Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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harbors and picturesque islands. The water, like that of the whole lake, is of wonder-
ful clearness and purity. The bay is named from the river Saginaw, which falls into it.

SAGO is a nutritive substance obtained from several species of palms, especially the
metroxylon mtyu, which abounds in Ceram and the west coast of New Guinea.
It grows also iu Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, Timor, Buro, and other islands, of the
Indian archipelago. In many of the islands sago is the chief article of food, and
by the Alfocrs and Papuans is made either into a gruel or baked into cakes.
The sago-tree is first a shrub with several upright green branches, which at their lower
parts are covered with thorns. After three years these branches form one stem,
and the thorns gradually disappear. The tree attains a height of from 40 to GO ft., and
within th-j ligneous bark it is tilled with libers and flour. It first blooms when 10 to 15
years old, according to the nature of the soil, nourishing best in a moist situation After
blooming, the flour transpires through the pores of the leaves, indicating that the tree is
ripe. It must then be cut down within a year, or the flour will be lost. The stem is cut
into lengths, split open, and the pit dug out and placed in a vessel with a sieve bottom.
AVater is applied to separate the flour and carry it into a second vessel, where it is soon
deposited. The water is then run off, and the flour dried ;:ud put into little baskets
made of sago-leaves. The produce of a tree averages 750 Ibs. A large quantity of sago-
Hour is annually sent from the n.w. of Borneo, the n.e. of Sumatra, and Siak, to Singa-
pore, the leading market, where it is purified and fitted for use as starch in the calico and
other manufactures. Iu Borneo much of the sago is granulated; and the Chinese of
Malacca prepare pearl-sago which is also sent to Singapore. Pearl-sago is in small
pearly-white spherical grains, varying in size from that of a poppy-seed to a grain of
millet. Granulated sago is also iu round grains, but of a larger size. There are several
Varieties which differ much in color, some being white and" others reddish-brown like
radish-Seed. One kind of granulated sago from India has been introduced under the
name of tapioca. The method of pearling and granulating sago is not known to Euro-
peans. Sago is not entirety soluble in hot water, like ordinary starch, and can therefor*
be employed in making puddings, etc., and in this way forms a valuable article of food,
being cheap, light, nutritious, and easy of digestion. The amount, annually imported
into Britain is upwards of 8,000 tons, and is valued at about 127.000. Pee " Sago" in
Journal oftl/clnd. Archip., vol. Hi. ; Tijdschrift mn Ned. ludu, 8th year, vol.. i, see "D

SAGOUTN, Cttllithrir or Sttguiniis, a genus of American monkeys, having a long but
not prehensile tail, a small and rounded head, short muzzle, and large ears. They are
of small size, and remarkably active and graceful in their movements. They are some-
times called xqnirrel monkeys. They are of very gentle disposition, and whon tamed
become strongly attached 10 their masters. Both "body and tail are covered with beauti-
ful fur. The SI.VMIHI or TEE-TEE (C. &ciureus\, a native of Brazil and Guiana, is one of
the best known species.

SAGUA'CITE. a. co. in s. Colorado; drained by Snguache creek, Gunnison river. Los
Pino> creek, and other small streams; 2.500 ; pop, '80, 10731707 of American
birth, 5 colored. Its surface is mountnnious; in the n.o. is Roman's park. ]t com-
prises a portion of San Luis park, 7.000 ft. above the level of tin? sea, which is excep-
tionally fertile; the Uncompaligre mountains in the s.w.. covered with forestsof pine and
fir. and the peaks of the Saguache and Samrre de C'risto. It contains San Lui* 1-ike, a
large extent of wet swampy hind receiving 12 streams and with no outlet. The soil fur-
nishes exceil'-nt pasturaue. aud is adapted to the production of graiu and the raising of
cattle. Go'd is found in the mountains. Co. seat, Saguache.

SA'GTJA-LA GRAN DE, a t. of Cuba, on the river Sairua. about 12 ni. from its mouth,
which is on the n. coast of the island. It is a town of considerable importance, and is
connected by railway with Villa Clara and other places. Pop. about 10,000.

SAGUENAY, a large river of Canada, falling into the estuary of the St. Lawrence,
on the n. side, about 115 m. below Quebec. It drains the lake of St. John, which
is nearly circular, and almost 30 m. in diameter. Its course from that lake to the
guff of St. Lawrence is about 100 in., and is almost a straight line. It flows between
precipitous cliffs, has numerous cataracts in its upper part, and is in many places two or
three m. broad. In the lower part of its course jt j s less wide, but veiy deep, and large
ships ascend it more than (iO m. to load with timber from the settlements on it-; b::nks.
The name Saguenay is sometimes also given to the principal liver which falls into lake
8t. John, and which is known to the Indians as the Chomouchouau aud as the Aasouajv

gaguenay. 1 f)


mouss >in. It rises about 200 m. to the w, of lake St. John. The average depth in nild
channel is 14.1 fathoms.

