Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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capt. of barbarian auxiliaries in the imperial army. He rose through his military talent
to high rank in the army, and Theodosius was so pleased with his rare ability, zeal, and
accomplished manners, that he gave him his niece Serena in marriage. Stilicho's promo-
tion was, however, viewed with great jealousy by Rufiuus, the able but evil-minded and
ambitious minister of Theodosius. and an inextinguishable feud arose between the two,
which it required all the weight of the emperor's influence to repress. In 394 Stilicho
departed for Rome in charge of the youthful Honorius (q.v.), who had been committed
to his care, placed him on the throne of the western empire, and administered in his name
the affairs of state. On the death of Theodosius, toward the close of 394, the quarrel for
supremacy between Stilicho and Rufinus, the guardian of Arcadius (q.v.), became fully
developed, and Alaric (q.v.), at the instigation of the latter, invaded Greece while Stilicho
was engaged in chastising the invaders of the Roman territories on the Rhine and in
Gaul. Stilicho, on his return, at once set out for Constantinople, and put an end to the
strugsle between himself and Rufinus by the destruction of his rival in 395. He then
marched against, Alaric. blocked him up in the Peloponnesus; but, through over-confi-
dence, permitted him to escape across the isthmus with his captives and booty. In 398
his daughter Maria became the wife of Honorius. His old opponent, Alaric, after sev-
eral inroads upon the eastern provinces of the western empire, now invaded northern
Italy, but was signally defeated at Pollentia (?/ar., 403) by Stilicho, who had hurriedly
called in the Roman legions from Rhaetia, Gaul, Germany, and even Britain. He was
again defeated at Verona, upon which he retired from the empire, and Stilicho obtained
the honor of a triumph and a great increase of influence and power. Stilicho's ambition
now led him to attempt the introduction of his own family to the imperial succession (a
statement disbelieved by Gibbon, who considers it merely as an invention of the crafty
Olympius; though the great historian of the Roman empire honestly confesses to various
heavy blots on the character of his hero), by the marriage of his son with the heir-pre-
Bumptive Placidia, the daughter of Theodosius, and to attain this end, he made overtures
of alliance to Alaric, which were gladly accepted. But the dreadful inroad of Radagaisus,
in 406, at the head of more than 200.000 (some say 400,000) barbarians, who ravaged the
whole country as far as Florence, compelled the great gen. of the west to shelve for a
time his ambitious schemes. With a small but chosen army of veterans, aided by a body
of Huns under Uldin (father of Attila), and of Visigoths under Sarus, he so harassed the
invaders that they were forced to give him battle. They were soon routed. Radagaisus,
who surrendered, was put to death, and his followers sold as slaves. Stilicho again
resumed his pet scheme; established enmity between Rome and Byzantium by seiz-
ing on eastern Illyricum and inducing Alaric 1 to transfer his allegiance to Honoriua.
But Honorius, who had been prejudiced against Stilicho by one of hig officers, Olym-
pius, refused to take eastern Illyricum from the Byzantine empire; and subsequently, b/
an artful harangue, he so influenced the soldiers" of the army of Gaul that they rose en



Still.

stilts.

masse against the partisans of Stilicho. Stilicho himself was at Bologna; and on tho
news of the emeute, his most zealous friends urged immediate action against Olympius
and the Pavian rebels; but for the first time in his life, vacillation seized Stilicho, and he
declined. They then, for self-preservation, turned agaiust him, and one of them, Sams,
the Goth above mentioned, drove him out of his camp, and compelled him to flee to
Ravenna, where he was soon afterward slain, Aug. 23, 408. Thus perished the last of
the series of distinguished aliens, who, as emperors, warriors, or politicians, had propped
up the Roman empire for 150 years, with a stern and resolute zeal equal to that of the
early Romans themselves. After protecting the weak empire from formidable invasion
l>y his own kinsmen, administering its affairs with remarkable ability, moderation, and
integrity, and restoring its old heroic glory to the imperial arms, Stilicho received the
reward which alone an effete and conceited people can be expected to bestow; and three
months after his death, Alaric and his Visigoths were at the gates of Rome.

STILL is the apparatus employed for the distillation of liquids, and consists of the
copper boiler or alembic (see DISTILLATION), in which is contained the fermented liquor
whose vapors are to be distilled; of the neck or head, a pipe which conveys the vapor
generated in the boiler into the worm; and of the worm, a coiled metal tube which is
packed in a vessel called a refrigeratory, fitted up in such a manner that tlie cold water
which is poured in at the top comes in contact as extensively as possible with the outside
of the tube, and exercises a condensing action upon the vapor which it contains. The
vapor thus condensed in its passage through the worm, makes its exit in drops, or in a
small stream, into a vessel called the recipient, and may be redistilled or not as is required.
The various forms of stills are extremely numerous, almost each species of spirit possess-
ing its own form of still, but they all conform to the general description above given.

