Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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are in the hands of the crown. In 1617 a commission was apointed by James VI. to
modify stipends to the clergy from the parochial teinds. The provision was at first
limited to a maximum of 10 chalders of victual or 1000 merks (i55 lls. Id.) per annum
and a minimum of 5 chalders or 500 merks (27 15s. 6d.); but the minimum was raised
in 1649 to 8 chalders, or 3 chalders and money for the other 5, at a conversion not ex-
ceeding 100 Scots or beneath 100 merks for each chalder; and it has been the practice
to allow a further sum to the minister to meet the expense of communion elements.
The power of assigning, modifying, and localing stipends, has, since the union, been
possessed by the judges of the 'court of session?, sitting as a court of commission of
teinds. When the existing stipend of a clergyman is considered insufficient, and there
remains any free teind (i.e., teind as yet unappropriated for stipend), the court have it
in their power to award him out of it what augmentation they deem suitable. But by
act 48, Geo. III. c. 138. no stipend can be augmented a second time till after the lapse of
20 years from a previous augmentation. The augmented stipend is modified in
victual; but the minister receives it.not in kind, but in value, according to the highest
fiars (q.v.) prices of each year. By 50 Geo. III. c. 84, 10,000 annually was set apart
from the revenue for the purpose of raising all stipends to 150, where the teinds of
the psrHi did not provide that sum. Act 5 Geo. IV. c 72 makes certain provisions
cut of toe public revrt nr for those clergymen who have neither manse nor glebe, or
wl\o have a manse but no irk- be, or a glebe but no manse, and whose stipends do not
exceed 200 - year.

The terms; at which ^tipend i jviy;ible ;ire Whiisui'day and Michaelnvs. Tf the in-
cumbent be admitted before Whitsunday. 1 e is entitled to the whole ye.-ir's s-'rrud; and
if his interest cease before that, term, .he has no claim to any p.-irt uf it. If l:e is fid-
mi tted between Whitsunday and Michaelmas, he is entitled to a half-year's stipend. If his
interest cease between these terms, he or his representatives have right to a half-year's sti-



Stipulation. CJ.O

Stith.

pend; and if it cease after Michaelmas, to the whole year's stipend. No stipend is due till
collation have taken place, and stipend continues due to a suspended clergyman. On the
deceaseof a clergyman, a sum equal to a half-year's stipend is due to hisexecutors, under
the name of aim or annat(& word derived from the now altogether analogous annata, or
first-fruits of the canon law), one-half of which goes to the widow, and the other half
to the children or other next of kin, the whole passing to the next of kin where there
is no widow. It is additional to the sum otherwise due to the incumbent; so that if he
survive Whitsunday, he will have half the year's stipend, and his executors will have
the other half as ann; and if he survive Michaelmas, he will have the whole year's sti-
pend, and an additional half-year's stipend will be due to the executors as ann. The
stipend accruing during a vacancy was formerly at the disposal^of the patron of the
parish for pious uses, but has been given by statutes 50 Geo. III. c. 84, and 54 Geo. III.
c. 49, to the ministers' widows' fund.

STIPULATION, in Roman law, was an agreement attended with certain solemnities.
The word is used in English and Scotch law only in a popular seuse, to denote any dis-
tinct matter expressly agreed upon by the parties to an agreement or deed.

STIPULE, in botany, a leafy appendage at the base of the leaf-stalk in many plants.
Sometimes the stipule is solitary; but frequently there are two, one on each side of the
leaf-stalk. They are of very various form and character, often very dissimilar to the
leaf with which they are connected. In some plants, they are large, enveloping the
young leaf, but soon falling off; in many, they are deciduous; but in many they are as
permanent as the leaf itself. Their presence or absence, their deciduous or persistent
character, and other peculiarities which they exhibit, form distinctive characteristics
not only of species and genera, but of natural orders. They are generally green, like
leaves; but sometimes membranaceous. In some plants, they assume the form of spines;
in eucurbitacece, that of tendrils. Organs of the same nature with stipules appear at the
base of the leaflets of some compound leaves.

