Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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number of persons engaged, and to the magnitude of the transactions involved, than in
any other mercantile business. The stock exchange of New York is situated on Broad
and New streets, and is a handsome building, containing probably the largest and
strongest vaults for the reception of securities, in the world, and commodious rooms for
the transaction of business. Visitors are admitted to a gallery set apart for the purpose.

STOCK FISH, a commercial name of salted and dried cod and other fish of the same
family, particularly the ling, hake, and torsk (see these heads). The fish is cured as
soon as possible after being caught. It is split up from head to tail, cleansed from all
particles of blood by plentiful washings with salt water; a piece of the back bone is cut


away; and after the superfluous water lias drained off, the fish are laid in long vats,
covered with salt, and kept down by heavy weights. By and by they are taken out,
washed and brushed, and then exposed to sun and air on a sandy beach or upon rocks.
They are afterward gathered into little heaps, and when they assume a fine whitish
appearance, known as the bloom, they are considered ready for the market. Great
quantities of stock-fish are thus prepared in the northern parts of the world, and are not
only used in the countries which produce them, but are largely exported to more south-
ern regions, where they are in great demand. The cod, ling, and hake fishery of Scot-
land is next in importance to its herring-fishery. In 1873, according to the report of th
Fishery commissioners, the yield was 160,716^ cwts. of dried fish, besides 12, 381| bar-
rels cured in pickle. The quantity exported was 70,101^ cwts. cured dried. The
quantity of stock-fish cured on the more southern coasts of Britain is inconsiderable.

STOCK HOLM, the capital of Sweden, is situated at the eastern extremity of the
Maelar lake, in 59 20' n. lat., and 18 5' e. long. The pop. was in 1877, 165,677.
Stockholm, which is one of the most beautiful capitals of Europe, is built partly on the
continent, and partly on nine holms, or islands, lying in the channel through which the
Maelar lake discharges its waters into the Baltic, about 36 m. distant. The Helge-aand,
Stads, and Riddar holms, which formed the nucleus of the ancient city, founded in
1250 by Birgir Jarl, contains some of the finest public and private buildings, among
which we may instance the royal palace, built in 1753, in the Italian style, and situated
on a hill, commanding a view of the romantic shores of the lake. Near the palace,
which possesses good antiquarian, numismatic, and other collections, a library, gallery
of paintings, large gardens, etc., is the colossal statue of Gustavus III., on one of the
fine quays which skirt the chief harbor of Stockholm; the cathedral, or St. Nicolai's; the
Knights' hall, with the adjoining market, ornamented with the fine statue of Gustavus
Vasa, the council-house, the riddarsholm kirke, where all the kings of Sweden since
Charles X, have been buried, etc. Among the other public buildings, the most note-
worthy are the observatory, the church of St. James, the college of surgery, and the
opera-house, with the neighboring and corresponding palace, in the aristocratic quarter
of Norrmalm, which, with the new parade-ground, its public gardens, and its fine wide
and even streets, ranks as the handsomest part of the town. The most picturesque of
the nine islets of Stockholm is the Sodermulm, on whose steep sides the houses, con-
nected more frequently by steps than roads, rise in terraced rows to the even summit,
which is crowned by St. Catherine's church. Numerous public gardens, summer
palaces, and country-houses extend along the n.e. shores of the lake, and on the margins
of the Ladugaard's holm, the central portions of which present a picturesque blending
of rocks, wooded heights, and romantic glens. On this side of Stockholm lies the famous
Djurgaard, or zoological gardens, one of the finest public parks in Europe, which
occupies a peninsula two m. long, and one m. wide, whose natural beauties have been
judiciously aided by art. Stone and wooden bridges connect together the various islands
of the town. The streets of the older quarters are narrow, crooked, and ill-paved; but
in the better parts of the town there are fine straight streets and capacious squares find
open places, with well-built stone houses; while in the suburbs the houses are mostly of
wood. Stockholm is the seat of the government, and of the chief courts of law find
administration, the residence of the sovereign, and the place of assembly for the legisla-
tive chambers. It is the center of t lie literary and social activity of the country, and hns
numerous scientific, artistic, educational, and benevolent institutions. In the immediate
vicinity of Stockholm are the Karlsl>erg academy, for naval and military cadets; and the
Ulriksdal hospital, for invalided soldiers. No city has more picturesque environs, or
more numerous public gardens and walks, than Stockholm; while the many channels
and canals connected with its large and commodious harbors facilitate traffic and
intercommunication with the interior, and with foreign ports. Stockholm is the princi-
pal emporium of Swedish commerce; iron, timber, and deal planks are its main articles
of export; but it is also the center of an active trade in the various manufactures of the
place as, for instance, leather, cotton, woolen, and silk fabrics, glass and porcelain,
iron and steel goods, steam-engines, etc., which it sends, together with the ordinary
colonial and other imports, to all the other towns of Sweden.