STILLE', ALFRED, b. Philadelphia, 1813; an American physician. After graduat-
ing at the university of Pennsylvania in 1832 he became resident physician of the Phila-
delphia hospital, and in 1839-41 of the Pennsylvania hospital. He attended medical
lectures in Paris and other European cities, and in 1844 became lecturer on pathology
and practice of medicine to the Philadelphia association for medical instruction. In
1849 he was made physician to St. Joseph's hospital, soon afterward professor in the
Pennsylvania medical college, and since 1864 he has lectured in the university of Penn-
sylvania. He wrote among other books Elements of General Patfioloyy and Therapeutics
and Materia Iiledica.

STILLE, CHARLES JANEWAY, LL.D., b. Philadelphia, 1819; graduated from Yale
college in 1839; was made professor of English literature in the university of Pennsyl-
vania, 1866; and provost. 1868, from which office he has recently retired. He has pub-
lished How a Free People Conduct a Long W ar (1862); Northern Interest and Southern
Independence (1863); The Historical Development of American Civilization (1863); Memorial
of the Philadelphia Central Fair for the U. 8. Sanitary Commission; History of the U. 8.
sanitary Commission (1866).

STILLINGFLEET, EDWARD, bishop of Worcester, was b. April 17, 1635, at Cran-
bourne, in Dorsetshire. He received his early education ftt the grammar-school of his
native place, and in 1648 became a student at St. John's college, Cambridge. He took
his degree as master of arts; and in 1653 succeeded in obtaining a fellowship. For some
years after leaving college he was occupied as a private family tutor; and in 1657 he
was presented to the rectory of Sutton. In 1659 he came before the world as an author
in the work entitled Irenicvm, or the Divine Right of Particular Forms of Church Govern-
ment Examined. The views here maintained savored somewhat more of latitudinarianism
than could be pleasant to the high church party, and he afterward saw reason to modify
them. His next performance was the Origines Sacra, 01- Rational Account of the Christian
Faith, as to the Truth and Divine Authority of the Scriptures, a work which made his
reputation, and is still had in estimation as one of the most masterly treatises extant on
the subject of which it treats. In 1664 appeared his Rational Account of the Grounds of
the Protestant Religion, a defence of the church of England from the charge of schism in
its separation from that of Rome, which was received with great favor, and led to the
preferment of its author. In 1665 the earl of Soxrthampton prepented him to the rectory
of St. Andrews, Holborn ; he was also appointed preacher at the rolls chapel, and shortly
after lecturer at the temple, and chaplain in ordinary to Charles II. In 1670 he became,
by favor of the king, canon residentiary of St. Paul's cathedral, and in 1678 was pre-
ferred to be dean of the same. In the court of ecclesiastical commission instituted by
James II., Stillingfleet declined to act; and after the revolution of 1688 he received, in
final acknowledgment of his services to the Protestant cause, his appointment to the
bishopric of Worcester. He died at Westminster on Mar. 27, 1699, and was buried in
Worcester cathedral.

Stillingfleet's chief works, besides those mentioned, were the Origines Britannica, or
Antiquities of the British Churches, and a bulky volume entitled The Unreasonableness of
Separation, in reply to an attack made upon him by Howe and others. Throughout, he
was besides almost constantly engaged in religious controversy, on the one hand with
the adherents of the church of Rome, and on the other with the Noncomformists. Of
his numerous polemical treatises, however important in their day, it is not here necessary
to treat in detail. His collected works, in 6 vols. folio, were published in 1710; and in



cog Still.

Stilts.

1735 a supplementary volume of miscellanies was issued by his son, the rev. James
Stillingfleet, canon of Worcester. Stilliugfleet, though keen and unsparing in conflict,
was a good aud amiable man, and his unquestioned piety and honesty of intention com-
manded throughout the respect even of his bitterest opponents.