SAGUENAY', a co. in n.e. Quebec, having the St. Lawrence river for its s. and s.e.
boundary; drained by Murray and Black rivers, and the headwaters of the Liula
Sagueiiay; I2,815sq.m.; pop. '71, 5,487. It includes the inland of Anticosti, a resort for
seal and bear hunting and salmon fishing, also lakes St. John and ISt. Anne. The
principal towns are ou tlie coast; and lishmsr is the chief industry. It has saw aucj
grist mills, and a large lumber trade. Co. seat, Tadousac.

SAGUNTUM, a wealth}' ar.d wailike town of ancient Spain, in Hispauia Tarra-
coneiisis, stood on an eminence near the mouth of the Pailantias (modern Palaiicia). Its
site is now occupied by the town of Murviedro (,q.v.). Founded (according to Strabo)
by Greeks from Zacynthus, it became i;t an early period celebrated for Us commerce,
and attained to great wealth. But it owes its historical vitality to the circumstances of
its siege and destruction by the Carthaginians, under Hannibal, in 218 n.c. Having
withstood the siege for the greater part of a year, against an army amounting to about
150,000 men, led by a general of consummate ability and indomitable resolution, the
Sa^nnlines. now most severely pressed by famine, concluded, .with an act of heroic
defiance a ad self-sacrifice, a resistance that had been characterized by the most brilliant
valor. Heaping their valuable effects into one vast pile, ar,d placing their won. en and
children around it, the men issued forth for the last time against the enemy; and the
women setting fire to the pile they had prepared, cast themselves upon it, 'with their
childrdi, ami found in fames the fate their husbands met in battle. The destruction of
Sanguntum directly led to the second Punic war.

SAHAPTINS, or SAPTINS, a family of Indians TV. of the Rocky mountains, occupy-
ing the country on both sides of the Columbia river, ar.d on the forks of the Lewis and
Sahaptin or Snake rivers. They are mostly in Oregon, Idaho, ar.d Washington
territories. They comprise the *Kez Perccs, Palus Tairtlas, Wascos, Wallawallas,
Yakiuias, and Klikctats.

SAHA EA. The immcnpe tract rf country to which this name is commonly given
has already been described under the heading" AFKICA (q.v.). But the term Sahara is
more correctly applied to a region of much more limited extent. The natives divide
Africa n. of (he line into three portions the Tell, the Sahara, and the Desert. The Tell
extends firm the Mediterranean to the Atlas mountains; the Sahara, from the Atlas tothe
southern region where all regular supply of water fails; and the Desert, firm the south-
ern and. not very clearly-defined frontier of the Sahara, southward almost to the water-
shed of the Niger, comprising a district salt arid arid, inhospitable to man and beast,
although the camel may even here snatch a scanty subsistence. As to physical geoo-
graphy, the Sahara may be sul divided into the following districts 1. The Hauls Pla-
teaux, (r Steppes, n scries of high levels skirting the base of the Atlas mountains. 2.
The land of the Dayats or waterless oases, stretching s. to the. high lands on the s. br.nk
of the Wed Mzi or'Djidi. 3. Tl~e region of the southern oases, to the s. of the former,
and extending s. till it loses itself in the desert. The principal feature of the Sal.ara is
the Wed Mzi. which rises in the Djebel Amour, and after an e.. n.e., and fnally s.e.
course, falls into the Cholt'Melr'hir. Throughout almost the whole of its course, which
is about 400 m long, it flows under ground. Its \\aters seem to rest on a bed of hard
limestone from 30 to 60 ft. below the surface. See H. B. Tristram's Gnat &thara, with
mops and illustrations.

SAHARANPUR', or SumjRUNrun, a t. of British India, North-West Provinces, the
chief place of a district of the same name. It is situated in a plain in n. lat. ^9' 58', and
e. long. 77 30', about one mile e. of the Doab canal. It has a large fort, a military
cantonment, and a governmelit depot. Saharanpur is about 1000 ft. above the sea, and
the climate is temperate during great part of the year. Saharanpur was therefore
chosen as a suitable situation for a botanic garden, for plants requiring a milder
climate tlian that of Calcutta, and one was formed in 1817. Saharanpur is described
as one of the most handsoire British stations in India. Pop. '72, 43,844.

