Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 199 of 203)
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strongly irritant poisons, or even an immoderate dose of alcohol into the stomach. 4. It
may be a consequence of disease in adjacent viscera, occasioning an overloading of the
veins of the stomach ; thus it is frequently caused by enlargement of the spleen, and
occurs in those states of the liver in which there is obstruction of the portal circulation;
and under this category we must place the gastric hemorrhage which not unfrequently
occurs in the advanced periods of pregnancy, in consequence of the pressure exerted by
the enlarged uterus on the venous circulation of the abdomen. 5. It may result from
changes in the composition of the blood, such as occur in scurvy, purpura, and yellow
fever. The treatment must be directed against the disease on which the hemorrhage
depends, rather than against the mere symptom; but from whatever cause it arises, if it
is proceeding to a dangerous extent, the patient should be kept perfectly quiet in bed,
and should swallow small pieces of ice. Hot applications may also be applied to the
extremities, with the view of directing the blood to those parts. The medicines most
likely to be of service are acetate of lead, gallic acid, dilute sulphuric acid, and oil of
turpentine; but they should only be given on medical authority.

Some of the other affections of the stomach are discussed in special articles. See
CARDIALGIA, INDIGESTION, SARCINA, etc.

STOMACH-PUMP, an instrument used to remove poisons from the stomach, to feed
persons who attempt to starve themselves, etc. It is a syrimre with a flexible tube,
inserted into the stomach through the oesophagus, and by which fluid is injected or
removed.

STOMAPOBA (Gr. mouth-footed), an order of malacostracons crustaceans, to which
sqwliidcR, glass-crabs, etc., belong. All of them are marine. They are most abundant
in tropical seas, but some are found in those of temperate parts of the world. They
have seven or eight pair of legs, mostlv near the mouth. The gills are external, adher-
ing to the appendages beneath the abdomen, which is elongated, and terminates in an
extended tail-fin. The rings which bear the eyes and the antennae are not confounded
with the rest of the head, as in the decapoda, but are more distinct. The carapace often
leaves the latter rings of the thorax exposed. The heart is very different from that of
the decapoda, assuming the form of a long cylindrical vessel, which extends through-
out the length of the abdomen. The stomapoda inhabit deep parts of the sea, many of
them living at the bottom, while some, as glass-crabs, are found floating at the surface.

STO'MATA (Gr. mouths), are minute openings in the epidermis of leaves and other
green parts of plants exposed to the air, communicating with intercellular spaces.
Their existence was first noticed by Grew, who described them in his Anatomy f Plants
in 1682. They are generally formed by two semilunar cells, which are as lips to the
orifice, and are filled with green matter; but sometimes the cells arranged around them
are more numerous. They are generally of an elliptical form, but sometimes circular, and
sometimes quadrangular. These differences are very characteristic of particular species,
genera, or orders of plants. In a moist state of the atmosphere, they are open; but
when it becomes dry they are closed, or nearly so. It appears that they arfe organs of
transpiration, and that their opening and closing accordingto the moisture ordrynessof
the atmosphere regulates it in a manner suitable to the requirements of the plant. They
do not appear in any part of the plant covered by the soil, nor in submerged leaves, nor
on the lower sides of floating leaves. Succulent plants have very few of them; so that
these plants retain for a long time the moisture which they have imbibed, and are thus
adapted for living in a dry atmosphere. Stomuta are generally more abundant on the



Stomach.
Stone,

under side of leaves; but in leaves which grow vertically, they are often almost equally
numerous on both sides. In general they are irregularly placed: but in grasses ai:d many
other endogenous plants with parallel-veined leaves, they are in regular rows ; and in
some oilier plants they occur in little groups. The number in a square inch varies from
20 J in the mistletoe, to almost 450, OOU in the under side of ihe leave s of ni'<<tninit /;<<-
tuut. Stoi.ia'a are not found in mosses, lichens, alga 1 , and fungi; but 'hey exist in
some of t: . in iurrh<int!a, in which their structure is more complex than

in the higher piaute; each of them consisting of a kind of shaft, composed of four or
live rir : one upon the other, every ring made up of four or five cells, and the

lowest ring apparently regulating the aperture by the contraction or expansion of the
cells which form it.