STIRLING, a market, t. river-port, and royal, parliamentary, and municipal
burg, capital of the county of the same name, stands on the s. bank of the Forth,
29 in. n.e. of Glasgow by railroad. Like Edinburgh, to which city it bears, in its
main features, a striking resemblance, it no doubt owes its origin to the strong natural
fortress of its Castle Hill. From this hill, covering the declivity which slopes n. and
eastward to the plain, extends the oldest part of the town, around which are numerous
streets; while many villas have risen in the environs. The Castle Hill, which rises grad-
ually from the e., and fronts the w. with a steep, precipitous wall of basaltic rock, over-
looks the beautiful and fertile cnrse, or flat, which lies along the banks of the Forth.
Among the more prominent public buildings and institutions are the East and West
Churches the former erected by James IV. about 1494, the latter built at a later period;
and " Mar's Work," an incomplete structure, built by the earl of Mar, regent of Scot-
land, who died in 1572, when the building was in progress. This architectural fragment
is richly ornamented. In the more ancient quarters, one or two pleasing specimens of
old Scotch domestic architecture may still be seen. Of these " Argyle's Lodging," %vith
Us pinnacled round towers and decorated windows, is the chief. It is now used as a mili-
tary hospital. The town-house is surmounted with a spire, and has the old jail attached.
It contains the jug or standard of dry measure which was given to the keeping of Stir-
ling by the Scottish parliament; while Linlithgow is said to have received the firlot;
Edinburgh, the ell, etc. The new jail is a handsome building. Cowan's hospital,
founded in 1639, is an object of interest. There are also an atheneum, corn exchange,
and numerous excellent schools. A magnificent art institute, called the Smith institute,
in honor of the founder, was opened in 1874. The importance of Stirling in early times
was due to its situation and its defenses. At the head of the navigation of the Forth,
when there were no regular ferries, Stirling was the key to the Highlands, and the pos-
session of its strength and its means of communication between n. and s. was of the
greatest importance;. The town, besides, was strongly fortified by both nature and art.
The ancient bridge of Stirling, the age of which is unknown, but which was in existence
in 1571, is composed of four arches, and was defended at each end by gates ?.r.d towers.
This bridge was, until quite recent years, the only one by which wheeled carriages could
cross the Forth. Vessels of 150 tons can reach the port of Stirling, but its commerce
by river is now of less importance than before the days of railroads. Stirling is a cen-
tral railroad station, and the means of communication in every direction are ready and
abundant. The rich agricultural, mining and manufacturing districts around are to a
great extent the basis of the prosperity of the town itself. Manufactures of ropes, malt,
leather, soap, and mineral oils are carried on. The town unites with the Dunfermlint
burgs in sending a member to the house of commons. Pop. '71 of parl. burgh, 14,279;
of town, 10,873.

Stirling (formerly Stri/Delyne, or Estrivelm) is one of the most ancient and historically
important towns of Scotland, [t is of unknown antiquity; and there is no record from
which the date of the foundation of. even the castle can be determined. It must have
been a frontier fortress from the earliest times. Alexander I. died in the castle in 1124.
In the vicinity, the battle of Stirling was fought in 1297. See WALLACE. The town
was taken by Edward I., after a siege of three months, in 1304. In the vicinity, at Ban-



Stipulation.
Stith.

nockburn (q.v.), the famous battle of that name was fought in 1314. The castle was the
birthplace of James II. and of James V. James III. built the parliament house in the
castle, and otherwise improved and embellished the fortress. James V. built the palace,
the walls of which are profusely covered with grotesque ornamentation. In the older
part of the castle is the "Douglas Room," in which William, earl of Douglas, was as-
sassinated by James II. In 1651, after the battle of Dunbar, the castle was taken by
Monk; and it withstood a siege by the Highlanders in 1745. The view from the towers
of Stirling castle is unsurpassed in beauty. Westward, the rich vale of Meuteith
streaches away to the Highlands, where Ben Lomond, Ben Venue, Ben A'aii, and Ben
Ledi close the scene. The glittering "links" cf Forth are seen in the carse of Stirling,
surrounded by fertile fields and luxuriant woods; the Abbey Craig, crowned by the Wal-
lace monument, rises boldly on the u. ; while on the e. are seen the picturesque ruins of
Cauibuskeuneth Abby.

STIRLING, EARL OF. 'See ALEXANDER, WILLIAM.

STIRLING, JAMES HXJTCHINSON, LL.D. ; b. Glasgow, 1822; studied art andmedicina
at the Glasgow university. He practiced medicine for some years in South Wales, but
in 1857 visited the continent, while there and after his return to England pursued an ex-
tensive course of philosophical study. He has published T/ie Secret of Hegel, a transla-
tion of Schwegler's Histoi-y of Philosophy ; As Regards Protoplasm; Lectures on the Philos-
ophy of Laic ; and other works.