SAHIB (Arabic, companion, master, lord) is, in Hindustani, the usual designation and
address of a respectable Eurooenn, equivalent to Mister, Sir, etc. Hence ^ii/n'f.-a is the
term for Lady, Madam, lu Bsugaliaud Mahrati, the word assumes the form iSuhcb.




SAIGO, the family name of two brothers, both of whom have held the highest mili-
tary office in Japan. S. TAKAMOKI, b. in Satsuma about 1827, a man of ccrvmandiM
physical and intellectual superiority, was one of the early supporters rf the 1!;: rary r.r.d
political revolution that broke up anarchy m Japan, and established the present mcu-
archr, which is but the ancient system restored. He was three times arrested and ban-
ished by the Yedo government of the tycoon; and in. 1868 commanded tj.c mikado's


forces and put down the rebels on the main island and in YcXo after a war of nearly two
years. Being made marshal of the imperial army in 1878, he resigned after a few
months, in consequence of a disagreement with the cabinet on the question of going to
war with Corea. He retired to Salsuma and began the establishment of ''military
sdi >ols." On Feb. 1, 1877, the great " Satsunm rebellion," led by him and into whirh
circumstances forced him prematurely, began by the sei/.ure of vessels at Kagoshima
laden wiili p >\vder belonging !o ;he government. To suppress the rebel forces, who were
led and anim .ited by his high mili.ary genius, the imperial government sent over 60,000
men into the field for eight months. Alter many bloody bailies, and the loss of nearly
ten thousand in killed and wounded on each side, the rebellion was ended by the battle
of Shiroyama. in which the little band of four hundred rebels, armed oniy with s\\ords
and led by Saigo, Kiriao, and Muraia, were surrounded by 15,000 imperial troops. All
of tlie ban 1 were killed or committed Ino'it-kiri. S.AH;O (he younger, or Saigo Tsuku-
michi, b. about 1835 in Satsuma, was also conspicuous in the resi oration of 18C8. In
1874 he. led the Japanese expedition to Formosa, occupying the aboriginal portion of the
island with 1300 troops for six nnntln. and severely cha>iising the cannibals in several
skirmishes. In 187<>, as president of the Japanese commission at the <:< ulennir.l ex-
position at Philadelplii-i, he spent s iveral months in the United States. In 1^77, though
not or lere 1 to d) so by the mikul), he took the Held against the Satsuma ivbels. and
led the operations that closed tho campaign, lie is now, 1880, commauder-iu-chicf of
the Japanese army.

SAIGON, one of the finest river-ports in Asia, the capital of tlie French possessions in
Lower Cochin China, stands oa a small river of the same name, about 35 m. from the
Chinese sea. The city is fortified, and its value as a strategical position is unquestion-
able. By land k is defended from attack by in my miles of jungle and swamp, and the
approach from the sea oa the s., by the fine river 'Domini, could easily be rendered im-
passable to the strongest fleet. The entrance to the Douuai is at cape St. Jacques, and
its winding course to Saigon, through a rich level country, is from 50 to 60 m. in length,
and might be defended by Fortifications at every point. It is of easy navigation, and 13
of sulh'cient depth to all r.v vessels of the heaviest burden to sail close to its banks under
the overhanging foliage. The breadth of the river from Sai'gon to the sea varies little,
but it is never narrower than the Thames at London. It is joined on both sides by
many large uMlnents, and it is the main channel of a river-system that covers the whole
country to the s. of the capital with a network of water-courses. The city of Saigon is
fortified, and is defended by a permanent force of several largo ships of war and a gar-
rison of 10,000 men. At the beginning of the year 1883 the law of conscription, by
which one man in seven is chosen from among the natives for military service, was
already in force. Saigon consists of two parts, the Chinese town, 4 in. inland, filled
with an active population busily engaged in trade, and the European, or fortified towa
on the banks of the Sai'gon. The latter, with its fleet of vessels riding at anchor in raid-
stream, is already of considerable size. Good roads have been constructed for many
miles around, and there are barracks, hospitals, official residences, and other building's
for public purposes. The soil, only about one-fourth of which is under cultivation, is
abundantly fertile, and Is admirably suited to the production of cotton, sugar, indigo,
and tobacco, besides rice, the principal export. Its forests contain magnificent timber,
and abound in woods rich in dyes. Many handsome public buildings have been erected.
There is a naval yard and arsenal, and ship-building is carried on" Pop. estimated at