STONE, a weight in use throughout the n.w. and central countries of Europe, but
varying much in different countries. It is chiefly employed on the continent for weigh-
ing wool, hemp, flax, and feathers, the flax-stone containing twice as many pounds as
the one used for wool and feathers. In all the principal commercial states of Germany,
the stone (of flax) is the A of a cwt. (centner = 100 or 112 Ibs.), i.e.. 20 Ihs.. in Pruss'ia,
and the Zollvereiu, Hamburg, Liibeck, and Bremen; 22 Ibs. in Austria, etc.; i:i Eritaiu
it is the i of a cwt., or 14 Ibs. ; while in Sweden it is equivalent to 32 Ibs. In Great
Britain, though the stone of 14 Ibs. is the only legal imperial weight of the kind, stones
of other values are in regular use, as a stone of 24 Ibs. for wool, and one of 8 Ibs. for
buicher-meat.

STONE. See CALCULUS and LITHOTOMY.

STONE is used for a great variety of purposes for building, paving, millstones,
grindstones, honestones, ornamental purposes, etc. Besides what is said under special
headings (see Lrn. DIN*; STONE, QUAKRY, MILL, GRINDSTONES, HONES, MARBLE. GRAN-
ITE, SLATE, etc.), the following general remarks may be added here. The desirable
properties in a building stone are, that it should be compact, insoluble in water, not
easily altered by the atmosphere, and not liable to take on a vegetable coating. These
qualities depend upon its chemical composition and on its mechanical structure. Build-
ing stones may be divided into three classes siliceous, calcareous, and composite. Sili-
ceous stones (including granite, porphyry, gneiss, greenstone, basalt, sandstone, slate,
serpentine, etc., and containing from 45 to 99 per cent of silica) are, as a general rule,
Ihe most durable for building. Their durability is affected by certain of their ingre-
dients, as by the felspar in granite, and salts of iron in sandstone. Calcarous stor.es (sim-
ple limestone, travertin, marble, etc.), are slightly soluble in pure water, and more so
in carbonic acid water; they are liable to splinter by water freezing in their pores, are
acted on by acid gases (e.g., the sulphurous acid gas produced by the combustion of
most kinds of coal), and are somewhat liable to be stained by minute plants. Still, some
of them are lasting enough in a country atmosphere. The failure of the magnesian lime-
stone selected for the British houses of parliament is a good instance of a stone la.-ting for
centuries in a country church, and yet quite unable to withstand the wasting action of the.
atmosphere of a great city. Composite stones, in which neither the silica nor the lime
greatly predominates, are unimportant.

The most exhaustive account of the building stones of the British islands is given in
the parliamentary blue book embodying the report of the commissioners appointed to
select a stone for the houses of parliament, published in 1S39. Much scientific informa-
tion regarding all kinds of stone will be found in the catalogue of the rock t-pecimens
of the museum of practical geology, London.

STONE, a co. in n. Arkansas, drained by the White aud Lufle Red rivers-, pop.
'80,5,089 105 colored. The surface is uneven. The 5>>il is feitile. The principal
productions are corn, cotton, tobacco, and live stock. Co. seal, Mountain View.

STONE, a co. in s.w. Missouri, adjoining Arkansas, drained by the James and
White rivers, and traversed by the Chicago and Pacific railroad, about 5;iO sq.m. ; pop.
'80, 4,429 4,419 of American birth. The surface is uneven and heavily timbered. The
soil r< fe.-tile. The principal productions are rorn, wheat, tobacco, wool, and cattle.
Iron and coal are found. Co. seat, Galena.

STONE, a market t. of Stafford, stands 7 m. n.n.w. of the town of that name, on the
left bank of the Trent. Shoemaking, tannins.'., malting, and briekmaking are the chief
branches of industry. Near the church are sor.ie remains of an Augusliuiau mouastcrv.
Pop. '71. 3,732.

STONE. ARTIFICIAL. Artificial stone, properly speaking, would include burned clay
wares used for building purposes, as bricks, terra-cotta (q.v.'i, etc.. as well as the various
cements. We shall confine ourselves here to a description of the silicious artificial stone
produced by the cementing properties of soluble alkaline silicates on sand, which has
excited a great deal of attention within the last 30 years. So far back as ISOo. prof. .T.
N. von Fuchs of Munich published a paper on various applications of these silicates,
and so laid the foundation of a new industry. To M. Kuhlmann of Lille, however, is
mainly due the merit of working out the practical application of the soluble silicate of
potash or soda to the manufacture of hydraulic lime, cement, and especially to artificial
Stones. Mr. Frederick Rausome of Ipswich has also done greet service by his success-



Stone. 860

f ul exertions in producing an artificial stone from the same substances. The process,
as at first practiced by Mr. Ransome, consisted in mixing the gelatinous silicate cf soda
with- sand and a little powdered glass and clay, in the proportions of sand, 10 parts;
glass, 1 part; clay, 1 part; and silicate of soda, 1 part. These ingredients were thor-
oughly incorporated iu a pug-mill, and brought to the consistency of putty. The plastic
,nature of the substance at this stage allows it to be molded with ease into an endless variety
of forms, even of an elaborately ornamental kind. After leaving the molds, the objects
are dried iu close ovens, and then removed to kilns, where they are fired at a gradually
increasing temperature, which finally reaches a red heat. In the kiln, the goods are



of a fine sandstone.

