by others, to
a distinct family (gasterosteida'), in which the first dorsal fin is represented by a number
of detached spines, a single strong spine occupies the place of the ventral fins, there are
only three branchiostegal rays, I lie gill-covers are not armed, and the body is mailed by
plates on the lateral line, and destitute of scales. The species are found in fresh and
brackish waters, and in the sea, in cold and temperate regions; and are small fishes,
very interesting from their habits and the beauty of their colors, which they change in
a remarkable manner, partly according to the colors of surrounding objects, and partly
through the influence of their own passions. The THREE-SPINED STICKLEBACK (G.
aculeatu* or trachurits), having three spines instead of the first dorsal, is extremely
abundant in rivers, ponds, and brackish waters in most parts of Britain and of Europe,
and is sometimes also found in the sea. Sticklebacks caught in a river re*adily accom-
modate themselves to living in a salt-water aquarium. It seldom exceeds two inches
and a half, or three inches in length. Cuvier and Valenciennes, Yarrell, and others, dis-
tinguish from this several other species, some of which are also British, differing in size,
the armature of the sides, and other particulars (4 to 15 spines); but some naturalists are
still inclined to regard them as mere varieties. The common fresh-water species are
sometimes so abundant in ponds, ditches, and the still parts of rivers, as in Lincolnshire
and other flat parts of the e. of England, that they are used for manure. They are sel-
dom used as food, yet they are said to be excellent for this purpose. Oil has sometimes
been expressed from them. In the aquarium, or in their native waters, their combats
are very amusing. The}' are excessively pugnacious, particularly at the breeding season.
The larger often devour the smaller, arid they destroy the fry of fishes to a prodigious
extent; they feed also on aquatic larvae, and are probably of great use in preventing the
excessive multiplication of many kinds of insects. Their nest-building is particularly
interesting, and in them nest-building was first observed among fishes. They collect
small pieces of straw or stick, with which the bottom of the nest is laid among water-

Elants, and these they cement together by an exudation from their own bodies which
:>rms * thread through and round them in every conceivable direction. The thread is


whitish, fine, and silken. The sides of the nest are made after the bottom. The uest
of the fresh-water stickleback is about the size of a small hazel nut. The eggs, about
the size of poppy-seeds, are deposited within. The male makes the nest, into which he
introduces the female for the laying of the eggs, and he afterward watches it with great
eare a care not unnecessary, as the eggs are most acceptable food to any other stickle-
back which can get at them.

STIFF-NECK (known also as WRY-NECK or TORTICOLLIS) is the term .comvaonlj
applied to a condition of 'the neck in which lateral movement of the head causes -great
pain, and which is due to rheumatism of the muscles lying on the side of the^ neck,
especially the sterno-mastoid. In the great majority of cases, only one side of tl>e neck
is affected, the head being drawn more or less obliquely toward that side; but occasion-
ally both sides are equally attacked, in which case the head is kept stiffly erect and look-
ing straight forward. As long as the head is allowed to remain at rest, there is merely
a feeling of discomfort; but every movement is extremely painful. This affection ia
usually caused either by exposure of the part affectedto a current of cold air, or by wear-
ing wet or damp clothes round the neck. In addition to the ordinary treatment of sub-
acute rheumatism (q.v.), heat may be advantageously employed, either, as suggested by
Dr. Wood of Philadelphia, by placing a batch of carded tow or cotton over the part,
and then applying a hot flat-iron, or by the direct application of a small heated iron
hammer, as recommended by Drs. Corrigan and Day. For the method of applying this
hammer, and for cases illustrative of its use, the reader is referred to the last-named
physician's memoir, On the Thermic treatment of Lumbago and oilier Forms of Muscular


STIGMARIA, the root of sigillaria (q.v.).

STIGMATIZATION (Lat. stigmatizatio, a puncturing, from Gr. stigma, a puncture),
the name applied, by the mystic writers of the Roman Catholic church, to the supposed
miraculous impression on certain individuals of the " stigmata," or marks (tf the wounds
which our Lord suffered during the course of his passion. These stigmata comprise
not only the wounds of the hands and feet, and that of the side, received in tho
crucifixion; but also those impressed by the crown of thorns and by the scourg-
ing. The impression of the stigmata, being held to be miraculous, was regarded
as a mark of the signal favor of our Lord, manifested to those who were specially
devoted to the contemplation of his passion. The most remarkable example of
stigmatization is that already referred to in the memoir of Francis of Assisi (q.v.),
which is said to have occurred on the mountain of Alverno, upon Sept. 15, 1224,
two years before the death of Francis. Being absorbed, according to the account of his
biographers, in profound and rapturous contemplation of the passion of Christ, l-e saw,
as it wore, a seraph with six shining wings, blazing with fire, and having between his
w; ngs the figure of a man crucified, descend from heaven, and approach him, so as to bs
*lmost in contact. After a time the vision disappeared, but left the soul of Francis
rilled with reverence and awe; and on his return to calmer thought, he became aware
that his body had received externally the marks of the crucifixion. II:-; h.mds and feet
seemed bored through with four wounds, and these wounds appeared to be filled with
nails of hard flesh, the heads of which protruded and appeared upon the palms of his
hands, and on the instep, while the points protruded upon the opposite side, and seemed
as if clenched with a hammer. His side, moreover, presented a red wound, as though
from the point of a lance, and this wound occasionally gave forth blood. These mys-
terious marks continued, and were frequently seen by St. Bonaventure and others
during the two years which intervened between this date and the deatli of Francis; and
they were seen by multitudes after his death.