Saigon, together with part of the territory of which it is the capital, was taken by
the French in I860. Treaties of peace and 'commerce, concluded with the Anamite
government, in 1834, provided that the protectorate of the six provinces of Lower
Cochin China should remain in the hands of France; that three important ports on the
coast of Ariam should be opened; and that a space of 9 kilometres on the shore of each
port should be conceded to the French for the establishment of factories: that French
merchants and missionaries should be allowed to traverse the kingdom of Anam without
hindrance, and that an indemnity of 100 millions of francs should be paid. In 1867, in
consequence of fresh aggressions, encouraged by the government of Anam, the Flench
took the town of Vinh-long, and. by a new treaty, added three other provinces to their
dominions, which now extend from 9 5' to 10 s n. lat.. and from 1 .v to 107 e. long.
Pop. '73, 1.527,000. The revenue of the colony in 1873 was 14,500,000 francs. The
yearly french trade amounts to about 60,000,000'francs.

SAIL. A sail is an expanse of canvas, matting, or other strong material, on which
the wind may exert its force and propel th" vessel. A sail is extended by means of a
mast or yard, or both. It may be of various shapes, and of any size, according to the
carrying power of the vessel. A vessel of shallow draught or of narrow beam can bear
comparatively little sail: while a vessel of proportionately deep draught and heavily
ballasted as a yacht or a vessel of groat breadth of beam.' can carry sail of great area.
A sail acts with the greatest power when the wind is directly astern; but it can be
applied, though with less strength, when on cither beam. The action of tlie wind on
an oblique sail is a good example of the resolution of forces. See COMPOSITION AND
OF FOUCES, etc. Let TD, fig. 1, be a ship, PAS its sail, WA the direction

Sail. -J 9


of the wind, and let the length of WA represent the pressure of Hie wind on the sail.

WA can be resolved into AB perpendicular 10 the sail,
and BW parallel to it, the latter of which has no effect in
pressing ou the sail; therefore AB is the effective pressure
on the sail. Were the vessel round, it would move in the
direction BA. Let BA be resolved into CA and BC. the
former, CA, acting in the direction of the keel or lengtn
of the vessel, or in the direction CAD, and the latter per-
pendicular to it, or iu the direction of the breadth. The
FIG j former pressure, CA, is the only pressure, that moves tiie

vessel forward, the other, BC, makes it move sideways.
From the form of the vessel, however, this hitter force, BC, produces comparatively
little lateral motion ; any that it does occasion is called leeway. It results, therefore, that
with the wind exerting an oblique pressure, the actual progress will be to the power of
the wind only as CA to WA. In the east and the Mediterranean, sails are frequently
made of sirong matting; but among northern nations, and for ocean navigation, very
strong dot It. or canvas, called gail-cMh, is usually resorted to. It is woven narrow; and
the many breadths in the sail are joined by carefully made double seams.

Sails are nearly always either triangular or quadrilateral, but not necessarily equi-
angular. To give greater strength, a strong rope or cord is sewn into the outer edge all
round the sail: this rope has eyes in it, to which the various ropes employed in con-
nection with the sail are fastened. The top of a sail is its Itead; the bottom, iisjoot;
and the sides are leeches; the upper corners are termed ear-rings; the lower corners of a
square sail, and the after lower corner of other sails, clews; the front lower corner of a
fore-and-aft sail is the tack. The ropes from the lower corners, used in tightening the
sail against the wind, are the a/ut-f*.

The aili of a ship are either "square" or "fore-and-aft." The square-sails begin-
ning from below are the course, the topsail, the topgallant-Kail, the rvyal, and, though
very rarely used, the nky-scraper. Each has the name of the mast on which it is set pre-
fixed, as " fore-topsail," "main-royal, "etc. The square-sails are made fast by their heads

10 yards, the foot being drawn to the extremity of the yard below. Fore-and-aft sails
are the spunk > r or driver, extended by the gaff at its head, boom at its foot, and mast

011 its fore-leech; the niai/sailx, which are suspended by rings to the stays, and the jibs
(q. v.). hi a three-masted vessel the sails of most importance are the main-course, the
spanker the topsails, the fore-staysail, and the jibs, which can usually be all distended
to the full with. >;it taking wind from each other. In very light winds, when every breadth
is of consequence, the area of the sails is increased by setting the studding-sail*, which are
colons: vails set on each side of the square-sails, on short booms run out beyond the yards
of iWlaticT.