A later piteut of Mr. Ransome's consists in producing a hard and durable material
altogether without baking, by effecting a double decomposition with the silicate of soda
and the chloride of calcium. Such materials as sand, chalk, or other minerals are inti-
mately mixed with a proper quantity of a solution of silicate of soda, this being secured, as
before, by the operations of a pug-mill. In this plastic condition, they are molded into
any required form, after "which they are saturated with a solution of chloride of cal-
cium. The silica combining with the calcium forms at once an insoluble silicate of
lime, which cements into a firm mass all the particles of sand, lime, etc., used in the
composition. The chlorine, on the other hand, combines with the soda to form com-
mon salt (chloride of sodium), which can be readily removed by washing.

la order to avoid the difficult}' experienced in removing all traces of chloride of cal-
cium from artificial stone made by this last process, Mr. Ransome in 1872 succeeded in
making a very compact stone by mixing lime and a natural soluble silica found in a rock
forming a stratum of the lower chalk in Surrey with sand and silicate of soda. In point
of strength this material excels Portland stone, not breaking so readily by a given
transverse strain.

The objects into which artificial stone is manufactured are very miscellaneous; what-
ever, in fact, is made of real stone can also be formed in the artificial. Among the more
prominent applications of it, we may notice grindstones, millstones, tombstones, monu-
ments, chimney-pieces, balustrades, fountains, vases, and statuary.

STONE, AMASA, JR., b. Mass., 1818; early engaged in the building of railroads and
bridges; superintendent of the New Haven, Hartford and Springfield railroad, 1845; one
of the contractors for building the Cleveland and Columbus, and the Cleveland, Paiues-
ville and Ashtabula railroad. He has made improvements in the machinery and
construction of railroads and has built car-factories and rolling-mills at the west.
Mr. Stone, who resides at Cleveland, Ohio, recently made a donation of $500,000 to the
Western Reserve college at Hudson, Ohio, if removed to Cleveland. It is to be removed,
and to be called Western Reserve university.

STONE. ANDREW LEKTE, TAD., b. Conn., 1818; graduated at Yale college, 1837;
professor in the deaf and dumb institution in New York for three years, and also studied
theology; was for a time connected with the American Sunday-school union; ordained
pastor of the South church (Congregational), Middletowh, Conn., 1844; pastor of Park
Street church, Boston, 1849-65; wao settled, 1865, in San Francisco, Cal. He has published
Service the End of Living, and various discourses. In Boston he was noted as a pulpit
orator, and has had much influence on the Pacific coast.

STONE, CHARLES P., b. Greenfield, Mass., 1826; graduate of West Point, 1845; assi's
tant professor of ethics, 1845-43. He served in all the battles of the Mexican war from
Vera Cruz to the capitulation of the city of Mexico. In 1851 he was assigned to the
Pacific coast as chief of ordnance, and superintended the building of the arsenal at
Beuicia. He left the army in 1856; was a banker in San Francisco in 1856-57. He
explored Sonora and Lower California in the service of the Mexican government. Iu
1861, under gen. Scott, he organized and drilled the militia of the district for the defence
of Washington. With the rank of col. of the 4; h infantry and brig.gen. of volunteers he
fought under gen. Patterson on the Shenandoah; also engaged on the upper Potomac.
In 1863 he was detained for a few mouths in fort Lafayette, in consequence of sonic
reports to his disadvantage. In 1863 he took part in the siege of Port Hudson, and
served soon after as chief of staff to gen. Banks. After having been engaged in all the
battles of the Louisiana campaign and commanding a brigade in the army of the Poto-
mac, he was mustered out of the volunteer service, 1S63, and in 1864 resigned his commis-
sion in the regular army. He accepted the position of brig.gen. and chief of staff in the
service of the khedivc of Egypt in 1870. v

STONE, HORATIO, abt. 1810-75; b. New England; received a classical education;
studied medicine and practiced in New York; turned his attention to art; became a
sculptor and settled in Washington, 1846. He wrote for the press in prose and verse.
He lived in Italy, 1856-57, returned to this countrj-, and on a second trip abroad died in
Carrara. His fame rests chiefly on his statues of Hamilton, Beuton, Hancock, and
Taney, executed by order of the U. S. government.