STIRLING, Sir THOMAS, 1735-1808; b. Scotland; commanded a company of royal
highlanders, 1757. In 1758-59, he served under Abercrombie and Amherst; was present
at the siege of Niagara, and joined in the expedition to Lower Canada, 1760. In 1766 he
was on duty in Philadelphia, leaving his station at fort Chartres. He was made lieut.
col., 1771, was prominent in all the great battles of the revolutionary war, and rose
through successive grades to general, 1801. He was knighted in 1796.

STIRLING, Sir WILLIAM. See MAXWELL.

STIRLINGSHIRE, a county of Scotland, forming the border between the Highland*
and Lowlands of the country, is bounded on the n. by Pertshire, and by the river and
firth of Forth. Area, 467 sq. m. ; pop. in '71, 98,218. A considerable part of Sterling'
shire is occupied by the carses of Stirling and Falkirk, which were formerly covered for
the most part with unproductive moss. On the removal of the moss-soil, part of which
was floated off into the Forth by the agency of running water, a rich clay-soil, of vari- ,
cms depths, from a plow-furrow to 20, and even 30 ft , was reached, and is noto cul- 1
tivated with the most marked success. The chief elevation is Ben-Lomond (q.v.), in
the north-west. The chief rivers are the Forth (q.v.), the Carron navigable for small
vessels to Carron-shore and the Endrick. Loch Lomond (q.v.) is the only important
lake in the county. Stirlingshire is remarkable for its mineral stores, especially iron-
stone, which is wrought on an extensive scale at Carron (q.v). Woolen goods, etc., are
largely manufactured, especially at Alva, Bannockburn, and in the neighborhood of
Stirling (q. v.). Of the area of 298,579 acres, there were in '76, 110,788 acres under all
kinds of crops, bare fallow, and grass. There were 30,655 under corn crops (2,833
being under wheat); under green crops, 9,503 (5,184 in turnips); 24,036 under clover
and grasses under rotation; 45,009 under permanent pasture and meadow. In the
same year there were in the county 4,801 horses, 30,225 cattle, 115.610 sheep, and
2,297 swine. The valued rent in 1674 was 9,042; in '78-79, 379,102 (exclusive of
canals and railroads). The parliamentary constituency in the same year was 3,218.

STIR'RUPS (naval) are eyes of ropo pendent from the yards, and supporting several
portions of the tackle connected with the management of the sails.

STITCH in the side is the popular and expressive name applied to the pain felt in
pleurisy. It occupies a point or small spot on a level with, or just beneath the breast
on the left side; and patients state that they feel as if some sharp stabbing instrument
were being driven in at that spot, whenever 'the act of inspiration goes beyond a certain
limit. It is termed in French Point de Cote. See PLEURISY. A simple modification of
stitch is by no means uncommon, if a person take exercise shortly after partaking of a
full meal. The pain in this case is seated lower in the side, and is usually removed by
looping. Hence the popular remedy for this pain is to make a cross upon the foot.

STITCH'WORT, Stellana, a genus of plants of the natural order caiyophyllea, having
a calyx of 5 leaves, 5 deeply-cloven petals, 10 stamens, 3 styles, and a many-seeded cap-
Bule opening with six teeth. The species are numerous, and several are very common
in Britain, annual and perennial plants, with weak stems and white flowers, which in
ome are minute, and in others are large enough to be very ornamental to woods and
hedgebanks, as in the wood stitchwort (S. nemorum) and the greater stitchwort (S.
Jiolosta). To this genus the common chickweed (q.v.) is generally referred.

STITH, WILLIAM, 1689-1755, b. Va. ; educated in England, and took orders in tha
church. He was appointed master of the grammar school of William and Mary college,
Va., in 1731, was chaplain of the house of burgesses in 1738, and president of William
and Mary college, and rector of Henrico parish from 1752 to his death. He wrote a



Stiver.
Stock.

History of the First Discovery and Settlement of Virginia, 1747, in accuracy Of detail not
exceeded by any American historical work.

STIVER, a coin of Holland, equivalent to a penny sterling, being the ^ of a guilder
or gulden. See FLORIN.

STOAT. See ERMINE.

STOB^E'US, JOAKKES, an ancient Greek writer, native of Stobi, Macedonia. It ie
thought that he lived about 500 A.D., but almost nothing is known about his personal
Ji:e. He made two extensive works of selections from several hundred Greek authors.
These collections were called the Ecloga and the Anthologion, and by them many utter-
ances of ancient writers have been preserved to us, which would otherwise have been
lost.