STILLIN'GIA, a genus of plants belonging to the natural order eupTiorbiacece, and
named in compliment to Dr. Stillingfleet, an English botanist. The generic character-
istics are: flowers monoecious; males aggregate; calyx cup-shaped, creuulate, or bifid;
tamens two, inverted; filaments united at the base; anthers opening outward; female
flowers solitary; calyx tridentate or trifid; ovary sessile, three celled, each cell with a
ingle ovule; style short, thick; stigmas three, simple, spreading; capsule globose, tricoc-
cous; cocci single-seeded. The species are milky trees or shrubs of the tropical parts
of Asia and America, and of the islands of Bourbon and Mauritius. The leaves are
alternate, petiolate. The tiillingia sebifera is the famous tallow tree of China, which at
one time was introduced into various European colonies in the East and West Indies,
and is often met with in hot-houses It grows in China on the borders of rivulets, and
is also cultivated. It is about as high as a pear-tree, having a trunk and branches like
the cherry, and foliage resembling that of the black poplar, but which turns red in the
autumn. The fruit is the part from which the Chinese obtain the tallow. The seed-
vessels and seeds are bruised and boiled in water, from the surface of which the fat is
skimmed on cooling. Wax is generally added to improve the consistence. The candles
made from it are of a beautiful white color; but sometimes they are artificially tinged
with vermilion. In China the tallow is employed in medicine instead of lard. There
are several species of stillingia in the United States. The 8. sylvatica, or queen's root,
is an herb of the southern states, growing on dry and sandy soil as far n. as eastern
Virginia. The steins are erect, 2 or 3 ft. high, and have nearly sessile, alternate, elliptic,
finely serrate, smooth, and spreading leaves. The flowers are small, in dense catkin-
like spikes, the upper ones with two stamens, the lower ones pistillate, fertile, and with
three diverging stigmas on the thick style. The root has been used in medicine; it is
about a foot long, nearly two inches in diameter above, tapering downward, little
branched, but somewhat fibrous; fleshy when fresh; compact and wrinkled longitudin-
ally when dried. It was originally introduced as an emetic and alterative, and has been
more or less used, especially at the south, for the cure of scrofula, syphilis, and skin and
hepatic diseases, but at present not much reliance is placed upon it by the more observ-
ing members of the profession.

STILL-LIFE is the name applied to that branch of art which concerns itself with the
representation of lifeless objects, such as dead animals, fruits, flowers, vases, and house-
furniture.

STILLMAN, SAMUEL, D.D., 1737-1807 ;b. Philadelphia; ordained in Charleston, S. C.,
as an evangelist, 17,39: preached for a time at James island; removed to Bordentown,
N. J., 1760; settled, 1705, as pastor of the First Baptist church, Boston, remaining till his
death. In 1764 he was one of the incorporators of Brown university, and elected fellow
the following year. He was distinguished for patriotism, and was a delegate to the Mass,
constitutional convention, 1788. He published patriotic, masonic, and biographical dis-
courses, and "election" sermons.

STILLWATER, a city in s.e. Minnesota, settled, 1843; co. seat of Washington co. ;
pop. '70, 5,750. It is on the w. bank of the St. Croix river, and around it rise high
bluffs from which a beautiful view may be obtained; 19 m. from St. Paul, on the St.
Paul, Still water and Taylor's Falls, and the St. Paul and Duluth railroads. It is built
at the n. extremity of a portion of the river which from Prescott to Stilhvater expands
into a narrow lake; and small steamers ply between this city and Taylor's Falls, 30 m.
above. It contains many fine buildings, and on the bluffs are beautiful residences. It
has a court-house, a penitentiary, 2 national banks, 9 churches, public schools, 3 news-
papers, and a public library. It is in the center of a pine lumber country, in the St.
Croix valley; which product furnishes the principal industry, and employs 9 large lum-
ber mills with a daily capacity of 500,000 ft., capital, $3, 000, 000; other manufactures are
flour, cooperage, and furniture.

STILTED ARCH, an arch in which the impost molding is placed at some distance be-
low the springing of the arch.

STILTS, or STILT PLOVERS, the common names of a genus, himantopwt, of the snipe
family, teolopaoida, of the order grallatores. The stilts have long, slender bills, cylin-
drical, flattened at the base, compressed at the point; both mandibles channeled to" the
extent of half their length from the base; nostrils lateral, linear; tarsi very long and
Blender; toes three, before; nails small and flat; wings very long, the first quill-feather
the longest. Himantopus melanopterus (charadrifa himantopus of Linn.) carn/iere grand*
Italiano of the Italians, Sdiwarzfl-ugelige strandreitter of the Germans, long-legged plover,
stilt, and longshanks of the English, has face, neck, and all lower parts pure white,
slightly rosy on the breast and belly; top of head and neck black, with white spots;
back and wings black, glossed with green; tail ash-color; bill black; iris crimson; feet
vermilion; length from point of bill to end of tail 14 in., and to the claws about 19 In.
The very old males have the nape of neck and occiput quite white. Female smaller