STOCZING-FEAME. The machine with which stockings, singlet drawers, and other
similar garments are woven, was first invented by William Lee of Woodbridge, Not-
tinghamshire. At first, it was a very simple affair, but has now become extremely com-
plicated, although the simple principle upon which it was first originated is retained as
the essential. This can only be understood by reference to the art of knitting, which
originated it. In knitting, only one thread is used, and this formed into a succession of
loops on a knitting-needle; each of these loops, then, has in succession another loop
passed through it by means of another and similar needle, and this operation is curried
on successively until the whole fabric is made. In the stocking-frame, instead of one
needle to hold the stationary loops while those of the moving row are being inserted,
there are as many needles as there are to be loops in the breadth of the web, and these
are so made as to alternately form and give off the loops. Each needle terminates in a
hook, asmall indentation into which the bent point of the needle is easily pressed. The
other end of the needle is fixed into a small casting of tin, formed to fit into a frame, and

Qj.>7 Stockholm.


be screwed tightly in, side by side with the rest of the needles. Between the needles are
placed thin plates of lead or pewter, called tinkers in two rows; in one row, the sinkers
move freely on an axis; in the other, they are all fixed to a bar, and move with it. The
object of the loose ones, or jack-sinkers, is to make loops by pressing the thread down
between the needles. The other row on the bar, or lead-sinkers, are brought down, so as
to press simultaneously on the hooks of the needles, and press their points down into the
little depression so that they will pass through the loops without catching one way, and
take them up when opened and drawn in the contrary direction. These are the essential
parts of a stocking-frame, which contains so vast a number of needles and sinkers, and
Buch nice mechanical arrangements for giving them their regular movements, that few
machines have so complicated an appearance to the observer; and any attempt to extend
this description, would only serve to puzzle rather than explain.


STOCKMAR, CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH, Baron, 1787-1863; b. Coburg; an army physi-
cian in 1814; in 1816 became physician to prince Leopold, who soon afterward made him
his private secretary. In 1836 he brought about the marriage of prince Ferdinand of
Coburg with queen Maria I. of Portugal, and in 1837 traveled with prince Albert to
Italy. In 1858 he negotiated for the marriage of the present crown prince of Prussia
with the English princess royal. See Denkwurdigkeiten aus den Papieren des Freiherrn,
Christian Fritdrick con Stocknuir, by Ernst von Stockmar (1872).

STOCKPORT, a t. of England, in the county of Chester, on the river Mersey, and
6i m. s.e. of Manchester by railway. It is of "great antiquity, but its prosperity is of
modern date. Stockport has extensive manufactures of cottons, woolens, silks, ma-
chinery, brass and iron goods, shuttles, and brushes. Pop. '71, 53,014. Stockport re-
turns two members to parliament.

STOCKS, an apparatus of wood, much used in former times in England for the pun-
ishment of petty offenders. The culprit was placed on a bench, with his ankles fastened
in holes under a movable board, and allowed to remain there for an hour or two. The
period of their first introduction is uncertain, but in the second statute of laborers, 25
Edw. III. (1350), provision is made for applying the stocks to unruly artificers; and in
1376, the commons prayed Edward III. that stocks should be established in every vil-
lage. Each parish had in later times its stocks, usually close to the churchyard, but
sometimes in a more retired spot; and in some country places they are still to be seen,
and not altogether disused. Combined with the stocks was often a whipping-post for
the flagellation of vagrants.


STOCKTON, a t. and port of entry of California, on Stockton channel, near San Joa-
quin, 130 m. e.s.e. of San Francisco. It is an important commercial point, and the
entrep6t of the southern gold mines. It has three newspapers, several churches, a hos-
pital, and pop. '70 of 10,066.

