Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 198 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 198 of 203)
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In the case of dignitaries, doctors, and chaplains of noblemen or bishops, it is worn in
the form of a scarf. The use of the stole in the English church appears to rest only up-
on ancient custom, as it is not specified in any rubric or canon. It is usually of black
silk, fringed at the ends, with sometimes crosses embroidered.

STOLEN GOODS, in point of law, stand in this situation in England: a bond fide pur-
chaser Qf such goods, who has not bought them in market overt, is bound to restore
them to the true owner; but if the goods are sold in market overt, the purchaser is en-
titled to keep them, unless the owner has duly prosecuted and convicted the thief. Mar-
ket overt means the open market in towns and places where a legal market is held, and
the old doctrine was, that as all sales were conducted by exposure of goods in au open
place, the owner of the lost goods was likely to find them easily by going to the nearest
market a doctrine which is now quite inapplicable to modern habits. In the city of
London, every shop is held to be a market overt within the above rule, but this only
applies .to the city proper, and not the suburbs and western parts of the metropolis.
The above rule, as to stolen goods, does not apply to valuable securities which are
stolen, if the security lias been paid or discharged bond fide by the person liable, or if the
security is a negotiable instrument, and it have been bondjide transferred or delivered
for a just and valuable consideration, without any notice, and without any reasonable
cause to suspect that the same had been obtained by felony or misdemeanor. .The law-
is obviously harsh as regards owners, for a man who has had the misfortune to have his
goods stolen, must go to the further loss and expense of prosecuting the thief before he
can recover them. In the law of Scotland, it is otherwise. The owner has not only
an action against the thief, but against third parties, whether they have bought them or
taken them in pledge bond fide or not. But as to bank-notes, and bills payable to b-.-avr,
or blank indorsed, the property in these passes with the possession, and the real owner
cannot vindicate them against one who has bond fide acquired them in the course of
trade. As to giving reward for recovery of stolen goods, see REWARD; also RESTI-
TUTION.

STOLP, a garrisoned t. of Prussia, chief town of a circle in the province of Pommcrn,
13 situated on the river Stolp, about 15 m. from its mouth, and 40 n.e. of Koslin.
Stolp, which is composed of an old and new town, with four suburbs, has a castle, 4
churches (one of which, the Manenkirche, built in 1311, has a tower nearly 190 ft. high),
a hospital for invalids, amber and other manufactures, and an active general trade.
Pop. "7~>, 18,356. At the mouth of the river, lies Stolpmuudo (pop. 1118), the port of
Stolp, which carries on some ship-building and commerce.

STOMACH. The anatomy and physiology of the human stomach is treated in the
article DIGESTION, ante. This organ, the most important for the preparation of the
nutriment of the body, varies greatly in different animals. Some of the protozoa, as
infusoria, may be said to be all stomach, as they are, some of them, nothing but
contractile sacs for the reception of alimentary matter which is contained in the wa'.or
they inhabit. Another view may be taken, which is that these very low animals
have no stomachs, and that all the digestion they perform is a tissue assimilation of
organic and mineral matter. They are, however, generally spoken of as having simnachs.
In the ccelenterata there is considerable diversity in the structure and relations of I he
stomach to the other parts, and yet a remarkable unity of plan, which is hold by some to
be evidence of progressive development; but the existence of a plan having perfect
analogies may not be regarded as more than the evidence of order; and this is as con-
sistent with the belief that an organism commenced its zoological life in much the same
condition in which we find it, as with the hypothesis that it has been the subject of a con-
stant change of type. In the hydrozoa the stomach cavity and body cavity arc one.
In actinozoa, that which answers to the stomach is a wide tube which empties into the
bodj- cavity; but the body cavity acts as a stomach also; and in fact what is usually
regarded as a stomach is probably no more than an ossophagus or gullet. There is



Stolen.
Stomach.