STOCK, or STOCK GILLYFLOWER, Matthiola, a genus of plants of the natural order
cruciferad, having cylindrical or compressed pods, and a stigma consisting of two upright
appressed plates, the outer side of which often rises ink a knob or horn. The species
are herbaceous or half-shrubby, natives of the countries around the Mediterranean sea,
most of them thickly clothed with white or grayish stellate hairs; the flowers in ra-
cemes, and generally beautiful and fragrant. Some of the species have long been much
much cultivated, and mauy tine varieties have been produced by cuhivation. Jif.
incana, & very rare and even doubtful native of England, is probably the parent of the
greater number of the cultivated kinds with hoary leaves, known as Brompton stock,
etc. ; while those with smooth leaves, called ten-week stock, German stock, etc.,
are referred to M. annua, M. glabra, and M. feneatralis, which, perhaps, are mere
varieties of one species. The sandy shores of Wales and of Cornwall produces a
species, M. sinuata, the large purple flowers' of which are fragrant only at night
a characteristic also of several other species. Stocks are always raised by gard
ners from seed, which even the double kinds often produce, a multiplication of the
petals having taken place without loss of the parts of fructification. Of the seedlings,
however, some produce double and others single flowers, so that only some gratify the
cultivator. The hoary-leaved stocks are generally treated as biennials, Although, in
reality, they may almost be reckoned perennial; and it is not desirable that they should
flower in the first year, as the plants become stronger when they remain without flow-
ering till the second year, and produce richer racemes of flowers. The smooth-leaved
stocks are treated as annuals. The beautiful little annual called Virginian stock does
not belong to this genus, although it is of the same natural order. Its habit is indeed
Very cfcileient. It is Malcomia mantitna, and notwithstanding its popular name, is a
native of th'j shores of the Mediterranean. It has become one of our most favorite
flowers, almost rivaling mignonette, and is all the more esteemed because it grows well
in the little garden plots which are exposed to the smoke of towns.

STOCKBRIDGE, a t. in Berkshire co., Mass., 12 m. e.w. of Pittsfiold, on theHousa-
tonic railroad, and on the river of the same mime; pop. '80, 2,360. The site was for-
merly occupied by the Stockbridge or Housatouic Indians, with whom Jonathan
Edwards did missionary work. There are 3 churches, a bank, library, hotel, and public
and private schools. The greater part of the village lies in beautiful valleys lying
between Monument, Great Barrington, Wesi Stockbridge, Beartown, and Rattlesnake
mountains.

STOCKBRIDGE, HENRY, b. Mass., 1822; graduate of Amherst college, 1845;
studied law and was admitted to practice in Maryland, 1848. He favored the union
cause in the war of the rebellion ; member of the state legislature, 1864. He was a mem-
ber of the constitutional convention which met to decide the question of the abolition of
slavery in the state, was active in securing the adoption of the constitution framed by its
members, and defended it before the courts. It was by his exertions that the indentures
of apprenticeship which threatened to take the place of slavery were omitted from the
statutes, and enfranchisement secured, without possibility of evasion, to the colored
children of Maryland. His rank at the bar is very high.

STOCK-BROKER, or SHARE-BROKER, a person employed in buying and selling stock
in the public home and foreign funds, also in stock or shares of joint-stock companies.
In most of the principal towns stock exchanges are established, and the stock or share
brokers are members of such exchanges, and are bound to transact business in terms of
t'.ie rules and regulations of the ex jlmnge to which they belong. In London, in addition
to ordinary brokers, there are what are called sworn brokers, who require a license from
Hie city corporation, for which certain fees are exacted, before .being entitled to transact
business in the public funds. In the provincial exchanges the brokers require no license,
nor do thc"y pay any fee to government or other authorities. The charge for brokerage
or commissions varies from in consols to | per cent in railway stocks; the rates for
shares being charged according to the amount of the share, and in accordance with a
ecale adopted by the stock exchanges.

STOCKDOVE, Calumba, anas, a wild pigeon, native of Europe; a beautiful gray
bird wilh a burnished metallic purple bn-c.jt, scarlet eyes, orange -colored bill, and red
legs. It is ah-.ut H in. in length from bill to end of tail. It is named fnyn its habit of
making its aesl in hollow stumps or tree stocus.



Stiver.

Mock.