- STOCKTON (ante), a city in central California, co. seat of San Joaquin co., incor-
porated, 1850; pop. '80, 10,287. It was set off in 1849 by capt. Charles M. Weber, the
owner of a Mexican grant, and it then served as a convenient starting-point for miners
bound for Calaveras, Tuolumne, and Mariposa counties; and the beginning of its local
trade was the sale of miners' outfits. It has daily communication with San Francisco by
a line of steamers, and is on the Central Pacific and the Stockton and Copperopolis rail-
roads, 48 m. s.e. of Sacramento, and 92 m. by rail from San Francisco. It is connected
with lone City, 40 m. away, by a narrow-sraugu railway, used for the transportation of
coal. It is built on a plain in the great California valley; oak trees arc scattered through
its streets and surround its public buildings; and outside its limits are cultivable prairies
extending for miles in all directions. It lias an excellent harbor; the river here is navi-
gable at all seasons by vessels of from 150 to 250 tons, and in the spring, above the city,
for 200 miles. It furnishes supplies to the farmers of the San Joaquia valle>y, receiving
immense quantities of marketable produce, and is an important shipping point for wheat
and wool. The shipments of wheat for 3 years averaged 3,500,000 bushels, valued at
$3,000,000. It contains several large warehouses for grain, with an aggregate capacity
of 3.000,000 bushels. The most prominent buildings are of brick, and it contains a court-
house, city hall, 13 churches, a convent, a Jewish synagogue, the state lunatic asylum,
a theater, 2 public libraries, 6 newspapers, 5 banks including a national gold bank,
and a branch of the banking-house of Wells, Fargo & Co. It is lighted with gas, has a
horse railway, and is supplieel with water through pipes from artesian wells bored to a
depth of from 80 to-120 ft. (one, however, is 1000 ft. deep), the water rising within 6 ft.
of the surface. It has flour mills with n capacity for manufacturing 800 barrels per day;
other industries are the manufacture of paper, woolen goods, chairs, sonp. agricultural
implements, boots and shoes, leather, carriages auel wagons, saddlery and harness, iron,
ale and beer, and large quantities of wine.

STOCKTON, PacHARD. 1730-81; b. N. J. ; graduated at the college of New Jersey,
then at Newark, 1748; admitted to the bar, 1754, where he soon became eminent;
was in the executive council of New Jersey, 1768; judge of supreme court, 1774; in
congress, 1776, where lie cordially supported and signed the declaration of independence;

Stockton. RJ.&


was on the committee to inspect the northern army and report its condition; after that
service was taken prisoner by the British, confined in the common jail at New York,
and treated with unusual severity which exhausted his strength and cut short his life.

STOCKTON, ROBERT FIELD, 1796-1886; b. N. J. ; became a midshipman while
in college, 1810; was honorably mentioned in several actions, and made a lieutenant,
1814; distinguished himself fa the war against Algiers; sent to the African coast, was
influential in procuring the territory now known as the republic of Liberia, and capiuivd
, slave-ships; freed the West Indian seas from the pirates infesting them; engaged
actively in politics, 1826-38; sent to the Mediterranean, 1888; made post-captain, 18:39;
gave plans for steam sloop of Avar Princeton, which proved successful, marking an era
in naval architecture; during the trial trip an unexplained explosion of the " big gun"
wounded him and caused the death of the secretaries of war and the navy with three
other distinguished men; commanded the Pacific squadron, 1S45, and with a force of
1500 sailors and settlers, in 6 months conquered California and established a provisional
government; resigned his commission, 1849, elected U.S. senator, 1851, and after promot-
ing the abolition of flogging in the navy, resigned 1853. His Life. 8peec^, and Letters
was published 1856.

STOCKTON, THOMAS HEWLIXGS, D.D., 1808-68; b. N. J. ; studied medicine, be-
came a Methodist Protestant minister; stationed at Baltimore, 1830; at Georgetown,
1833; chaplain to congress, 1833, holding the position for three successive sessions; chap-
lain to senate, 1862; resided in Philadelphia, 1838-47, and in Cincinnati, 1847-50; was
Eastor of St. John's Methodist Protestant church, Baltimore, 1850-55; pastor of the
ndependent church, Philadelphia, 1856-68. He published among others the following
works: Floating Flowers,' The Bible Alliance; Stand up for Jesus, a Christian Ballad;
Poems mth Autobiographic and Other Notes; The Peerless Magnificence of tJie Word of
God. His vivid style and earnest pulpit delivery often drew great throngs.