a tendency in actinozna to the formation of special organs, winch means that there
t* more spccialixation of organs. In the echinodermata, the sub-kingdom which
includes the soft-urchin*, star-fishes, etc., there is a higher organization generally,
a- is .seen in the radiate nervous system, and in these animals we find a stomach and
an intestinal canal having no communication with the body cavity. In the star-fishes
the stomach occupies the whole central part of the body; From it two long, tapering,
ramilied cteca are given, off opposite the commencement of each ray, and are dis-
tributed through it in a central line, so that there are ten pairs of citcal append
In'Mddition to "these the stomach is provided with email, short caeca between the largo
trunks in tin- rays. In the sub-kingdom anuulosa the form of the digestive apparatus
exhibits much variety. In some orders, as t&nai<la. comprising the tape-worms, there is
no stomach, nor even mouth proper. In the order trematoda there is a mouth and an
alimentary canal, and consequently an arrangement which answers for a stomach, but
there is only one aperture for the entrance of food and expulsion of faces. la the
second division of anuulosa, viz., in ittmatcb/iia, tiiere are in the first order acnntho-
''i, internal parasites without mouth or alimentary canal, but with proboscis and
suctorial apparatus. In the next order gordiacece, comprising animals which during a
portion of their existence are parasitic insects, there is sometimes an imperfectly developed
digestive apparatus, or none. In the next order, nematoda, including the lumbricroid
worms which infest the alimentary canal of mammals, there are well-developed
digestive organs suspended freely in a body cavity, and provided with a mouth and
excretory orifice. In the sub-class rotifera (wheel animalcules) there is a complex
organization with a gangliouic nervous system. The stomach is large and weil
developed, but there are no organs of blood circulation or of respiration, although
there is a corpusculated fluid in the body cavity. Among the annelides the common
leech has an extensive Digestive apparatus, the stomach not only being large and run-
ning nearly the whole length o^f the body, but provided with eleven capacious caeca.

In the crustaceans, particularly the lobster, the digestive organs are elaborate.
The apparatus for mastication is efficient, and the mouth opens by a very short narrow
gullet into a capacious stomach in which there are a great number of very minute teeth,
and in addition three very large calcareous teeth situated near the pyloric orifice. A.
number of strong, calcareous bones, longitudinal in direction, support the membranous
portion of the stomach, and form a basis for the support of the large teeth. The entire
organ is covered externally with a layer of muscles of great power. Two of the large
teeth resemble the molars of an elephant, and they have a sort of rotary molar
motion. Between them is the third large tooth, which has a rounded surface, and
assists in mastication by constantly pushing the food. bet ween the molars. The whole of
this apparatus is called " the lady"in the lobster." Some insects have even more elabo-
rate stomachs than crustaceans. The locust has a marvelous masticating and digest-
ing organism. See LOCUST and GRASSHOPPER, General Anatomy, vol. IX. p. "123.
Tiiey seem to be furnished with all possible accessories for the trituration :ind solution
of the coarse food upon which they live. The coleoptera are, as an order, perhaps
possessed of more powerful digestive apparatus than the orthoptera, some of the beetles
almost equaling the acrididiB. They have a crop, a gizzard, and a chylific stomach, and
are enormous eaters, as every housekeeper knows who has h".d experience with croton
bugs and cockroaches, and every farmer who has defended his potato crop against the
ravages of the Colorado beetle. (See POTATO Bra.) The crop and stomach of the
honey-bee is a marvelous piece of mechanism. The oesophagus dilates into a large crop,
the honey-collecting bag, which is capable of being dilated by muscular action so as to
exhaust the nectar from flowers. The true stomach is connected with the crop in a
remarkable manner. It commences by a small tube, which can be inserted into the
crop or withdrawn from it. When inserted it is doubled upon itself, forming a shut
valve through which the honey cannot pass. The bee feeds itself at will by withdraw-
ing the tubular portion of the true stomach, when the contents of the crop are permitted
to pass into it. In the mollusca the stomach and alimentary canal are often simple in
structure, but efficient; for digestive fluids are furnished- in great abundance. The
rapid growth of the oyster is evidence of its power of digestion and assimilation. In
some of the gasteropod mollusks the stomach is more complex, being often provided
with cartilaginous or calcareous plates for the trituration of food. "Distinct saliva ,y
glands are usually present, and the liver is well developed. The cephalogod molln-ks,
as the cuttle fishes and octopus, have enormously efficient digestive apparatus. See
CEPHALOPODA, ante.