861



Stone.



STONE, JAMES KENT, D.D., b. Boston, 1840; graduated at Harvard college. 1861;
studied in Italy and Germany, 18(51-63; was ordained in the Protestant Episcopal
church; professor of Latin, Kenyon college, Gainbier, Ohio; afterward of mathematics,
and became its president, 1867; elected president of Hobart college, Geneva, N.Y.,
1868. In 1869 lie became a Roman Catholic, and joined the association of missionary
priests of St. Paul, New York. He published The Invitation, a statement of the rea-
sons for his change.

STONE, JOHN HASKINS, d. 1804; b. Md. ; entered the revolutionary army, in which
he rose to be col. He was compelled to leave the service in 1779, in consequence of
wounds received at the battle of Germantown. He was afterward a clerk in the
state department, a member of the Maryland executive council, and governor of the
state, 1794-97.

STONE, JOHN SEELY, D.D., b. Mass., 1795; gratuated at Union college, 1823;
studied in the General theological seminary, and was ordained in the Episcopal
church, 1826; rector Christ church, Brooklyn, N. Y., and St. Paul's church, Boston,
lSo'J-41; lecturer in Philadelphia divinity school; dean of theological seminary, Cam-
bridge, Mass., 1869. He published The Mysteries Opened; TJie Christian Sabbath; The
('// >///* Universal; The Contrast; Life of James Milnor; Life of Bisliop Griswold; The
Chrixtitiit ^'iici'innents. His ministrations were greatly prized in successive parishes.

STONE, LUCY. See BLACKWELL, LUCY STONE.

STONE, SAMUEL, b. England; graduated at Cambridge, 1627; studied divinity; was
persecuted on account of joining the Puritans, and emigrated to America, 1633, with
Cotton, Hooker, and 200 others; was an assistant to Mr. Hooker, at Newtown, Conn.,
1633-47: removed with him and his church to Hartford, and was his successor for 16
years. The latter part of his life was embittered by a dispute with Mr. Goodwin, a
ruling eider, resulting in a division of the church. He published a Discourse on the
Logical Motion of a Congregational Church, and left in MS. a valuable body of divinity.

STONE. THOMAS, 1743-87; b. Md.; educated by a private tutor and studied law
at Annapolis, Md. After his admission to the bar, 1764, he practiced in Frederick-
town, and, Liter, in Charles county. He was a member of the colonial and continental
congress, 1775-79: warmly supported the movement for independence, and served on
important committees. In 1783 he was again elected to congress.

STONE, WILLIAM LEETE, 1792-1844; b. N. Y. : a printer whq, edited several
newspapers, including the Albany Daily Advertiser, the Hartford Mirror, and the New
York Commercial* Adrertiser. He was superintendent of the New York common
schools, 1843-44. Among his numerous works are Tales and Sketches (1834); Essays on
Social and Literiry Topics (1835); Letters on Aninuh Magnetism (1837); Life of Josepli
Brant (1838); Border Wars of the Revolution (1839); and Poetry and History of Wyo-
ming (1841).

STONE, WILLIAM LEETE, Jr., b. New York, 1835; educated at Brown university
and the Albany law school. Among his writings are: Life and Wnfiiif/s of Colonel
Wilham L. Stone (1866); History of New York City (1868); and Centennial Sketches (1876).
He has been an editor and a publisher.

STONE, "\VILLIAM OLIVER, 1830-75; b. Conn.; studied painting under Nathaniei
Jocelyn in New Haven, and settled in New York in 1851. In 1854 he exhibited his
first picture, "The Mantilla," at the national academy, of which he was made a mem-
ber in 1859. He was very successful as a portrait painter of women and children.

STONE-BORERS, certain species of lamellibranchiate moilusks belonging to the
families phsiladidte, ga&wchtenidas, mytilidw, vencridw, and probably some others, which
have the power of perforating stone. These animals are allied only by class character-
istics, being all lamellibrauchs. Their generic characters differ much, and their methods
of excavations into rocks are various; but it is believed that the majority produce their
mechanical effects by grinding with the anterior portions of their shells. There are also
certain worms and echinoids which bore into rocks.