It would be out of place here to enter into any discussion as to tho origin, or tba
nature, of this strange phenomenon. But the case of Assisi is by no means a solitary
one; very many others, women, as well as men, are recorded as having received all of
some of the stigmata. The cases of women so visited are more numerous than those of
men. A very remarkable one is that of Veronica Giuliani, in 1694. who is related to
have received first the marks of the crown of thorns, and afterward thos of the cruci-
fixion; Gabriella da Piczolo of Aquila is recorded to have received the mark of the lanca
in 1472; Clara di Pugny, a tertiary of the Dominican order, was similarly impressed in
1514; and Cecilia di Nobili of Nocera in 1655. Catherine di Raconisio is alleged to hava
been marked with the crown of thorns in 1583, and the same is related of several others,
as Maria Razzi of the island of Chio, Maria Villani, Vincenza Ferreri of Valencia, and
Joanna Maria of the cross, a nun of St. Clare, at Roveredo. In some cases, the visita-
tion, although said to be accompanied with excruciating pain in the seat of the several
wounds, was unattended by any external marks. Such was the case of St. Catherine
of Siena, of Ursula Aguirre otherwise known as Ursula of Valencia of Mary Magda-
len di Pazzi, and of Mechtildis von Stanz; while in other cases the wounds we7-e in part
visible, and in part invisible. Thus, Hieronyma Carvnglio suffered the pain of the
wounded hands and feet without any external mark, while the lance-wound was not
only visible in her side, but was reported to bleed upon every Friday, the day specially
devoted to the commemoration of the passion. Blanca de Gazeran experienced tho

007 stiff -


sensation of pain in the seat of each one of the wounds, but the mark of the nail was
visible upon the right foot only. The same variety of sensation is recorded in several
other cases.

Most of the cases recorded hitherto are of females; and that examples of these are
not wanting even in more recent times, the case of the well-known " Estatica" of
Caldaro. about 40 years ago, and that of Louise Lateau, discussed quite recently, suffl-
ck-iuly attest. But, besides that of Francis of Assisi, instances are also recorded in
Wiiich men were reputed to have received the stigmata. A Capuchin named Benedict, of
Reiigio, is said to have received the marks of the crown of thorns in 1602. A lay-brother
named Carlo di Saeta, or Sazia, was smitten in a vision with the wound in the side.
Angelo del Paz, a Franciscan. of Perpignan, is related to have borne for many years all:
the stigmata, as also a Premonstratensian monk named Dodo, and a Franciscan called c
Nicholas of Ravenna. Several cases also are mentioned of men, who, without the visible '
or external stigmata, experienced at regular intervals the painful sensation by which the
stigmata are accompanied. Many such cases are detailed by the celebrated German
mystic, Go'rres, in his C'hinstlicJie Myntik, vol. ii. pp. 420-456.

STILAGINA CE.S2, a natural order of exogenous plants, allied to urtica, containing
about -0 known species of trees and shrubs, natives of the East Indies, Mauritius, and
Madagascar. None of them are of importance.


STILES, EZRA, D.D., LL.D., 1727-95; b. Conn. ; graduated at Yale college, 1747; tutor
there, 1749-55; licensed to preach, 1749, and preached to the Stockbridge Indians; was
induced by ill health and transient religious doubts to study law, 1752; admitted to the
bar, 1753, and practiced in New Haven; settled pastor at Newport, R I., 1755; on the
place being occupied by the British, removed to Portsmouth, and was pastor of North
church; elected president of Yale college and professor of church history, 1777, retaining
the positions until his death. After the death of Dr. Daggett, 1780, he was professor of
divinity, and gave lectures on philosophy and astronomy. He published History of Three
of tln : . .Judges of Cfutrles I.; Account of tlie Settlement of Bristol, and numerous addresses
and sermons. His Diary and bound manuscripts, preserved at Yale, fill 45 volumes.

STILICHO, a celebrated Roman gen., the mainstay of the western empire after the
di'atii of Theodosius (q.v.) the great, is said to have been a Vandal, and was the sou of a

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 193 of 203)