STOCKTON-ON-TEES, a municipal borough and sea-port in the county of Durham, 11
m. e.n.e of Darlington, on the left bank of the Tees. The broad and handsome High
street is nearly a mile in length, and from it several minor streets diverge at right
angles. A new t., known as South Stockton, has sprung up within the last few years
on the right bank of the river. The town contains two churches, a Roman Catholic
chapel built by Pugin, several dissenting chapels, an athenaeum, and other important
edifices. The Stockton races, of some mark in the sporting world, are held here annually.
Ship-building, chiefly in iron, is carried on to a great extent; and blast-furnaces, foundries,
engine-works, and extensive potteries and iron-works are in operation. Sail-cloth, ropes
linen, and diapers are manufactured; and there are breweries, corn-mills, airl spinning-
mills. The exports are chiefly iron and earthenware ; the imports are con. timber in deals,
spars, etc., and bark. In 1877, 565 foreign and coasting vessels, of 74. 148 tons, entered,
and 217 of 41,149 tons cleared the port. The town is connected with the whole railway
eystem of England and Scotland by the North-eastern railway company's branches, and
there are two stations here. The Stockton and Darlington railway. t!ie first in the
United kingdom to commence passenger traffic, was opened for the double purpose -of
the conveyance of passengers and goods, Sept. 27, 1825. At Stockton the Tees is navi-
gable for vessels of large tonnage; by a cut, by which abend of the river is avoided,
the town is brought 3 m. nearer the sea; the navigation of the river has been much
improved, and great facilities for an extensive trade provided. Pop. of parl. borough,
'71, 37,467.

Stockton suffered severely from the incursions of the Scots in the early part of the
14th c., but even at that time it enjoyed considerable trade. It was taken for the par-
liament in 1644, and totally destroyed by the Roundheads in 1652. At the restoration
it had become so poor a place that it contained only 120 houses, and most of these were
built of clay.

STOCKWELL, STEPHEN N., 1823-81; b. Hardwick, Mass. ; removed with his family
to Worcester; at the age of 17 was apprenticed to the printer's trade. He passed a
short time in St. John, New Brunswick, and with that exception lived continuously in
Boston during a journalistic career of 40 years. He removed to Boston in 1842, entering
the composing-room of the Boston Journal, became in time a reporter, afterward chief
reporter. He was one of the corporators of the Journal, and his work was ceaseless in
behalf of the interests of that paper, rising through intermediate positions to that of
managing editor, and one of the proprietors, which position he resigned a few weeks
previous to his death. He was a worker in Sunday-schools; and in his profession he
was distinguished for strict business methods, and for his ability as an organizer, espe-
cially in the arrangement and condensation of daily news.

STODDARD, a co. in s.e. Missouri, having St. Francis river on Ihe n.w ; intersected
by the Cairo and Arkansas division of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain, and Southern rail-
road; 850 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 13,432 13,320 of American birth, 33 colored. It is drained
by Castor river, lake Nicormy, 25 m. long and 4 m. wide, and small lakes and streams.
The surface of the country was changed by an earthquake in 1811, and much of itislovr
and swampy. Forests of cypress grow near the lakes, and it has a good supply of build-
ing timber. The soil of the cultivable land produces good crops of grain, tobacco,

O I Q Stockton.


sorghum, and dairy products. Live stock find good pasturage. The manufactures are
lumber and flour. Co. seat, Bloomh'eld.

STODDARD, AMOS, 1762-1813; b. Conn. ; served in the revolutionary war, and at its
close for some years practiced law in Maine, und was clerk of the Massachusetts supreme
court. In 1798 he was made a capt. of artillery, and in 1804 was governor of the terri-
tory of Missouri. In the war of 1812 he was dangerously wounded at the siege of fort
Meigs. He wrote Sketches of Louisiana (1810), and The Political Crisis, and a number of
valuable historical papers.

STODDARD, DAVID TAPPAN, 181 8-57; b. Mass. ; graduated at Yale college, 1838; tutor
in Marshall college, Penn.; declined a professorship at Marietta college, Ohio; studied
theology at Andover; was tutor at Yale; licensed to preach by the Congregational asso-
ciation of -Mass. ; sailed as a missionary of the American board, 1843; had charge of the
boys' seminary at Oroomiah, 1844; cholera prevaili ~g and his health being impaired, he
went to Erzeroom; visited the United States; returned to Persia, 1851. He prepared a
Grammar of Modern S-yriac, published in the Journal of American Oriental society, 1855;
Observations of the Zodiacal Light furnished sir John Herschel. He delivered a course of
theological lectures in Syriac.

STODDARD, ELIZABETH (BARSTOW), b. Mass., 1823; married Richard Henry Stod-
dard in 1853, and has assisted him in editing several annuals. She hag written three
novels containing descriptions of life and scenery in"New England; The Morgesons(lSQ2);
Two Men (1865); and Temple House (1867); a!so a juvenile, Lolly Dink's Doings.