STONE. BUILDING (BUILDING STONE, ante). The great merits of a stone for
building purposes are easy working, long lasting, equality in color and structure,
6trength, and. not least important, cheapness. AYe have in this country almost unlimited
supplies of excellent stone of every kind; but we are not really a stone-building race for
two reasons exorbitant freights and expensive labor. The divisions of stone from this
point of view arc not those of the science of petrography, owing to the methods of rut-
ting and laying. Stones are laid in a wall sometimes roughly just as found, only taking
care to get'a plumb face; this is rubble-work. Again, they may be laid in lines depend-
ing on the thickness of the stone, but with butt-joints unequally distributed cour>in^;
or the courses may be leveled up only at every three or five rows, the joints between not
necessarily vertical random-coursing; or the stone is laid in courses of blocks, butt-
joints at stated intervals ashlar. The strength and the life of a stone depend upon its
being laid upon its bed (the strata in a quarry are not always parallel with the hori//>n),
and its having a level, true surface for pressure both received and distributed. It is,
then, of great moment to the workman whether the stone can be separated parallel to tha



Stone.



862



bed splittage; and also at right angles to it cleavage. He divides, then, Ms material
jnto freestones which split and cleave (gneiss and some trap also); slates which split
(also basalts and some gritstones); limestones which cleave (some granites as well); tough
stones which neither split nor cleave granites and conglomerates (but here belong chalks,
though so soft as to be good, in our climate, for inside carving only). The best conslruc-
tioii lias always been done in the hardest stone, and it is necessary to see how such an
intractable material is reduced to shape. The workman knows two distinctions of
country-stone and quarry-stone. But the first, often occurring in bowlders, is likely to
be one of the toughest of all, though usually they are the easily reached outcrops of strata
which are more likely to be sandstone or limestone. All quarries are poor and mottled
in the top-beds, but the stone becomes better as it descends; also, more beds and of dif-
ferent thicknesses are struck, the only stones not lying in beds being chalk, conglomer-
ates, and some granites, though even the latter have at intervals a definite line of split.
The three heaviest tools in use are the hammer, the axe, and the pick. The block being
reduced to a nearly rectangular shape, the edges are got to line with the axe, and a
broad level edge of the width of a tool, called a draft, is put all around the face of the
stone and brought true by the square and the level. The bossed, rectangular panel so
formed may be left quarry -faced, picked, axed, or hammered; the last being a level sur-
face pitted with small holes if made by the bush-hammer, or scored with parallel lines
if made by the patent-hammer. This is the slow process of reducing to shape the tough
stones. Moldings and ornaments are roughed out with the pitching tool, a pointed
chisel; with the mash-point, a chisel with one level; and finished with drafting and bev-
eled chisels and tools of the necessary shapes and curves. The work is finally rubbed
and polished, with emery and pumice-stone, if desired. This process is evidently much
shortened when machinery is used. The saw for marbles is a plain strip of iron fed with
sand; that for harder stones is of copper fed with emery. Freestones are cut with a
grub-saw having coarse teeth at intervals; and chalk-stones with a heavy baud-saw with
hooked teeth. Heavy stones are polished by power-rubbers, and manageable ones by
themselves, being revolved over a large rubbing-table. Freestones and limestones can
be planed by machinery, also turned; but no machine has yet succeeded in planing gran-
ite, though balusters have been roughly turned, or rather chipped to shape. The quali-
ties of a building-stone to be tabulated are its color, strength, weight, absorption, and
place of production, together with any peculiarities. The figures which follow are
inoslly due to the report of gen. Gillmore on the " Building-stones of the United States,"
1876. Some foreign ones in general use are included.



Color.


Place.


Strength
per sq.in.


Weight per
cubic ft.


Absorption.


Red


Bay of Fundy


12,000


162.




Bine
Gray. . ,
Gray.


Dix Island. Me
Hurricane Island, Me
Palmer quarry. Me


15,000
14,090
11.500
16.000


166.5
166.9
161.9
164.4


1.150
Bluish.


Whitish


City Point, Me
Rockport Mass


15.000
16.000


165 6
163.2


Like Breccia.
1.152) Often feld


Whitish


Cape Ann. Mass


12.500
16,000


i<55'.


) spathic.
1.216


Bluish-gray
Dark
Light
Gray
Dark
Gray
Rose
Gray


Keene. N. H
Otiincy , Mass
Oulncy. Mass
Westerly, R. I
Westerly, R. I
Mystic. Conn
Niantic. Conn
Stony Creek, Coon
No^h river. N . Y


12.000
17,000
14.000
15,000
17,000
18,000
9,550
15.000
18,000


166.
166.2
168.7
167.
165.6
164.4
162.5
165.4
162.2


1.300

1.704
1.301


Soap
Grav
Blue
Grav
Pun)lish
Dark


Garrison 's, N. Y
Jersey City, N. J . .
Pomptort.KJ
Staten Island. N. Y
Port Deposit. Md
Hun >n Island, Mich
Duluth. Minn


13,000
21,000
24.000
22,000
19,000



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 199 of 203)