In fishes the stomach is usually lon<r and tapering, but the whole alimentary canal is
frequently shorter than the fish. Their food is chiefly animal, and easy of digestion.
In the batrarhians we first meet with a structure of the mucous coat of the stomach
bearing a resemblance to that of mammals. The stomach of the toad has gastric follicles
which secrete a gastric fluid having properties like that secreted by the- stomachs of
higher animals, and the intestines present a beautiful arrangement of the capillary blood
vessels. The ophidian reptiles have large and distensible stomachs for the reception of
their prey, but their digestion is sluggish. In the chelonians there is a great advance.
The gastric cells are large, and are freely traversed by capillary blood-vessels. In birds
there is considerable variety in the form and extent of the stomach and alimentary canal,



Stomach.



856



depending upon their habits. See BIRDS, ante. In mammals there is more variety than
in birds, as their structure and habits are more variable. Carnivorous animals require a
much less complicated digesting apparatus than omnivorous or herbivorous. See Rusn-
NANTIA, ante. The great ant-eater has, however, an apparatus in many respects resembling
that of a common fowl, while the blood-sucking bat (desmvdux) has a stomach whose
capacity has more relations to- its office of receiver than of digester, the pyloric end,
where digestion is performed in this case, being very small, but sufficient for (he disposal
of the easily digested food. The cardiac portion is enormously elongated above the
entrance of oesophagus, forming an elongated ca-cum in contact at its further end with
-the spleen. There is considerable variety in the digestive apparatus of the quadrumaua.
The semnopit/ieciM entettus, or sacred monkey of India, has an enormous stomach. A
full-grown female of this species, examined by prof. Owen, had a stomach which, when
distended and dried, measured 2 ft. 7 in. along the greater curvature, and 1 ft. along the
lesser. Its greatest circumference was 1 ft., and its least, about 2 in. above the pyloric
orifice, was 3- in. Prof. Owen says that it maybe regarded as consisting of three divi-
sions: a cardiac pouch, a middle, sacculated portion, and a narrow, elongated canal,
sarculated at its commencement and simple near its termination, which portion he con-
siders to be the digesting portion of the organ. In the genus cercopithecm, which Avas
formerly ranked with semnopithecm, the stomach has the usual simple construction,
resembling that of most quadrumana and of man. It is generally thought that this
enlarged stomach is not because of the vegetable-eating habits of the entellus, but as an
offset to its want of cheek pouches, which other monkeys have, for the purpose of tem-
porarily stowing away food.

STOMACH, DISEASES OF. In the discussion of the diseases of any organ, it is custom-
ary to begin with the consideration of its inflammation. In ihes|omach, however, acute
gastritis, or inflammation of the mucous membrane of tlfat organ, is so rare a disease,
except as a result of the administration of an irritant poison, that it might almost pr.ss
unnoticed. Thus Louis states that during six years' experience at La Charite (one of
the leading Parisian hospitals), in which he made notes of 6,000 cases of disease, and 500
dissections, he did not meet with a single case of fatal idiopathic (or spontaneous) ga- .tri-
tis. The simple fact, however, that this disease is almost always the result of poison,
gives it a special interest, and renders it especially necessary that the physician should
be so thoroughly acquainted with its symptoms, as to be able with certainty to detect it,
and thus to be led to investigate its cause.

The symptoms which indicate that an irritant poison has been received into the
stomach, are a gradually increasing sensation of uneasiness or heat, which shortly
assumes an acute burning character in the epigastric region. This pain is accompanied
with vomiting, which becomes increasingly frequent as the pain augments, and often
with hiccup. There is usually extreme tenderness on pressure, and the patient bends
his body forward to relax the muscular tension. During the accession of these symp-
toms, there is a marked degree of excitement, as indicated by the acceleration of the
pulse and breathing, and "the heat of the skin. This condition is, however, soon
exchanged for one of prostration. The skin becomes cold and clammy, the pulse
thready and feeble, and the breathing catching and intermittent; until finally, after a
variable period of exhaustion, the patient sinks, usually retaining his mental faculties to
the last. Although the above-described symptoms are always more or less present, each
irritant poison occasions s.ome special symptom, and some characteristic lesion; and the
period at which death ensues varies for different poisons. Hence, quite apart from the
results of analysis, a fair conjecture can usually be made as to the individual poison
which has been administered.