Stiinpson. QAft

Stipend.

than mal, and having no green gloss on shoulders ; general tint browner. Six species of
Ifjnautopus are recognized by G. R. Gray as inhabitants of various parts of the world.
One species is found in America, ranging from the great lakes to Paraguay. It is about
14 in. long, the bill and tail each forming 8 in., leaving 8 in. for the body: tarsi 4 in.,
rather longer than the tibiae; glossy black on back, wings, top of head, and neck. White
above, beneath, and in front of the eyes: bill black; legs red. It is found along the sea-
coast, and also along lakes and rivers far inland; gregarious, in flocks of twenty and
thirty, or more. They frequent muddy flats with reedy margins, making nests of
j rasses. Four eggs is the most frequent number laid for a brood; they are rather large,
<-t an ochery color, with brown blotches and streaks. The birds are graceful walkers,
with long, measured steps. They live on small fishes and their eggs, and aquatic in-
sects. Although the bird is widely distributed it is rare. Its visits are accidental and
uncertain. It is scarce in the northern portion of Europe, but its wide range makes up
for its local scarcity.

STIMPSON, WILLIAM, 1832-72; b. Mass.; studied medicine, and made a specialty of
conchology. Among his writings, besides many papers in the timitJmonian Contribu-
tions, and scientific periodicals, arc Revmon of the Synonomy of the Ttxtaceous Jtlolluskx of
New England (1851); Notes on North American Crustacea (1859); and liesearclies upon the
HydrobiincB and Allied Forms (1865).

STIMULANTS may be defined as agents which produce a sudden, but not a per
manent, augmentation in the activity of the vital functions. They give increased
eaergy to the circulatory and cerebro-spinal nervous systems, the primary effect being
probably on the nervous system, while the circulation is only secondarily affected. In
their mode of action they resemble tonics (q.v.) in some respects; thus immediately
after their administration a feeling of increased power is produced, which, however, is
not permanent, and is almost always followed by a corresponding depression of vital
power; their effects are, however, more immediate than those of tonics. Many of
these agents, as, for example, alcohol and the ethers, are closely allied to narcotics, their
secondary effect, if given in sufficiently large doses, being to produce sleep, and even
coma. The following are the most important of the general stimulants: 1. Alcohol, in
the various forms of spirits and wines. As a stimulant, alcohol is employed in medicine
to support the vital powers in the advanced stages of fevers, particularly those of a low
or typhpus character; and it is of service in flatulent colic, in some forms of indiges-
tion, in vomiting, and in fainting. Its almost universal use in inflammatory diseases
occurring 'in persons of broken-down constitution has recently been advocated by a
special school, of which the late Dr. Todd may be considered a representative. Incases
of severe uterine hemorrhage and in some forms of fever, it may be given in very
large quantity. According to Neligan, in the fever which proved so fatal to the British
legion in Spain in the year 1835, some of the physicians prescribed as much as 32 ounces
of brandy (a pint and a half) in 24 hours. 2. Ammonia, either in the form of solution
of ammonia, or liqiior ammonia, or as carbonate of ammonia is a general stimulant,
whose action is rapid, but temporary. It is of special use in the advanced stages of
continued fever, in the eruptive fevers when the rash has receded (especially in scar-
latina), and in the latter stages of pneumonia. It is the best internal stimulant to em-
ploy iflfcprofound intoxication, and in cases of poisoningby sedatives; and as an external
stimulant, the vapor is inhaled in cases of fainting. The solution (which must not be
confounded with the strong solution of ammonia) may be given in doses of from 5 to 30
minims, diluted with two ounces of water, mucilage, or any bland fluid. The carbon-
ate (formerly known as the sesquicarbonate, which in reality it is) may be given in
doses varying from 3 to 10 grains in pills or in cold water. The aromatic spirit of am-
monia, containing both ammonia and its carbonate, is an excellent and agreeable stimu-
lant in fainting, hysteria, flatulant colic, etc , in doses of from half a dram to a dram,
taken in water or camphor mixture. 3. Cajeput oil, in doses of from 2 to 6 drops on a
lump of sugar, or rubbed up with sugar, is a powerful diffusible stimulant, admirably
suited for cases of flatulent distention of the stomach and intestines. 4. Ether (known
silso as 8u?r>7i>tric ether) acts as a general diffusible stimulant; but its effects, which are
rapidly produced, nre very transient. It is chiefly employed as a stimulant in spas-
modic find nervous affections unaccompanied by inflammation, as " in cramp of tut
stomach, in sp-ismodie or flatulent colic, in nervous palpitations, in hiccough, in nervous
headache.diirhig a paroxysm of spasmodic asthma, in aphonia, clc. It is ;I!PO adminis-
tered frequently witli good effect in the advanced staues ( .f fever, when the twitching of
the muscles, known as toibttuitux tendinum. and hiccough arc present; and as an imme'li-
rtio stimulant iu fainting and nr>'iyxi:i." Neligiin'.s Me/ifrirmx, etc . 6th ed. p. 45:2. It
in usually given in doses of about a dnun ii p^mo jiromatic water. To these more
important stimulants may be added camphor, ginger, hoive-n.dish, the preparation? of
lavender, of the mints, etc. It must not be forgotten that electricity, galvanism, and
magnetic electricity operate on the animal system either as general or local stimulants,
according to the manner in which they are applied. See ELECTRICITY, MEDICAL.