In small craft and boats, the most common snil is a lugsail (see LUGGER), which is a
small square-sail, occasionally supplemented by a shoulder-of-mutton (triangular) snil on
a shorter mast at the stern. Cutters or sloops carry a large spanker, with a topsail of
similar shape, and jibs; some having the power of setting a large ( ourse when the wind
is.-ssiern; but it is obvious that the course and spanker cannot be used together. A schooner
u-e - the same sails as a cutter, except that in one form she carries a srjuare topsail and
topgallant-sail on the foremast.

Sails arc furnishe^l with rows of short ropes for the purpose of reefing them, when
their area is too large for the wind. The effect of a sail is increased by wetting it, as the
poivs of the canvas close more tightly through the swelling of the hemp.

SAIL-CLOTH, a very strong fabric. woven generally with linen yarn, but in America it
lias been m:uie wholly of cotton; and in this country, under Armitagc's patent, of cotton
and line-n mixed. Hair such as of the ox, horse, and deer has also been used, under
Taylor's pal< nt. in 1832, but without success. Linen and hempen cloths are those gen-
erally used in all parts of Europe.

SAILINGS, the technical name in navigation for the various modes of determining the
amount or dir -Hion of a ship's motion, or her position after having sailed a given dis-
tance in a given direction. The direction of a ship's motion is her course, and is expn-s-ed
in terms of the angle between the line of direction and the meridian; the length of her
path is the di*tnnr*; the distance in nautical miles, made good to the e. or w., is the
<? .n-inre, and is measured along a parallel; the difference of Itiliimh' is an arc of the
meridian ir tempted by the parallels, one of which passes through the place sailed from,
the ol her through the place sailed to; a:id the difference of longitude is an arc of the
equator intercepted by meridians through the same two places. It will at once be s>>en
that if a shi'i s,-iils along :i meridian, the difference of latitude becomes the course, and
there is no departure or difference of loniritude; nnd that if it sails along a par-illel the
departure wj:l be the same a* the distance, and there will be no difference of latitude.
The two g"iieral questions which present themselves to the navigator for solution are
1. Given the course and distance from one place in given latitude and longitude to
another pla (, find the latitude and loniritude of the other; and 2. Given the latitude and
loniritude of ! wo places, find the course and distance from the one to the other. The sim-
plest way in which such problems can be solved is by the method known as plane sailing, a

1 O Sail.


method, however, which is only roughly approximate, assuming, as it docs, that t'.:<> ^r.r-
face of the sea is a plane; it is consequently applicable only to short dLuiuccs JUK! 1. w
latitudes where the meridians are nearly parallel. According to
"plane sailing," the elements of a ship's path are represented by a
right-angled plane triangle, as ABC (tig.), where AB is the distance,
the angle BAC the course, AC the difference of latitude (AC being
a portion of a meridian, and BC of a parallel of latitude), and BC the
departure. The two problems given above are in this method merely
simple cases of the resolution of a right-angled plane triangle (see
TRIGONOMETRY), for if the course and distance are given, the dif. of
lat. = distance X cos. of course, and di {>. = ilist. X sin. of course;
while the idea of dif. of lung., as distinct from dep. , is quite inadmis-
sible, since the method presupposes that the ship is sailing on an
absolutely flat plain. If the ship does not stand ou one course, but changes from time
to time, the calculation of her final position may be effected, either by the previous
method, repeated for each change of course, or more conveniently, by the method of
tritn /*< xiti'iiif/. This method consists in the resolution of a ship's course and d. stance
into two courses and distances, the courses being in the direction of some of the four
cardinal poiuts of the compass; thus, a ship which has sailed s. w.-by-s. for 24 m., has
made 20 in. of taut /tiny, and 13.3 m. of westing. The tm rente table ha's consequently six
columns, the first containing the courses; the second, the corresponding dislanci s: while
the third and fourth contain the difference of latitude for each course, which, if n .. is
put in one column, and if s. into the other; the fifth and sixth columns, marked respec-
tively e. and w.. contain in a similar manner the departure for each course. When il.e
table has beui made out for the various courses di.-tar.ces, the columns of dif. of lat.
and departure are summed up. and the difference between the third and fourth. ;,i:d
between the fifth and sixth columns, gives the dif. of lat. and departure between the
place sailed from and the place arrived at, from which the course and distance made
good can be calculated as before. When a current interferes in any way. liiherby accel-
erating or retarding the ship's motion, its effect is estimated as in traverse sailing, as il it
were one course and distance, the *<t of the current being the course, and its diiji. i.e.,

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 2 of 203)