Sub-acute gastritis is by no means a rare affection, and its occurs in two distinct
forms "one in which the malady is caused by a constitutional state, the effects of
which are shown in a variety of other organs, as well as in the stomach; another in
which it is due to causes connected chiefly or exclusively with this organ, which is sub-
mitted to an irritative process somewhat analogous to that typified by the gastritis of
irritant poisoning." Brinton, On Diseases of the Stomach, 1859, p. 101. The first of
these forms is well illustrated in certain cases of scarlatina, in which, if death takes
place between the third and seventh day of the disease, distinct marks of inflammation
are seen in the stomach. The other variety, which is often of a chronic form, is IK st
seen in cases of delirium tremens; the affection being sub-acute or chronic, according
as it has teen produced by a single prolonged debauch, or by a protracted habit of
drinking spirits; the patient's final malady being induced by a deficiency of food, or the
want of the ordinary stimulant. Purely chronic inflamation maybe induced by various
causes, of which the most common are the abuse of alcoholic drinks, habitual excess in
eating, the eating of indigestible food, and the excessive iise of irritating medicines.

The treatment, of gastritis varies so much with each individual case, that we shall
only lay down a few general principles. The first point is the removal of the cause; to
be attempted in cases of irritant poisoning, either by the removal of the poison (by the
Stomach-pump or emetics, as. for example, sulphate of zinc), or by its neutralization by
means of an antidote. In very severe cases, leeches may be applied to the epigastrium;
but counter-irritants, such as turpentine on a hot moist flannel, or mustard-poultices, are



857



Stomach.



generally of more service. Continuous fomentation with water, as hot as can be bqrne,
often gives great relief; while at the same time iced water, or small lumps of ice swal-
lowed whole, usually relieve the thirst and mitigate the pain. Euemata of purgative
materials, if the bowels are constipated, or of a soothing character (as thirty drops of
laudanum in a little starch or gruel), if the bowels are irritable, may be prescribed with
advantage. When the stomach begins to be able to retain food, it must be given in the
form of a bland liquid, in small doses, at distant intervals. Chronic gastritis must be
treated in much the same manner as indigestion (q.v.) The most essential point of
treatment is the due regulation of the diet.

Ulcer of the stomadi is the most important of the idiopathic diseases of that organ,
both from its frequency, from the facility with which it may be detected during life,
from the fact that at any period of its protracted course it may prove suddenly fatal, and
from its being usually curable. The first and most characteristic symptom of this disease
is pain, which commences as a mere dull feeling of weight or tightness, then gradually
augments into a burning sensation, and ot last assumes a gnawing character, and occasions
a kind of sickening depression. This pain comes on in from two to ten minutes after
the ingestion of food, and lasts for an hour or two; vomiting often ensues, alter which
the pain ceases. The place of its most common appearance and greatest intensity is the
center of the epigastric region, or slightly below the free end of the eusiforui cartilage of
the sternum; and the painful spot is usually of a circular form, with a diameter varying
from one to two inches. The pain in this region is succeeded, in the course of a few
weeks, by i< gnawing pain in the back, ranging in position from the eighth dorsal to the
second lumb::r vertehra, and most co.nmonly lying between the two shoulder-blades.
The pain in both the epigastric and the dorsal region is almost always much iucr
by pressure; it is also specially affected by certain kinds of food a-nd drink, being in-
creased by the ingestion of hard and indigestible substances, and lessened by a bland
and pulpy diet. As a general rule, the pain is aggravated by tea, beer, and hot food;
although exceptions occasionally occur. The next symptom in this disease is vomiting
or regurgitation, expelling the food previously taken, or a glairy alkaline fluid. Tiie
vomiting usually occurs when the pain is most intense, and is a dangerous symptom,
since it tends to starve the patient, and to increase the fatigue of an already weakened
frame. At this stage the disease is sometime-; termiii Ued by the occurrence of perfora-
tion, ending in raphMv fatal peritonitis; and if this accident does not occur, the dyspep-
tic symptoms become complicated by hemorrhage from the stomach, sometimes so rapid
that it distends the stomach and a Ijacent small intestine with a single gush, and causes
fainting and almost immediate death; but more commonly occurring as a slow and inter-
mittent drain of blood, giving rise to anemia. If death from the above causes (inaniti in,
perforation, or hemorrhage) does noi terminate the disease, the symptoms frequently
subside in something like the inverse order in which they occurred, and recovery, ofien
after many years' suffering, ensues. With regard to frequency of ulcer of the stomach,
Dr. Brintou. who has carefully stu.lied this disease, states that this lesion may be de-
tected in (0:1 an average) 5 per cent of persons dying from all causes; that it occurs twice
as frequently in females as in males, and that it is specially a disease of middle and
advancing lift 27 being the average age in females, and 42 in' males. Nothing is known
with certainty regarding the causes of this disease, except that advancing age, privation,
mental anxiety, and intemperance so frequently coincide with it, that they may be
regarded in some degree as producing it. In relation to treatment, strict attention to
diet is of the first importance. When the symptoms are urgent, the patient should main-
tain the recumbent position, and should be fed on lukewarm milk, thickened with
biscuit-powder, given in doses of one, or, at most, two table-spoonfuls every two hours.
The pain is often relieved by the application of a mustard poultice to the painful spot:
and benefit is frequently derived from the internal administration of bismuth (in do-
ten grains), either given alone or combined with the compound kino powder (in five-grain
doses). When there is hemorrhage small lumps of ice maybe swallowed; and if all
food is rejected by vomiting, beef-tea injections must be thrown into the lower bowel.
Aperients t.re sometimes required, but they mur-t be given with caution; and if ca>ior-
oil can be taken without increasing the pain or vomiting, it is the most harmless remedy
of its class.