STING-FISH.. See WEAVER.

STING HAY, Trygon, a genus of cartilaginous fishes, of the order rates (see
RAY) and family trygonidce. In this family the tail is long and slender, the eyes on the



O A -1 Stimpson.

Stipend.

upper (dorsal) aspect, and in -the genus trygon the tail is armed -with a strong spine
notched on both sides. The tail has either no fin, or a merely rudimental one. Only
one species of sting ray occurs in the British seas (T. pasttnaca), popularly known as
tin: fire tlaiie. It is found in the Mediterranean, and thence to the northernmost parts
of Europe. It resembles a skate in general appearance. The flesh is remarkable for its
redness of color, and is not esteemed. The sting ray is dreaded from the power which
it lias of using its muscular and flexible tail as a weapon, twisting it round the object of
attack, and inflicting severe lacerated wounds with the serrated spine. These wounds
often cause great inflammation, whence a notion has been prevalent from ancient times
thai the sting is charged with venom ; but of this there is no evidence. Other species of
sting ray are plentiful in the warmer parts of the world, and they are everywhere
dreaded. The spine is used by the savages of the South Sea islands to point their
spears.

STINK-POT, in warfare a shell, often of earthenware, charged with combustibles,
which, on bursting, emit afoul smell and a suffocat ing smoke. It is useful in sieges for
driving the garrison from their defenses; also in boarding a ship, for effecting a diver-
sion while the assailants gain the deck. The stink-pot is a favorite weapon of the Chinese.
Under the more elegant title of Asphyxiated shell, the French and other modern nations
have experimented considerably on this mode of harassing an enemy.

STINK-STONE, or SWINE-STONE, a kind of marble or limestone remarkable for the
fetid urinous odor which it emits when rubbed. It contains a little sulphur.

STINK-TRAPS, a name given to certain very useful forms of drain -openings, which,
while allowing liquids to run down, prevent the escape of noxious gases. They are
made of iron or earthenware, in a great variety of forms, but on one very simple prin-
ciple, there being a curved or siphon pipe below the grating or grid which always retains
sufficient water to pi-event the outward passage of 1he gases.

STINK-WOOD, Oreodaphne fatidn, a tree of the natural order lai/racca, a native of
the cape of Good Hope, remarkable for the strong disagreeable smell of its wood,
w-liich, however, is hard, very durable, takes an excellent polish, and resembles walnut.
It has been used in ship-building.

STINT. Sec SANDPIPER.
, STI PA. See FEATHER GRASS.

STIPE, in botany, a term used to designate the stem of palms and tree-ferns.

STI PZITD, the provision for the support of the parochial clergy of the church of;
Scotland. It consists of payments in money or grain, or both, made out of the teinds'
or tithes of their parishes. The teinds (q.v.), originally the tenths of the produce of
the lands drawn in kind, have become converted into a separate estate, held under a
liability for stipend. In a majority of cases they have been purchased at a valuation by
the owners of the lands to which they belong, stipends having first been "modified"
from them, and they are held under the burden of augmenting the minister's stipend to
the extent of their value. Sometimes they have passed in tothe hands of titulars, i.e.,
grantees from the crown and their successors, or belong to colleges and hospitals, to all
of whom payment of tithe is made by the proprietor of the lands according to a valua-
tion or composition; and the teinds formerly held by bishops or other dignified clergy



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 194 of 203)