STOCK EXCHANGE, an organization of persons whose business it is to buy and
sell stock, bonds, and other securities, municipal, state, or national; or of corporations
engaged in mining, transportation, banking, or commerce, in open market at specified
times, and uuder strict rules The New York stock exchange was first regularly organ-
ized in 1817, but its records were destroyed in the great fire of 1835. A. similar organ-
ization existed in Philadelphia prior to that in New York, after which the latter was
patterned. The stocks dealt in were U. S. stocks, state stocks, and city bank and
insurance stock. By 1830 railroad stocks had come into the market Mohawk, Catskill.
Harlem, etc. ; and the Morris and Delaware and Hudson canals. In 1823 the initiatic.u
fee of the New York stock exchange was $25; in 1827, $100; and in 1833, $150. S.t
present a seat in the board is worth $25,000. The number of members is 1060; and in
case of the death of a member, his seat is sold, and the sum received paid to his heirs
less any dues or unfulfilled contracts standing against his name. The regulations are
very stringent, some of them involving for their breach, expulsion and loss of seat with-
out indemnity. A gratuity fund pays to the heirs of any broker who dies in good stand-
ing, the sum of $10,000, without deductions. About 200,000 shares of stoek change
hands daily, and the operations frequently cover $1,500,000 value of securities handled.
A committee on arbitration settles disputes among members. On the failure of a mem-
ber of the stock exchange, his assets (stock, bonds, and other securities) are sold at pub-
lic sale "under the rule," and the proceeds divided among his creditors. The processes
of sale in the exchange, though apparently complicated, and impossible for the unin-
itiated to understand, are in reality simple enough. A call of the list of stocks is made
twice a day, as a matter of form ; and the government, state, and railroad bonds are
called in a room specially devoted to that purpose. But the sales are made by the
brokers themselves, each one offering whatever stock he has to sell, crying it aloud,
number of shares and price; or naming the price he offers for a stock, if buying. These
cries, which issue from several hundred throats at the same lime, are readily distin-
guished and understood by the brokers, and the transactions are closed and noted accu-
rately. Persons employed for the purpose gather and record as many of these sales as
possible, and these are sent by the telegraph instrument to all the different offices and
places of resort where connecting iustrumeuts are kept, where speculators and investors
can watch the market, and knowing the fluctuations and indications as they occur, can
give their orders to their brokers intelligently. The record of transactions is abbreviated
both as to the name of the stock and the nature of the sale. Thus, ''L.S. 400:125:s.t>0,"
means 400 shares of Lake Shore and Michigan Southern railroad stock at $125, to be
delivered at the seller's option any time within 60 days. The option is with the buyer
if recorded " b.60;" the number of days of course varying according to agreement. The
letters ex. mean less dividend. Applied to bonds, c. means coupon, and r. registered;
o.b. stands for delivery at the opening of the books of transfer. Stock is bought, either
for its full value in cash, or on a margin. In the latter instance, the client deposits with
his broker 10 per cent of the par value of the stock, thus securing the latter against a
loss, since he can sell if the stock falls to the point which the margin covers; or can call
for more margin, selling if the client declines further risk. Those who contract to
deliver stock at a future day at a fixed price are said to sell sliort, and are technically
called " bears," because they desire to squeeze or depress the market. " Bulls." on the
contrary, buy stock for a rise, .and are called "long" of the stock, and "bulls" because
their interest is to raise the market price. The broker's commission for buying or sell-
ing is i of 1 per cent, except to members of the board, who pay $2 per 100 shares. The
business in "stock privileges," as they are called, is a peculiar one, involving the tech-
nical terms "puts" and "calls." A broker who sells a "put," agrees to buy a specified
stock in a certain number of shares, within a stated time, at a specified price, provided
the seller be willing to deliver the stock at the price and time named. If the broker
sells a "call," he agrees to deliver a certain number of shares of a given stock on call
within a stated time at a specified price. The cost of these privileges is arranged between
the parties on the condition of the market, the time involved, etc. For the purpose of
keeping up the gratuity fund for the heirs of deceased members of the exchange, every
surviving member is assessed on occasion of a death in the sum of $10. This system,
which results in the payment of $10,000 on the occasion of every death, was founded in
1873. It is expected that by 1888 the accumulated fund with its natural increase will
render these assessments no longer necessary. The conduct of the business of the stools
exchange is, as has already been remarked, under the strictest regulation, and the
instances of dishonesty or impropriety have been, it is said, fewer in proportion to the



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 195 of 203)