i ',< r nf the stomach is a disease of much interest, from its being obscure in its symp-
toms and difficult of detection in its early stage, frequent in its occurrence, and always
fatal in its termination. The typical course of this disease is graphically sketched by
T)r. Brinton in the following paragraph: " An elderly person perhaps hitherto free from
dyspepsia, begins to suffer from a capricious, and soon a diminished appetite; which is
by and by associated with occasional miusea. or even vomiting, and with a sense of
uneasiness or distension of the stomach. His complexion, already pale and unwhole-
some, next acquires a muddy, yellowish, or faint grceni<h hue. His unsirie symptoms
now increase; often by a sudden and marked augmentation, which corresponds to what
is in other ca-es their first appearance. Vomi'imr, if rdready present, becomes more fre-
quent and urgent; local uneasiness deepens into pain; and both these symptoms are
excited or increased by taking food. At a somewhat later period hemorrhage generally
occurs, usunlly but scanty in amount, and therefore depending to a great extent on
casual circumstances for Us detection. About this time, a tumor often becomes percep-



Stomach. o S Q

Stone.

fible near the middle of the epigastric region of the belly. As the local symptoms
increase, the cachexia of the patient also augments; and is evidenced not only by the
color already mentioned, but also by debility and emaciation; and at last by prostration,
which ends in anasarca^ delirium, and death." Op cit., p. 225. From the records of
600 cases. Dr. Brinton finds that most deaths occur between the ages of 50 and 60 years.
The form of cancer which most frequently attacks the stomach is the scirrhus or hard
cancer. Out of 180 cases, scirrhus occurred in 130 (or nearly three-fourths of the whole),
medullary or encephaloid cancer in 32, colloid in 17, melanotic deposit in 3, and villous
cancer in 1. In the treatment of this formidable disease, more good is done by careful
attention to the diet than by any medicine. Good milk or strong beef-tea thickened
with biscuit-powder maybe given in the same manner as recommended in ulcer; and
milk mixed with a little old Jamaica rum will sometimes stay on the stomach when
everything else is vomited. If there be pain, opiates must be given, and they may be
prescribed either in the ordinary way, or as enemata, the latter having the advantage of
not inducing constipation.

Hematemesis, or vomiting of blood, must be looked upon rather as a symptom
than a disease. Thus, it may occur by the ulcerative destruction of the walls of a com-
paratively large blood-vessel, as in gastric ulcer and in cancer; but it generally is of the
kind termed capillary. The latter kind of hemorrhage happens under various circum-
stances, of which the following are the principal: 1. The bleeding may be idiopathic,
or unaccompanied by any structural change. This variety is extremely rare. 2. It may
take the place of some habitual hemorrhage, or, in other words, be vicarious. Thus it
frequently takes the place of the menstrual discharge. 3. It is often a consequence of
disease or injury of the stomach; for example, it frequently occurs after the ingestiou of



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 198 of 203)