STODDARD, RICHARD HENRY, b. Mass., 1825; lost his father, who was & sea-cap-
tain, at an early age, and earned his living for several years in an iron foundry in New
York; printed privately in 1849 a volume of poems entitled Footprints, and a larger col-
lection of Poems in 1852. He then received an appointment in the New York custom
house, which he retained till 1870, devoting himself in the mean time to literary pursuits.
He was appointed city librarian in 1877, and he is at present (1881) tlie literary critic of
the New York Keening Mail. He has published Adventures in Fairy Land (1853); Songs
of Slimmer (1857); Town and Country and the Voices in the Shells (1857); Life, Travels, and
Books of A. von Humboldt (1 860) ; The King's Bell, a poem (1882) ; The Story of Little lied Rid-
ing Hood in verse (1864); The Children in the Wood, in verse (1865); Putnam the Brave (1869);
The Book of the East (1871 ) ; and an edition of his Poems containing his later selections was
published in 1880. He has edited among other books, Gen. Lyon's Political Essay*, with
his Life (1861); The Loves and Heroines of the Poets (IStil) ; J. G. Vassar's Twenty-one, Years
round the World (1862); Melodies and Madrigals, mostly from Old Ertglish Poets(l9&5); The
Late English Poets (1885); Poets and Poetry of America (1872); Female Poets of America
(1874); and the Brie a Brae Series (1874 et seq.).

STODDARD, SOLOMON, 1643-1729; b. Boston; graduated at Harvard college, 1662;
was fellow and librarian of the college, 1667-74r ordained minister of First church,
Northampton, 1672. He was a learned man and an acute disputant. Believing the
Lord's Supper to be a converting ordinance, he maintained that all baptized persons of
correct moral life, though unconverted, might lawfully partake of it. He published in
1700 The Doctrine, of Instituted Churches in reply to the work of Increase Mather entitled
The Order of the Gospel; also A Guide to Christ; a treatise concerning Conscience; The
Trial of Assnra :ice. His views as to the Lord's Supper were quite different from those
usual in Puritan churches, and did not gain permanence among them.

STODDERT, BENJAMIN, 1751-1813, b. Md. ; served as capt. and maj. in the Ameri-
can revolutionary army, and distinguished himself at Brandywine. He was secretary
of the navy, 1798-1802', and afterward a successful merchant.

STOEVER. MARTIN LUTHER, PH.D., LL.D., 1820-70; b. Penn. ; graduated at univer-
sity of Pennsylvania, 1838; tutor, principal of the primary department, and professor of
Latin there. 1839-70. He published &<(f- Culture; Life of H. M. Muhlenburg; Manorial
of P. F. Ma i/i'r ; Brief Sketch of the Lutheran Church in the U. S.; edited Literary Record,
1847-48; Emngelical Renew, 1862-70.

STOICS, the name for the sect of ancient moralists opposed to the Epicureans in their
views of human life. The Stoical system dates from the end of the 4th c. B.C.: it was
derived from the system of the Cynics, whose founder, Antisthenes, was a disciple of
Socrates. Indeed, the. doctrines, but still more the manner of life, and most of all the
deatli. of Socrates, were the chief foundations of the Stoical philosophy.

The founder of the system was ZK.XO, from Cittium in Cyprus (he lived from 340-2GO**
B.C.), who derived hia first impulse from Crates the Cynic. He opened his school in a
building or porch, called the Stoa Facile ("painted porch") at Athens, whence the origin
of the name of the sect. Zeno had for his disciple CI.KANTHKS, from Assosin the Troad
(300-220 B.C.), whoM 1 //>/>. 1o ,/>//>//,,> is the only fragment of any length that has come
down to us from the early Stoics, and is a remarkable production, setting forth the unity
of God, his omnipotence, and his moral government. CIIHYSIIMTS, from Soli in Cilicia
(280-207 B.C.). followed Cleanthes, and, in his voluminous writings, both defended and
modified the Stoical creed. These three represent the fir.-t period of the system. The
second period (200-50 B.C.) embraces it-: general promulgation, and its introduction to
the Romans. Chrysippus was succeeded by ZEXO of Sidon, and DIOGENES of Babylon;
U. K. XIIL 54



then followed ANTIPATER of Tarsus, -who taught PA^ETIUS of Rhodes (died 112 B.C.),
who, again, taught Posiooxirs of Apamea, in Syria. (Two philosophers are mentioned
from the native province of St. Paul, besides Chrysippus Athenodorus, from C'ana in
Cilicia; and Archidemus, from Tarsus, the apostle's birthplace. It is remarked by sir
A. Grant, that almost all the first Stoics were of Asiatic birth; and the system itself is

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 196 of 203)